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Prof Ujjwal K Chowdhury,
History of TV broadcast
Four decades old ..first 17 yrs were black and white
After independence TV viewing was considered a luxury
No foreign media allowed ..1955 cabinet decided ..
TV sets in India six lacs seventy five thousands only in 1977
Last 20 yrs … huge explosion of TV channels
With 1982 Asian games in Delhi … colour TV came in India
doordarshan having exclusive rights ..
Serials by doordarshan hum log 1984
Ramayana 1987-88 , Mahabharata 88-89
Then private channels …Zee news Star News Aajtak
Huge market with lot of potential.
Print v/s TV News v/s Internet News
O Visual Impact
O Analysis &
O Depth & Scope of
ENG: Electronic News Gathering
O Multi-skilled Professional
ENG: Electronic News Gathering
O Ambience, Interviews, PTCs
O Lapel, Boom mics, Camera
Mics, Cordless mics
O Stock, Filler, Cutaways, Action, Stills
O One-camera shoot v/s two-camera shoot
O Ambience Sound
O Interviews and Bytes
O Public Meet Bytes
ENP: Electronic News Production
Words to remember
O PCR - production control room from where the news
bulletin is controlled/given commands
O MCR – master control room from where video
stories/clips are played as per the command of PCR.
O Voice over – the audio given to a final script in a
special room with minimum disturbances.
O Newsroom – where all the journalists
sit together and work .
O Producer – who is associated with production of news
O Vt editor – video editor who edits the story
Words to remember
O Anchor – who reads the news
O Reporter – who gathers news ,
O Cameraman – who captures video for the news
O Studio – the closed room with high ceiling where
news is recorded or done live as per the commands
given by PCR.
O Ob van – Outdoor broadcast van
O Live u and dejero are the portable small live units
being used these days, run on battery
O Satcom : room from where newscast is uplinked or
O Ingest – where all the reporters feed, all inputs are
ingested or stored in a computer system
NEWS CHANNEL STRUCTURE
On air News
Producer anchor/cameraman/floor MCR
Audio mixer/control may be guests
NEWS CHANNEL STRUCTURE 2
O news room
O Input output
Chief reporter– national & bureaus producers
Stringers –all across the nation/districts Video editors
Agency feed – Graphics
Social media –fb, twitter,whatsapp, reconstruction
O Internet news sites
Other TV channels – regional/national/international
PTI – print news
O > Ob van / live -u / dejero / 4g laptops
O > Guest coordinators
O > Forward planning / research
Input : input head or in-charge
O Responsible for all the news inputs
O All the lives for the channel
O All the states stories/ bureaus input s
O All political guests for shows
O All inputs for special programmes
O All the inputs from stringers all across the
O All coordination with reporters and output
O And whatever required …..
Chief reporter or Bureau chief – national
Senior producer - Producers
Assistant producers - Trainees
Chief reporter – all reporters will report to him
All state reporters will be reporting to assignment
head and national bureau chief
Stringers – freelancers or stringers are the
reporters who work from districts on a fixed
payment or per story payment.
O Output head – responsible for what goes on-air
O Executive producer
O Senior producers - Producers
O Assistant producers - Trainee
O Graphics - will report to HOD and executive
Video editors - will report to HOD .
Special programmes – separate editor/producer
Input : assignment desk functions
> All coordination with PCR
Gather info/leads of news stories
Gather info/leads of developing
Coordinate with all reporters
including stringers keeping in loop the chief reporter
Coordinate with output in-charge/shift in-charge
Coordinate for all live/ ob vans/live u units
Breaking news – co-ordination with reporter/PCR/
Coordinate with forward planning desk for
events/upcoming news events.
Input : chief reporter or bureau chief
Responsible for all news info/ events in the city –
chief reporter (Delhi or Kolkata )
National bureau chief will be looking after all the
stories /news happening in all across the nation
Regional bureau chief – responsible for
news/stories in the city/state
Political , sports, crime, entertainment, defence,
general – categories will have specific reporters for
Bureau chief will assist special programmes being
produced, assign reporters for inputs.
Plan of live inputs/ Guests line up –political.
Input : guest / forward plan
O Guest coordinators – coordinate with output for
guests line-up for shows/ cars for their pickup/drops
/ob movement for guest etc.
O Forward planners – research / look forward for
developing stories/ special programmes/plans
O Operations – will help assignment in all logistics/
outstation tours / ob van movements etc.
O IT – will help in running the channel smoothly
O HR managers
O Marketing head
O Publicity head / events manager
O Operations manager
O Travel desk
O Distribution in-charge
O Admin in-charge – car in-charge etc
O Executive Producer/PCR Controller
O News-caster/ News-anchor
O Production (PCR) Assistants
O VTR Editor
O Multi-skilled Professional
Types of Stories
O VOSOT: Visuals on
O Package (vt )
O Byte only
O Live: In-studio
O Live: On-the-field
O Graphics only
O Hard v/s Soft story
O News v/s Feature
O Key v/s Side Stories
O Breaking News:
O Breaking News:
O Follow Ups
Script-writing – key points
O Theme & Date
O Type of Story
O Visuals & Time
News-writing for the Television
O The News Angle
O Multi-angled Stories
O Hard News Formula: 5 Ws, 1 H, and What does it
Mean? (What when where why who whom how)
O The Intro: Anchor-read matter
O Contrast with the VO 1 and/or Bite/s 1
O Placing Key Words
News-writing for the Television
O Feature Openers
O Developing the Story: sequence of logic, time,
O Signposting, Last Line, Last Words
OWriting to Pictures
O Simple short sentences
O No adjectives
Script for TV news - 1
O Write your script before shoot (rough outline including
interviews/bytes as you should have an idea what they are
going to say..)
O Ask the simple questions before you write -
What is the story ? Keep it simple. Can you summarise it in
two or three sentences ?
Who is your target audience?
As this will dictate how you tell the story and
how much detail needs to be given.
Older viewers can be expected to have
prior knowledge of certain issues.
Writing script 2
What’s the news angle? Who is telling
the story and from what point of view?
Structure of the story ? What
sequences you will need to tell the
story visually? Any archive footage?
Script for TV news-3
Keep asking yourself what is the reason
for this sequence.
Round up numbers like 89.7 % ..make it 90
or keep it 89 %
How will you start and end your story? Once you finalise it,
middle part will be easier to write.
Read the script loudly and hear yourself, is it clear? Making
sense? If you cant understand your story, don’t expect anyone
Always make sure you have explained why we should know this
, ex river pollution – if not cleared up, will be carried
downstream and affect health of hundreds of families…
Always be ready to answer – what’s in it for me ?
Script for TV news -3
Use key words like people, families, women and children
rather than public..
Write as you speak – think you are talking to the people.
O Top line what the news is , why you need to know
more , introduction to reporter if needed
O Don’t pack too much
O Keep changing facts and figures in anchor
O Write the way your audience speaks
O Names should be there if required only
O Make it punchy
As with any TV script, read it loudly to make sure it
Write in a way so that viewers get interest to watch
Piece to camera or PTC -1
O Opening Ptc / mid Ptc / end Ptc
Why would we want to include a Ptc ?
What information would we convey in a Ptc?
Do we have something to show or
demonstrate in this Ptc?
O Where and when might we
do this Ptc?
how will the 20 sec Ptc fit into the
Piece to camera or ptc -2
O Ptc can be an effective way of explaining
complicated issues or concepts.
O Reporters presence at the location
O Join two different locations/stories/case studies .
O join two or more reporters in a pkg as mid ptc.
Don’t repeat info of pkg in the ptc.
Try to do your ptc such as if someone edits it, it
maintains its sense.
Ptc can be conclusion of your story / analysis of the
situation/ information of upcoming event ..
Don’t think that every story needs a ptc.
Interviews / bytes
O Choose a focus for the interviewee : what’s the story
O Prepare yourself well. Prepare your questions.
O Choose the interviewee and prepare him/her: tell
what do you want from him, whats your story .
O Put questions clearly , simple short sentence.
O Listen to answer, react .
O Don’t record too long- you should know what the
interview is doing in your story.
O Have outline in head.
O Don’t ask double questions.
> Its what you are saying and how you say it
> Write for TV. Be clear about what you want to
Write small sentences .
then practise them
Try for conversation.
Tell it rather than read it.
> Engage your listeners
> Relax . Calm yourself.
Breathe into the abdomen
, rather than upper chest
What is money shot ?
O The best visual frame / shot to start the story
O The best visual sequence to start the story
O The best visual which can tell the viewer what story
they are going to see
O The best visual which can encourage viewer to see
the full story
What is money shot ?
Reporter should discuss the story with cameraman
Cameraman should think of at least two or three such shots
during the shoot
BREAK THE SCRIPT
anchor / link
Visuals – what you have
vo 1 visuals vo 1 ------
byte –who is the person byte 1
vo 2 visuals Vo 2
byte –who is the person byte – 2
Gfx - if any , where gfx-in- gfx out
vo 3 visuals vo-3
ptc - back ground location /
Break the script - 1
O Vo -1 visuals :
O (Start with money shot ) a school
O bell close shot
O with loud sound and students in
O then kids entering
O the kitchen area with plates for mid
O day meal/ close shots of rice, dal
O Vegetable being given to them by
O Staff. Visuals of kitchen.
O Byte – sudarshan das – wearing
O A red check shirt . Indoor byte.
vo1- this is tiffin time, most of
students come here for meal. The
attraction of having a plate full of rice
,cereals and vegetables brings them
to school. 50 kg rice 10 kg cereals
cooked daily under such unhygienic
conditions. There is no proper
monitoring of quality of food cooked .
Byte – Sudarshan das- cook- hindi- oil
is smellling bad..i asked for another
bottle but they told me to finish it first.
Rice or daal is also not gd in quality.
What to do, I am cooking with these
materials since last two months.
Break the script - 2
O Vo-2 more than 2000 govt
schools in the state serve
mid day meal to nearly
20000 students daily.
Central govt spends more
than two lakh crores on
this scheme every year..
purpose is to bring poor
kids to school and educate
Long shot of school, mid day
Preparations with ambience,
in class, teacher is writing on
Students writing, givng answers
Books, close shot of eyes of
student. Cutaways of writing
Break the script - 3
O Byte 2 ashok adhikari –
blue plain shirt –grey hair-cutaways
is there …
O (10.22 to 10.40 sec)
O Vo 3 – visuals - kids getting
ready For school, their
mothers /father Taking them
to nearest school…/
O Students having
food…close shots of food….
Byte 2 – Ashok adhikari– principal –
bengali - families are very poor and
uneducated here, they are reluctant
to send their children. Mid day meal
works as attraction to bring them
here. But the quality of edible oil and
rice is not good ,we have
complained several times but there
is no one to take care of that.
Vo-3 mid day meal concept has
generated a curiosity in poor families
in remote villages and no of students
have increased significantly but the
quality of food remains a serious
Break the script - 4
O (Ptc 12.33 to 12.50 sec)
O Background : students
are in queue for
O Food // reporter steps
O the queue And speaks
Ptc - there are serious lapses in
the implementation of mid day
meal scheme. On this issue we
tried to speak to the food
minister but he denied. Its
obvious govt has no answers.
With j /cameraman xyz news
Package writing – key points
> Brief yourself : research your topic well.
Choose a focus : whats your story angle?
Balance : present all relevant points of view
Don’t record too much : choose interviewees carefully
and decide what you need them to do in your package
Structure: lead your audience through logically,
Use some colour but wisely: don’t confuse the audience
Make sure anchor /link matches the story/pkg, don’t
promise the wrong angle
Select your best take : ptc and bytes carefully
Sound/ gfx / music – ask yourself what is justified.
High TV production values
O Sequences : shoot several sequences from
various angles so that the editor has a variety of
O Use of graphics : can be used to illustrate
statistics, trends and chronological events.
Interviewees who refuse to give on screen
comments can give statements that can be
turned into graphics. Using an image that has
been shot during shoot can make a powerful
backdrop for graphics.
O Animated graphics can be used in some cases
like accidents, terror attacks, court orders etc
High TV production values 2
O Ptc : These give the story credibility by placing
the reporter at the scene.
O They can be used as bridges to give information
that can not be filmed or to illustrate what is
happening at a location e.g. during a factory
O They can be used as an ending to summarise
the main points of a story.
Anonymity : shooting an interviewee in silhouette
can add drama to a story if that person is a victim.
Don’t agree to hide an interviewees identity unless
there are good reasons.
High TV production values 3
O Location – try and shoot interviewees on
location. Shoot a number of set up shots
walking, talking, reading, whatever is
O Panoramic shots – where geography or
distance or location is to be shown, try to
get a top shot from a near by building ..
Natural disaster and big political rally.
Live from anywhere-1
Always have all the info about the story/event
> Don’t answer all questions in first answer ..
> Double check if you are passing a new info
> Be balanced in lives , Make simple small sentences
Speak as you are talking to a
viewer, Keep the speed normal..
- Avoid uncertain things .
Live is for the viewer
not for the anchor ..
Live from anywhere -2
O Be calm and confident whatever the situation is
O Try to discuss questions with anchor before live
O Inputs before live, displayed during live
O Try to show the actual site / event happening behind
or around you through your cameraman live
Challenges of Breaking News-1
Planning for unpredictability
Utilising network resources – you are not alone
Think laterally to overcome obstacles
Take the initiative
Take measured risk
Think about dangers
Practical examples : situations ….gd
Challenges of breaking news-2
O Reporter – be alert, don’t ignore a single info
O First get the confirmed info from reliable source
O Inform TV channel immediately / flash
O Arrange visuals at the earliest
O First try to send just one minute footage
O Try for live from the spot at the
O Update yourself with new info
O Never panic. /Just focus on
O visuals /info /live .
O Send your headline ptc
O Go for counter bytes ,script , ptc
Walkthrough : to tell a story 1
Reporter at a location shows through his cameraman the
actual situation and narrates the whole scene
Reporter at a location shows through
his cameraman the actual situation,
narrates the story and then speaks with
victims/guest at the location .
Walkthrough saves time. /
Without pkg you can tell the story,
Feed can be sent at the earliest /
can be shown as live,
After walkthrough, reporter can move for another story..
Always better to send some extra visuals along with
Walkthrough – to tell a story 2
O > Cameraman should start the frame with reporter in the centre
and then move to show the scene while reporters narrates the
O > Audio of reporter should match with the cameraman's video
O > So better to discuss with cameraman and plan for it.
O > Listen to cameraman …
O > Reporter can be in in the middle if required
O > At the end reporter should be in for signoff
Sometimes reporter need not to come in the scene again.
Walkthrough can end with his voice narrating a visual…signoff…
off the screen.
Usually in a standing position …
Tic-tac or one to one
Reporter talks to a guest / victim / person - regarding a particular
incident… questions /answers/narration etc may be there.
Camera always starts with reporter then guest/victim both in the
frame and then camera goes to a single frame of guest/victim.
And come back to reporter for sign off.
Duration : maximum 2 mins, in between camera can bring both
– reporter and guest in the frame while a question is being
Reporter should be clear what are the questions he needs
Cameraman should be consulted before shoot.
Background for the shoot should be
checked twice along with light.
Usually in a standing position …
O > Phone-in required when a reporter gets a news
and this information is passed on to the TV channel
O > There is only information, news is developing ,
more information is supposed to come later
O > Breaking news situations
O > Sometimes visuals are not available or it will take
much time, then through phone-in news can be aired
for the viewers .
Phone - in 2
> Always try to keep your phone in sound mode
> Use a good phone
> During phone-in don’t walk or drive .
> Don’t give phone-in from inside a closed room
> Don’t give phone-in from a noisy place
> Note down all the information you are going
to say in the phone-in
> Try to get all the details before phone-in
> Don’t try to give all the information in one go
> Use small clear sentences
> Listen to the questions by anchor
> Be calm, try to suggest questions to be asked before phone-in
Reporter should know camera
O Reporter should know the basic camera operations
O Prime Minister was at Airport …cameraman forgot his
i-card, reporter managed ..
O Live needed, but cameraman got injured, live was
O In Crisis, reporter can
save the channel.
O ALSO Cameraman
O should know the NEWS !!
Scroll /flash/just -in / breaking /alert
Supers : story super /
reporter –cameraman-editor supers
Big news coming in – flash / just in
O > Breaking news
O > Alert regarding any live event or decision in court or cabinet
O > Scroll at the end – contains info in one lines, news from
states, districts, yesterdays imp news/ some upcoming events/
Headlines – key points
Maximum of two sentences , or three
Clear, read it loudly, it should sound perfectly
Make it punchy if required
One sports headline
One entertainment headline
One international headline – if anything really is worth
Make it national in feelings i.e. headlines should not
be Delhi centric or Kolkata centric, geographical
representation is also important
Exclusive or special report should be mentioned
Ptc of a major story could be in the headline
O Ptc of the reporter showing an event/incident in the
O Ptc of the reporter from a specific location saying that
we will show you this report..
O In headline Ptc..anchor should tease a single line
while reporters two lines will be on air explaing the
real situation in short
O Such headline
may be used
for an upcoming event
OTeasers are must before break
O Use best visuals (money shot) for teasers
OMake a punchy line for teaser, maximum 2
Teasers keep audience hooked to your
Byte can be a part of teaser or
Ptc can be shown
along with visuals
O>Breaks are also very important
O> Relief to viewers
O Time to rearrange run order
O> Time for anchor to relax/update
O> Time for guest to update
O> Time for guest to enter or exit
O> Show your programme promo
Arrange live / phone-in / anchor-reporter
End the bulletin with a soft story
O> Always try to end the bulletin with a soft,
pleasant, positive pkg story
O> Instead of pkg, only anchor/ good visuals
in a sequence can be also aired with music
O> This will give viewer a break from hard
O Signature music
O Top Stories
O Commercial Breaks
O Breaking News
Bulletin structure - how to arrange
Stacking a newscast by putting similar stories together may
impede recall of stories.
This clustering effect can apply to stories with similar topic and
context, and to stories with the same visual format. For viewers,
the result is meltdown, where elements of stories merge or
become confused with elements of another.
Variety improves viewers memory. While viewers tend to
remember stories with video better than those without, putting
an anchor read story between two video stories can improve
memory for the stories.
Just after a programme that leads into a news bulletin , viewers
find it hard to remember what happens in first two minutes.. So
Bulletin structure – how to arrange
O In general viewers tend to remember best the last
stories they see in a newscast, the first stories less
well, middle ones the least. Emotional stories and
stories with good video can overcome this effect.
O > People pay more attention to stories that are
teased. They remember stories better that are teased,
and they understand them better. Recaps can
improve understanding for stories, and can decrease
memory for stories that are not recapped.
Bulletin/ Newscast : Duration
NEWS BULLETIN 30 min
News 14 or 15 x1.30min 22-23 min
Break 2x2 min FIX 04 min
Headlines 2x20 40 sec
Teaser 2x10 20 sec
Phone-in 60 sec
Live 90 sec
Story package 1.30 min
O Anchor : 10 to 12 sec
O Vo-1 – 15
O Byte 1 – 15
O Vo-2 – 15
O Byte 2 10
O Vo-3 – 10
O Ptc - 12-15 sec.
Vo-1 20 sec
Byte 1 15
Byte 2 15
Ptc 15 sec
O Integration/Convergence of Print, TV, Radio and Internet News
O Graphics and Visuals in Print
O Use of words, headlines and audio only in TV News
O Print, Radio and TV News over the Net
O Ownership and Management across News Vehicles in same hands
O Convergence in News Consumption
O Interactivity in Journalism
O Readers’/Viewers’ question
O Participative Pages and Programs
O Response, Feedback
O Action Mail
O Techno-legal changes
O Broadcast Bill: Uplinking Rights Expanded
O Convergence Act: Greater Role for Multi-media
O Broadband Revolution/ Higher Bandwidth and Easy Availability
O Convergence of Technologies 70
Skills of the Journalist: The Future Perspective
O Technologically sound
O Camera, editing, graphics, uplinking,
O Better Personality
O good in onscreen presentation, delivery
O High Level of general knowledge
O More informed and better networked
O Abilities to switch from one medium to the other
O Niche specialization in one or two areas
O Command over treatments of stories and formats of
current affairs programming
O Turning short print stories into television
O Delivering PTCs on a given news-story
O Breaking a large print story into several
TV stories and scripting them
O Alternative approaches for a given TV
O Developing side stories and follow-ups for
an evolving major news-story
O Proximity with the audience: geographical, emotional:
demographics to be studied
O Relevance to your target audience, importance in
some functional area of life
O Immediacy: in terms of time and application
O Interest: psychographics of the audience
O Drama: action, sensation, probe
O Entertainment, fun, leisure, lifestyle
O Variety, colour and wholesome character to the
bulletin: variety in content and form
Sources of News
O Newsroom Diary, Files
O Check Calls, Emergency Services Radio
O Politicians and Pressure Groups
O Staged Events and News/Press Releases
(text, video), Syndicated Recordings
Sources of News
O Freelancers, Tip-offs, Hoaxes
O Wire Services and News Agencies
O Other News Media: Newspapers,
Channels & Cyber
O Shared Material
O Planned Verticals
Getting the Story: Preparations
O Newsroom Conference
O Balance of News
O Visuals and the Actuality
O The Brief and the Angle
O Chasing the Contact, Venue/Location
O Staged News Conferences
O Beating the Clock/ Inter-bulletin Up gradation
O Work Sequentially
How viewers view the news-1
Study by Newslab Research, CNN
Images and visual content – the impact
Compelling negative images affect what viewers
remember. Studies have found that viewers
remember best what they see during and after the
negative images but not what they see before the
negative images. And they don’t remember what
they hear before and during the negative images.
Stories with gd pics are remembered better than
How viewers view the news -2
Audio- Video match
O If visuals are not linked to content they can become a
distraction. Routine video , file tape,meetings,arrivals
etc that does not match the content may make it
harder for people to remember the content of a story
When audio – video don’t match, people can
remember what they saw just about as well as they
can when the two are redundant, but they remember
much less of what they have heard
when video-audio match – viewers understand
stories better and remember the details of those
stories better than the stories where video doesn't
match the audio .
How viewers view the news - 3
Quick edits increase attention but only to a point. If you are
cutting between different scenes, rather than editing within a
visual sequence, there is a falloff in detail memory as edit
speed increases. If you stay with a sequence, it doesn’t seem
to matter how your edits are – memory for detail just keeps
getting better .
A combination of fast paced editing(changing from scene to
scene) and emotional content can overload viewers. They
pay attention and remember they saw something, but they
cant recall the details.
Edits with a scene increase both attention and memory .
How viewers view the news -4
Production features like music, sound effects, slow
motion, flash frames as transitions between shots
and the obtrusiveness of the reporter’s voice can
increase the attention but they appear to have no
effect on memory !
Viewers say they find stories produced using these
techniques less enjoyable, less believable, less
informative than stories identical content produced
How viewers view the news-5
O Graphics in stories can decrease memory for audio
information at the time of graphic, particularly if the
content is difficult or unfamiliar.
O > An Animated graphics hold attention better than
full screen graphics and they improve viewers
understanding and memory, especially for stories
rated difficult to understand.
How viewers view the news 6
Stories told in chronological orders are remembered by people
at least 15 % better …than a inverted pyramid style story
Using words high in imagery improves both attention and
memory for stories with less pictures,
Using personal examples to illustrate a trend can give viewers
a wrong impression if the example are not consistent with the
trend, seeing more examples of a problem leads people to
think the problem is more serious than the underlying statistics
People believed a problem was more serious when they saw
stories featuring an emotional victim as opposed to an
unemotional victim or no victim at all.