At the end of the course the students will be expected to:
1. Understand the importance of writing
2. Learn how to write clear, logical and effective English
3. Develop & demonstrate a high level of writing skills
4. Learn how to develop a thesis & support it with arguments
5. Improve writing skills & along with it’s application in BC
6. Participate in different activities & projects to enhance their
self confidence for originality
4. 1. is the branch of linguistics that deals with syntax and
morphology, sometimes also phonology and semantics
3. is the knowledge and usage of preferred or
prescribed forms in speaking or writing. “She
said his grammar was terrible.”
2. is the study of the way the
sentences of a language are
constructed; morphology and syntax
5. This is it & that’s it…
1. The way a language manipulates or combines words in
order to form longer units of meaning. Penny Ur, Grammar
Practice Activities, Cambridge University Press UK.
2. Grammar is “the coding and de-coding of meanings
(into words) in a language”. ZQ
3. Grammar is the common understanding of any
What is writing?
The beginning: writing is to reading, what speaking is to
W = R
S = L
You cannot write what you have not read and
cannot speak what you never heard…
9. Writing is…
(An inscription or) that which is written; characters or
matter written with a pen or the like: His writing is
The act of a person or thing that writes
To write is to trace significant characters on, or mark or
cover with writing or to express ideas in writing
10. 1. You cannot use words (in writing or speaking) until you
know how to put them together. E.g., The Jigsaw!
2. What is readable or ‘understandable by sight’ is a piece
of writing. ZQ
3. Writing is the production of well formed language using
structures to convey meaning
4. Why write at all? Nothing motivates more than a “reason”
or “need” to do a thing…
12. Business Writing Myths
Myth 1: Writing requires talent.
◦ Talent can certainly help, but by no means is it a necessary
ingredient in good business writing.
◦ Writing is a skill that can be learned, developed and honed.
Myth 2: Writing should be easy.
◦ Writing is often hard work—it requires concentration, physical
effort, and a little tolerance for frustration
◦ This does not mean that because it takes work it should be
Over time it will get a little easier
13. Myth 3: The writing process must be right the first time
◦ There is a time to create and a time to evaluate. Both are
legitimate parts of writing, but they really are best done at
separate times. Otherwise, the normal writing process becomes
an exercise in task overload
◦ When the thoughts are first put down, there really should be not
limits imposed on what is to be put down
Business Writing Myths
14. Myth 4: Bad writing really won’t cause any problems
◦ Bad writing is as damaging as bad customer service and bad
◦ There have been some real horror stories
Ineffective, embarrassing messages are sent to customers, clients,
and other stakeholders.
Time and money are squandered to rectify writing errors--sometimes
Business Writing Myths
15. Why write?
Do you want to learn to write? Why? When? How?
What is learning?
The “natural learning”…
The teacher – resource – student triangle
Responsibility of learning…
The role of the teacher or facilitator???
Why is business writing so important?
◦ One of the most important things in business today is
◦ It sets your company image to others
◦ More often than not, the first impression is the last one and the
way you communicate with your existing and prospective clients,
employers, associates etc will determine your success.
◦ This makes it very important to have an effective style of
17. 1. If there's a book you really want to read, but it hasn't
been written yet, then you must write it. ~Toni Morrison
2. Fill your paper with the breathings of your
heart. ~William Wordsworth
3. Every writer I know has trouble writing. ~Joseph Heller
4. "There is no greater agony than bearing an untold story
inside you.” ~Maya Angelo
18. Correct order of the adjectives
OpShaCOM / Here is the correct order for adjs…
1)OPINION (lovely, useful)
2)SIZE (big, enourmous)
3)AGE (mature, ancient)
4)SHAPE (square, oval)
5)COLOR (red, burgandy)
6)ORIGIN (American, English)
7)MATERIAL (wooden, cotton)
8)PURPOSE (typing, sun)
The steel industry has been moving out of Pittsburgh.
[There are several reasons for this.]
World competition has dramatically increased
(Steel industry has been moving out.) Environmental issues have created expensive solutions.
(Steel industry has been moving out.) Costs to continue making steel have skyrocketed.
20. Cause and Effect Conjunctions
Here are some common conjunctions that can be used to express cause and
since as a result because of + noun phrase
because therefore due to + noun phrase
consequently for this reason so
21. Short Conjunctions Longer Expressions
...the same as...
In the same way,
X is similar to Y in that (they)...
X and Y are similar in that (they)...
Like X, Y [verb]...
In like manner,
One way in which X is similar to Y is (that)...
Another way in which X is similar to Y is (that)...
Conjunctions that can be used in comparison paragraphs
22. Short Conjunctions Subordinating Conjunctions
On the other hand,
even though + [sentence]
although + [sentence]
whereas + [sentence]
unlike + [sentence]
while + [sentence]
Conjunctions that can be used with contrast paragraphs
24. Bias-free Communication
Plural nouns and pronouns
◦ Supervisors must…their departments.
◦ You must work for your deparment.
Substitute with article or revise sentence
◦ Supervisor...time sheet for the department.
◦ The nurse will fill out the accident report.
Be specific, concise, and catchy.
◦ 28 characters
◦ Will Attend 3 pm Meeting EOM
◦ Travel Plans for Sales Meeting
◦ Your Funding Request Approved
◦ ASAP, BTW, FYI, IMHO
26. Letter Contents
Reference, Date, Address, Salutation, Subject (B/A), Body,
Complimentary Close, Enclosures
Dear Glenn: or Dear Mr Helms:
Sincerely, and Cordially,
Open (Dear Glenn) and Closed (Dear Glenn:)
Second Page – Reader’s Name, Date, Page Number
27. Body of the Email
Important points at the top
Bullets and numbering
All rules of good writing
Use FULL CAPS only to emphasize a word or two.
Send messages on a need basis.
Recipient’s work practice (one long or several short
Quote briefly (B/A) while replying.