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Television 
journalism 
PRACTICAL APPROACH 
Prof Ujjwal K Chowdhury, 
DGMC
History of TV broadcast 
 Four decades old ..first 17 yrs were black and white 
 After independence TV viewing was consi...
Print v/s TV News v/s Internet News 
3 
O Visual Impact 
O Presentation 
Techniques 
O Documentation 
O Personality 
O Cre...
ENG: Electronic News Gathering 
O Crew 
O Reporter 
O Categories 
O Specialization 
O Hierarchy 
O Sound-recordist 
O Came...
ENG: Electronic News Gathering 
OWork: 
O Audio 
O Ambience, Interviews, PTCs 
O Lapel, Boom mics, Camera 
Mics, Cordless ...
Audio 
O Ambience Sound 
O What 
O Why 
O When 
O How 
O Interviews and Bytes 
O Set-piece 
O Vox-pop 
O Public Meet Bytes...
ENP: Electronic News Production 
OCrew 
ONews Editor 
OScript-writer/ Script-editor 
OVTR Editor 
OGraphics Artist 
OVoice...
Words to remember 
O PCR - production control room from where the news 
bulletin is controlled/given commands 
O MCR – mas...
Production control room
Words to remember 
O Anchor – who reads the news 
O Reporter – who gathers news , 
O Cameraman – who captures video for th...
NEWS CHANNEL STRUCTURE 
On air News 
PCR studio 
Producer anchor/cameraman/floor MCR 
Audio mixer/control may be guests 
V...
NEWS CHANNEL STRUCTURE 2 
O news room 
O Input output 
 Assignment desk 
 Chief reporter– national & bureaus producers 
...
Master control room
Input : input head or in-charge 
- 
O Responsible for all the news inputs 
O All the lives for the channel 
O All the stat...
Input structure 
Input head 
Assignment head 
Chief reporter or Bureau chief – national 
Senior producer - Producers 
Assi...
Output structure 
O Output head – responsible for what goes on-air 
O Executive producer 
O Senior producers - Producers 
...
Input : assignment desk functions 
> All coordination with PCR 
 Gather info/leads of news stories 
 Gather info/leads o...
Input : chief reporter or bureau chief 
 Responsible for all news info/ events in the city – 
chief reporter (Delhi or Ko...
Input : guest / forward plan 
O Guest coordinators – coordinate with output for 
guests line-up for shows/ cars for their ...
Other departments 
O HR managers 
O Marketing head 
O Publicity head / events manager 
O Operations manager 
O Accounts 
O...
Bulletin Production 
O Crew 
O Executive Producer/PCR Controller 
O News-caster/ News-anchor 
O Production (PCR) Assistant...
Types of Stories 
22 
O Anchor-read/Dry 
O VOSOT: Visuals on 
Sound Tape 
O Package (vt ) 
O Byte only 
O Live: In-studio ...
SCRIPT Writing 
TV news
Script-writing – key points 
24 
O Attention 
O Theme & Date 
O Type of Story 
O Visuals & Time 
Codes 
O Supers 
O Anchor...
News-writing for the Television 
O The News Angle 
O Multi-angled Stories 
O Hard News Formula: 5 Ws, 1 H, and What does i...
News-writing for the Television 
O Feature Openers 
O Developing the Story: sequence of logic, time, 
place, impact 
O Sig...
Script for TV news - 1 
O Write your script before shoot (rough outline including 
interviews/bytes as you should have an ...
Writing script 2 
 What’s the news angle? Who is telling 
the story and from what point of view? 
 Structure of the stor...
Script for TV news-3 
Keep asking yourself what is the reason 
for this sequence. 
. 
 Round up numbers like 89.7 % ..mak...
Script for TV news -3 
 Use key words like people, families, women and children 
rather than public.. 
 Write as you spe...
Anchor writing 
O Top line what the news is , why you need to know 
more , introduction to reporter if needed 
O Don’t pac...
Piece to camera or PTC -1 
O Opening Ptc / mid Ptc / end Ptc 
Why would we want to include a Ptc ? 
What information wou...
Piece to camera or ptc -2 
O Ptc can be an effective way of explaining 
complicated issues or concepts. 
O Reporters prese...
Interviews / bytes 
O Choose a focus for the interviewee : what’s the story 
O Prepare yourself well. Prepare your questio...
Anchor reading 
> Its what you are saying and how you say it 
> Write for TV. Be clear about what you want to 
say 
Write...
What is money shot ? 
O The best visual frame / shot to start the story 
O The best visual sequence to start the story 
O ...
What is money shot ? 
 Reporter should discuss the story with cameraman 
Cameraman should think of at least two or three...
BREAK THE SCRIPT 
A B 
anchor / link 
vt (pkg) 
Visuals – what you have 
vo 1 visuals vo 1 ------ 
byte –who is the person...
Break the script - 1 
O Vo -1 visuals : 
O (Start with money shot ) a school 
O bell close shot 
O with loud sound and stu...
Break the script - 2 
O Vo-2 more than 2000 govt 
schools in the state serve 
mid day meal to nearly 
20000 students daily...
Break the script - 3 
O Byte 2 ashok adhikari – 
blue plain shirt –grey hair-cutaways 
is there … 
O (10.22 to 10.40 sec) ...
Break the script - 4 
O (Ptc 12.33 to 12.50 sec) 
O Background : students 
are in queue for 
O Food // reporter steps 
ahe...
Write for the viewer !
Package writing – key points 
> Brief yourself : research your topic well. 
 Choose a focus : whats your story angle? 
 ...
High TV production values 
O Sequences : shoot several sequences from 
various angles so that the editor has a variety of ...
High TV production values 2 
O Ptc : These give the story credibility by placing 
the reporter at the scene. 
O They can b...
High TV production values 3 
O Location – try and shoot interviewees on 
location. Shoot a number of set up shots 
walking...
Live from anywhere-1 
 Always have all the info about the story/event 
> Don’t answer all questions in first answer .. 
>...
Live from anywhere -2 
O Be calm and confident whatever the situation is 
O Try to discuss questions with anchor before li...
Smart Live units
Challenges of Breaking News-1 
 Planning for unpredictability 
 Team work 
 Utilising network resources – you are not a...
Challenges of breaking news-2 
O Reporter – be alert, don’t ignore a single info 
O First get the confirmed info from reli...
Walkthrough : to tell a story 1 
 Reporter at a location shows through his cameraman the 
actual situation and narrates t...
Walkthrough – to tell a story 2 
O > Cameraman should start the frame with reporter in the centre 
and then move to show t...
Tic-tac or one to one 
 Reporter talks to a guest / victim / person - regarding a particular 
incident… questions /answer...
Phone-in 1 
O > Phone-in required when a reporter gets a news 
and this information is passed on to the TV channel 
O > Th...
Phone - in 2 
> Always try to keep your phone in sound mode 
> Use a good phone 
> During phone-in don’t walk or drive . 
...
Reporter should know camera 
O Reporter should know the basic camera operations 
O Prime Minister was at Airport …camerama...
Scroll /flash/just -in / breaking /alert 
 Supers : story super / 
 reporter –cameraman-editor supers 
 Byte supers 
 ...
Headlines – key points 
 Maximum of two sentences , or three 
 Clear, read it loudly, it should sound perfectly 
 Make ...
Headline Ptc 
O Ptc of the reporter showing an event/incident in the 
background 
O Ptc of the reporter from a specific lo...
Teasers 
OTeasers are must before break 
O Use best visuals (money shot) for teasers 
OMake a punchy line for teaser, maxi...
Break 
O>Breaks are also very important 
O> Relief to viewers 
O>Commercials !!! 
O Time to rearrange run order 
O> Time f...
End the bulletin with a soft story 
O> Always try to end the bulletin with a soft, 
pleasant, positive pkg story 
O> Inste...
Bulletin: Concepts 
O Signature music 
O Logo 
O Headlines 
O Top Stories 
O Run-down 
O Commercial Breaks 
O Breaking New...
Bulletin structure - how to arrange 
 Stacking a newscast by putting similar stories together may 
impede recall of stori...
Bulletin structure – how to arrange 
O In general viewers tend to remember best the last 
stories they see in a newscast, ...
Bulletin/ Newscast : Duration 
 NEWS BULLETIN 30 min 
O------------------------------------------------------------------...
Story package 1.30 min 
O Anchor : 10 to 12 sec 
O Vo-1 – 15 
O Byte 1 – 15 
O Vo-2 – 15 
O Byte 2 10 
O Vo-3 – 10 
O Ptc ...
Future Trends 
O Integration/Convergence of Print, TV, Radio and Internet News 
O Graphics and Visuals in Print 
O Use of ...
Skills of the Journalist: The Future Perspective 
O Technologically sound 
O Camera, editing, graphics, uplinking, 
O tele...
Practical Exercise 
O Turning short print stories into television 
news scripts 
O Delivering PTCs on a given news-story 
...
News-selection 
O Proximity with the audience: geographical, emotional: 
demographics to be studied 
O Relevance to your t...
Sources of News 
O Reporters 
O Contacts 
O Newsroom Diary, Files 
O Check Calls, Emergency Services Radio 
O Politicians ...
Sources of News 
O Freelancers, Tip-offs, Hoaxes 
O Wire Services and News Agencies 
O Other News Media: Newspapers, 
Chan...
Getting the Story: Preparations 
O Newsroom Conference 
O Copy-testing 
O Balance of News 
O Visuals and the Actuality 
O ...
How viewers view the news-1 
Study by Newslab Research, CNN 
Images and visual content – the impact 
 Compelling negative...
How viewers view the news -2 
Audio- Video match 
O If visuals are not linked to content they can become a 
distraction. R...
How viewers view the news - 3 
EDITING FAST 
 Quick edits increase attention but only to a point. If you are 
cutting bet...
How viewers view the news -4 
PRODUCTION 
 Production features like music, sound effects, slow 
motion, flash frames as t...
How viewers view the news-5 
Graphics 
O Graphics in stories can decrease memory for audio 
information at the time of gra...
How viewers view the news 6 
Order, emotions 
 Stories told in chronological orders are remembered by people 
at least 15...
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Tv news

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Deviprasad Goenka Management college of Media Studies
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Subject:BRAND BUILDING
Lesson : Tv news

Faculty Name: Vishal Desai

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Tv news

  1. 1. Television journalism PRACTICAL APPROACH Prof Ujjwal K Chowdhury, DGMC
  2. 2. History of TV broadcast  Four decades old ..first 17 yrs were black and white  After independence TV viewing was considered a luxury  No foreign media allowed ..1955 cabinet decided ..  TV sets in India six lacs seventy five thousands only in 1977  Last 20 yrs … huge explosion of TV channels  With 1982 Asian games in Delhi … colour TV came in India doordarshan having exclusive rights ..  Serials by doordarshan hum log 1984  Ramayana 1987-88 , Mahabharata 88-89  Then private channels …Zee news Star News Aajtak NDTV…  Huge market with lot of potential.
  3. 3. Print v/s TV News v/s Internet News 3 O Visual Impact O Presentation Techniques O Documentation O Personality O Credibility O Analysis & Backgrounders O Depth & Scope of Coverage O Interactivity O Technology O Legalities O Research O Forecast
  4. 4. ENG: Electronic News Gathering O Crew O Reporter O Categories O Specialization O Hierarchy O Sound-recordist O Cameraman O Driver O Multi-skilled Professional 4
  5. 5. ENG: Electronic News Gathering OWork: O Audio O Ambience, Interviews, PTCs O Lapel, Boom mics, Camera Mics, Cordless mics O Video O Stock, Filler, Cutaways, Action, Stills O One-camera shoot v/s two-camera shoot 5
  6. 6. Audio O Ambience Sound O What O Why O When O How O Interviews and Bytes O Set-piece O Vox-pop O Public Meet Bytes O Cases 6
  7. 7. ENP: Electronic News Production OCrew ONews Editor OScript-writer/ Script-editor OVTR Editor OGraphics Artist OVoiceover Professional OMulti-skilled Professional 7
  8. 8. Words to remember O PCR - production control room from where the news bulletin is controlled/given commands O MCR – master control room from where video stories/clips are played as per the command of PCR. O Voice over – the audio given to a final script in a special room with minimum disturbances. O Newsroom – where all the journalists sit together and work . O Producer – who is associated with production of news O Vt editor – video editor who edits the story
  9. 9. Production control room
  10. 10. Words to remember O Anchor – who reads the news O Reporter – who gathers news , O Cameraman – who captures video for the news O Studio – the closed room with high ceiling where news is recorded or done live as per the commands given by PCR. O Ob van – Outdoor broadcast van O Live u and dejero are the portable small live units being used these days, run on battery O Satcom : room from where newscast is uplinked or downlinked. O Ingest – where all the reporters feed, all inputs are ingested or stored in a computer system
  11. 11. NEWS CHANNEL STRUCTURE On air News PCR studio Producer anchor/cameraman/floor MCR Audio mixer/control may be guests Video mixer/control Switcher –cameras News room
  12. 12. NEWS CHANNEL STRUCTURE 2 O news room O Input output  Assignment desk  Chief reporter– national & bureaus producers  Reporters Desk  Stringers –all across the nation/districts Video editors  Agency feed – Graphics  Social media –fb, twitter,whatsapp, reconstruction O Internet news sites  Other TV channels – regional/national/international  PTI – print news O > Ob van / live -u / dejero / 4g laptops O > Guest coordinators O > Forward planning / research
  13. 13. Master control room
  14. 14. Input : input head or in-charge - O Responsible for all the news inputs O All the lives for the channel O All the states stories/ bureaus input s O All political guests for shows O All inputs for special programmes O All the inputs from stringers all across the nation O All coordination with reporters and output O And whatever required …..
  15. 15. Input structure Input head Assignment head Chief reporter or Bureau chief – national Senior producer - Producers Assistant producers - Trainees Chief reporter – all reporters will report to him All state reporters will be reporting to assignment head and national bureau chief Stringers – freelancers or stringers are the reporters who work from districts on a fixed payment or per story payment.
  16. 16. Output structure O Output head – responsible for what goes on-air O Executive producer O Senior producers - Producers O Assistant producers - Trainee O Graphics - will report to HOD and executive producer  Video editors - will report to HOD .  Special programmes – separate editor/producer
  17. 17. Input : assignment desk functions > All coordination with PCR  Gather info/leads of news stories  Gather info/leads of developing stories  Coordinate with all reporters including stringers keeping in loop the chief reporter  Coordinate with output in-charge/shift in-charge  Coordinate for all live/ ob vans/live u units  Breaking news – co-ordination with reporter/PCR/ producer/ output  Coordinate with forward planning desk for events/upcoming news events.
  18. 18. Input : chief reporter or bureau chief  Responsible for all news info/ events in the city – chief reporter (Delhi or Kolkata )  National bureau chief will be looking after all the stories /news happening in all across the nation  Regional bureau chief – responsible for news/stories in the city/state  Political , sports, crime, entertainment, defence, general – categories will have specific reporters for the inputs  Bureau chief will assist special programmes being produced, assign reporters for inputs.  Plan of live inputs/ Guests line up –political.
  19. 19. Input : guest / forward plan O Guest coordinators – coordinate with output for guests line-up for shows/ cars for their pickup/drops /ob movement for guest etc. O Forward planners – research / look forward for developing stories/ special programmes/plans O Operations – will help assignment in all logistics/ outstation tours / ob van movements etc. O IT – will help in running the channel smoothly
  20. 20. Other departments O HR managers O Marketing head O Publicity head / events manager O Operations manager O Accounts O Travel desk O Distribution in-charge O Admin in-charge – car in-charge etc
  21. 21. Bulletin Production O Crew O Executive Producer/PCR Controller O News-caster/ News-anchor O Production (PCR) Assistants O Cameraman O Sound-recordist O VTR Editor O Multi-skilled Professional 21
  22. 22. Types of Stories 22 O Anchor-read/Dry O VOSOT: Visuals on Sound Tape O Package (vt ) O Byte only O Live: In-studio O Live: On-the-field O Graphics only O Interview O Hard v/s Soft story O News v/s Feature O Key v/s Side Stories O Breaking News: Flash O Breaking News: Developing O Follow Ups
  23. 23. SCRIPT Writing TV news
  24. 24. Script-writing – key points 24 O Attention O Theme & Date O Type of Story O Visuals & Time Codes O Supers O Anchor-intro O Voice-over O Bytes O Repeats O PTC O Sign-off
  25. 25. News-writing for the Television O The News Angle O Multi-angled Stories O Hard News Formula: 5 Ws, 1 H, and What does it Mean? (What when where why who whom how) O The Intro: Anchor-read matter O Contrast with the VO 1 and/or Bite/s 1 O Placing Key Words 25
  26. 26. News-writing for the Television O Feature Openers O Developing the Story: sequence of logic, time, place, impact O Signposting, Last Line, Last Words O Accuracy OWriting to Pictures O Simple short sentences O No adjectives 26
  27. 27. Script for TV news - 1 O Write your script before shoot (rough outline including interviews/bytes as you should have an idea what they are going to say..) O Ask the simple questions before you write -  What is the story ? Keep it simple. Can you summarise it in two or three sentences ?  Who is your target audience? As this will dictate how you tell the story and how much detail needs to be given. Older viewers can be expected to have prior knowledge of certain issues.
  28. 28. Writing script 2  What’s the news angle? Who is telling the story and from what point of view?  Structure of the story ? What sequences you will need to tell the story visually? Any archive footage?
  29. 29. Script for TV news-3 Keep asking yourself what is the reason for this sequence. .  Round up numbers like 89.7 % ..make it 90 or keep it 89 %  How will you start and end your story? Once you finalise it, middle part will be easier to write.  Read the script loudly and hear yourself, is it clear? Making sense? If you cant understand your story, don’t expect anyone can do.  Always make sure you have explained why we should know this , ex river pollution – if not cleared up, will be carried downstream and affect health of hundreds of families…  Always be ready to answer – what’s in it for me ?
  30. 30. Script for TV news -3  Use key words like people, families, women and children rather than public..  Write as you speak – think you are talking to the people.
  31. 31. Anchor writing O Top line what the news is , why you need to know more , introduction to reporter if needed O Don’t pack too much O Keep changing facts and figures in anchor O Write the way your audience speaks O Names should be there if required only O Make it punchy  As with any TV script, read it loudly to make sure it sounds ok.  Write in a way so that viewers get interest to watch the news.
  32. 32. Piece to camera or PTC -1 O Opening Ptc / mid Ptc / end Ptc Why would we want to include a Ptc ? What information would we convey in a Ptc? Do we have something to show or demonstrate in this Ptc? O Where and when might we do this Ptc?  how will the 20 sec Ptc fit into the  story? .
  33. 33. Piece to camera or ptc -2 O Ptc can be an effective way of explaining complicated issues or concepts. O Reporters presence at the location O Join two different locations/stories/case studies . O join two or more reporters in a pkg as mid ptc.  Don’t repeat info of pkg in the ptc.  Try to do your ptc such as if someone edits it, it maintains its sense.  Ptc can be conclusion of your story / analysis of the situation/ information of upcoming event ..  Don’t think that every story needs a ptc.
  34. 34. Interviews / bytes O Choose a focus for the interviewee : what’s the story O Prepare yourself well. Prepare your questions. O Choose the interviewee and prepare him/her: tell what do you want from him, whats your story . O Put questions clearly , simple short sentence. O Listen to answer, react . O Don’t record too long- you should know what the interview is doing in your story. O Have outline in head. O Don’t ask double questions.
  35. 35. Anchor reading > Its what you are saying and how you say it > Write for TV. Be clear about what you want to say Write small sentences . Research pronunciations then practise them Try for conversation. Tell it rather than read it. > Engage your listeners > Relax . Calm yourself. Breathe into the abdomen , rather than upper chest
  36. 36. What is money shot ? O The best visual frame / shot to start the story O The best visual sequence to start the story O The best visual which can tell the viewer what story they are going to see O The best visual which can encourage viewer to see the full story
  37. 37. What is money shot ?  Reporter should discuss the story with cameraman Cameraman should think of at least two or three such shots during the shoot
  38. 38. BREAK THE SCRIPT A B anchor / link vt (pkg) Visuals – what you have vo 1 visuals vo 1 ------ byte –who is the person byte 1 vo 2 visuals Vo 2 byte –who is the person byte – 2 Gfx - if any , where gfx-in- gfx out vo 3 visuals vo-3 reporters ptc ptc - back ground location /
  39. 39. Break the script - 1 O Vo -1 visuals : O (Start with money shot ) a school O bell close shot O with loud sound and students in O background, O then kids entering O the kitchen area with plates for mid O day meal/ close shots of rice, dal O Vegetable being given to them by O Staff. Visuals of kitchen. O Byte – sudarshan das – wearing O A red check shirt . Indoor byte. Vt –pkg vo1- this is tiffin time, most of students come here for meal. The attraction of having a plate full of rice ,cereals and vegetables brings them to school. 50 kg rice 10 kg cereals cooked daily under such unhygienic conditions. There is no proper monitoring of quality of food cooked . Byte – Sudarshan das- cook- hindi- oil is smellling bad..i asked for another bottle but they told me to finish it first. Rice or daal is also not gd in quality. What to do, I am cooking with these materials since last two months.
  40. 40. Break the script - 2 O Vo-2 more than 2000 govt schools in the state serve mid day meal to nearly 20000 students daily. Central govt spends more than two lakh crores on this scheme every year.. purpose is to bring poor kids to school and educate them.. O Vo-2 visuals Long shot of school, mid day meal Preparations with ambience, then students in class, teacher is writing on black board. Students writing, givng answers . Books, close shot of eyes of one student. Cutaways of writing
  41. 41. Break the script - 3 O Byte 2 ashok adhikari – blue plain shirt –grey hair-cutaways is there … O (10.22 to 10.40 sec) O O Vo 3 – visuals - kids getting ready For school, their mothers /father Taking them to nearest school…/ O Students having food…close shots of food…. Byte 2 – Ashok adhikari– principal – bengali - families are very poor and uneducated here, they are reluctant to send their children. Mid day meal works as attraction to bring them here. But the quality of edible oil and rice is not good ,we have complained several times but there is no one to take care of that. Vo-3 mid day meal concept has generated a curiosity in poor families in remote villages and no of students have increased significantly but the quality of food remains a serious concern .
  42. 42. Break the script - 4 O (Ptc 12.33 to 12.50 sec) O Background : students are in queue for O Food // reporter steps ahead along O the queue And speaks Ptc - there are serious lapses in the implementation of mid day meal scheme. On this issue we tried to speak to the food minister but he denied. Its obvious govt has no answers. With j /cameraman xyz news ….
  43. 43. Write for the viewer !
  44. 44. Package writing – key points > Brief yourself : research your topic well.  Choose a focus : whats your story angle?  Balance : present all relevant points of view  Don’t record too much : choose interviewees carefully and decide what you need them to do in your package  Structure: lead your audience through logically,  Use some colour but wisely: don’t confuse the audience  Make sure anchor /link matches the story/pkg, don’t promise the wrong angle  Select your best take : ptc and bytes carefully  Sound/ gfx / music – ask yourself what is justified.
  45. 45. High TV production values O Sequences : shoot several sequences from various angles so that the editor has a variety of shots. O Use of graphics : can be used to illustrate statistics, trends and chronological events. Interviewees who refuse to give on screen comments can give statements that can be turned into graphics. Using an image that has been shot during shoot can make a powerful backdrop for graphics. O Animated graphics can be used in some cases like accidents, terror attacks, court orders etc
  46. 46. High TV production values 2 O Ptc : These give the story credibility by placing the reporter at the scene. O They can be used as bridges to give information that can not be filmed or to illustrate what is happening at a location e.g. during a factory strike. O They can be used as an ending to summarise the main points of a story. Anonymity : shooting an interviewee in silhouette can add drama to a story if that person is a victim. Don’t agree to hide an interviewees identity unless there are good reasons.
  47. 47. High TV production values 3 O Location – try and shoot interviewees on location. Shoot a number of set up shots walking, talking, reading, whatever is natural . O Panoramic shots – where geography or distance or location is to be shown, try to get a top shot from a near by building .. Natural disaster and big political rally.
  48. 48. Live from anywhere-1  Always have all the info about the story/event > Don’t answer all questions in first answer .. > Double check if you are passing a new info > Be balanced in lives , Make simple small sentences Speak as you are talking to a viewer, Keep the speed normal.. - Avoid uncertain things . Live is for the viewer not for the anchor ..
  49. 49. Live from anywhere -2 O Be calm and confident whatever the situation is O Try to discuss questions with anchor before live O Inputs before live, displayed during live O Try to show the actual site / event happening behind or around you through your cameraman live
  50. 50. Smart Live units
  51. 51. Challenges of Breaking News-1  Planning for unpredictability  Team work  Utilising network resources – you are not alone  Think laterally to overcome obstacles  Take the initiative  Take measured risk  Communicate  Think about dangers  Practical examples : situations ….gd
  52. 52. Challenges of breaking news-2 O Reporter – be alert, don’t ignore a single info O First get the confirmed info from reliable source O Inform TV channel immediately / flash O Arrange visuals at the earliest O First try to send just one minute footage O Try for live from the spot at the earliest / O Update yourself with new info O Never panic. /Just focus on O visuals /info /live . O Send your headline ptc O Go for counter bytes ,script , ptc
  53. 53. Walkthrough : to tell a story 1  Reporter at a location shows through his cameraman the actual situation and narrates the whole scene  Reporter at a location shows through his cameraman the actual situation, narrates the story and then speaks with victims/guest at the location .  Walkthrough saves time. /  Without pkg you can tell the story,  Feed can be sent at the earliest / can be shown as live,  After walkthrough, reporter can move for another story..  Always better to send some extra visuals along with walkthrough..
  54. 54. Walkthrough – to tell a story 2 O > Cameraman should start the frame with reporter in the centre and then move to show the scene while reporters narrates the scene. O > Audio of reporter should match with the cameraman's video O > So better to discuss with cameraman and plan for it. O > Listen to cameraman … O > Reporter can be in in the middle if required O > At the end reporter should be in for signoff  Sometimes reporter need not to come in the scene again.  Walkthrough can end with his voice narrating a visual…signoff… off the screen.  Usually in a standing position …
  55. 55. Tic-tac or one to one  Reporter talks to a guest / victim / person - regarding a particular incident… questions /answers/narration etc may be there.  Camera always starts with reporter then guest/victim both in the frame and then camera goes to a single frame of guest/victim. And come back to reporter for sign off.  Duration : maximum 2 mins, in between camera can bring both – reporter and guest in the frame while a question is being asked.  Reporter should be clear what are the questions he needs answers.  Cameraman should be consulted before shoot.  Background for the shoot should be checked twice along with light.  Usually in a standing position …
  56. 56. Phone-in 1 O > Phone-in required when a reporter gets a news and this information is passed on to the TV channel O > There is only information, news is developing , more information is supposed to come later O > Breaking news situations O > Sometimes visuals are not available or it will take much time, then through phone-in news can be aired for the viewers .
  57. 57. Phone - in 2 > Always try to keep your phone in sound mode > Use a good phone > During phone-in don’t walk or drive . > Don’t give phone-in from inside a closed room > Don’t give phone-in from a noisy place > Note down all the information you are going to say in the phone-in > Try to get all the details before phone-in > Don’t try to give all the information in one go > Use small clear sentences > Listen to the questions by anchor > Be calm, try to suggest questions to be asked before phone-in
  58. 58. Reporter should know camera O Reporter should know the basic camera operations O Prime Minister was at Airport …cameraman forgot his i-card, reporter managed .. O Live needed, but cameraman got injured, live was done O In Crisis, reporter can save the channel. O ALSO Cameraman O should know the NEWS !!
  59. 59. Scroll /flash/just -in / breaking /alert  Supers : story super /  reporter –cameraman-editor supers  Byte supers  Big news coming in – flash / just in O > Breaking news O > Alert regarding any live event or decision in court or cabinet meeting etc. O > Scroll at the end – contains info in one lines, news from states, districts, yesterdays imp news/ some upcoming events/ commercials etc.
  60. 60. Headlines – key points  Maximum of two sentences , or three  Clear, read it loudly, it should sound perfectly  Make it punchy if required  One sports headline  One entertainment headline  One international headline – if anything really is worth  Make it national in feelings i.e. headlines should not be Delhi centric or Kolkata centric, geographical representation is also important  Exclusive or special report should be mentioned  Ptc of a major story could be in the headline
  61. 61. Headline Ptc O Ptc of the reporter showing an event/incident in the background O Ptc of the reporter from a specific location saying that we will show you this report.. O In headline Ptc..anchor should tease a single line while reporters two lines will be on air explaing the real situation in short O Such headline may be used for an upcoming event
  62. 62. Teasers OTeasers are must before break O Use best visuals (money shot) for teasers OMake a punchy line for teaser, maximum 2 lines  Teasers keep audience hooked to your bulletin  Byte can be a part of teaser or  Ptc can be shown  along with visuals
  63. 63. Break O>Breaks are also very important O> Relief to viewers O>Commercials !!! O Time to rearrange run order O> Time for anchor to relax/update O> Time for guest to update O> Time for guest to enter or exit O> Show your programme promo  Arrange live / phone-in / anchor-reporter discussion
  64. 64. End the bulletin with a soft story O> Always try to end the bulletin with a soft, pleasant, positive pkg story O> Instead of pkg, only anchor/ good visuals in a sequence can be also aired with music O> This will give viewer a break from hard stuff
  65. 65. Bulletin: Concepts O Signature music O Logo O Headlines O Top Stories O Run-down O Commercial Breaks O Breaking News O Offbeat/Tail-piece O News-segments O News-verticals 65
  66. 66. Bulletin structure - how to arrange  Stacking a newscast by putting similar stories together may impede recall of stories.  This clustering effect can apply to stories with similar topic and context, and to stories with the same visual format. For viewers, the result is meltdown, where elements of stories merge or become confused with elements of another.  Variety improves viewers memory. While viewers tend to remember stories with video better than those without, putting an anchor read story between two video stories can improve memory for the stories.  Just after a programme that leads into a news bulletin , viewers find it hard to remember what happens in first two minutes.. So move gradually…
  67. 67. Bulletin structure – how to arrange O In general viewers tend to remember best the last stories they see in a newscast, the first stories less well, middle ones the least. Emotional stories and stories with good video can overcome this effect. O > People pay more attention to stories that are teased. They remember stories better that are teased, and they understand them better. Recaps can improve understanding for stories, and can decrease memory for stories that are not recapped.
  68. 68. Bulletin/ Newscast : Duration  NEWS BULLETIN 30 min O------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  News 14 or 15 x1.30min 22-23 min  Break 2x2 min FIX 04 min  Headlines 2x20 40 sec  Teaser 2x10 20 sec  Phone-in 60 sec  Live 90 sec
  69. 69. Story package 1.30 min O Anchor : 10 to 12 sec O Vo-1 – 15 O Byte 1 – 15 O Vo-2 – 15 O Byte 2 10 O Vo-3 – 10 O Ptc - 12-15 sec. Vo-1 20 sec Byte 1 15 Byte 2 15 Vo2 15 Ptc 15 sec
  70. 70. Future Trends O Integration/Convergence of Print, TV, Radio and Internet News O Graphics and Visuals in Print O Use of words, headlines and audio only in TV News O Print, Radio and TV News over the Net O Ownership and Management across News Vehicles in same hands O Convergence in News Consumption O Interactivity in Journalism O Readers’/Viewers’ question O Participative Pages and Programs O Response, Feedback O Action Mail O Techno-legal changes O Broadcast Bill: Uplinking Rights Expanded O Convergence Act: Greater Role for Multi-media O Broadband Revolution/ Higher Bandwidth and Easy Availability O Convergence of Technologies 70
  71. 71. Skills of the Journalist: The Future Perspective O Technologically sound O Camera, editing, graphics, uplinking, O telecommunication O Better Personality O good in onscreen presentation, delivery O High Level of general knowledge O More informed and better networked O Abilities to switch from one medium to the other O Niche specialization in one or two areas O Command over treatments of stories and formats of current affairs programming 71
  72. 72. Practical Exercise O Turning short print stories into television news scripts O Delivering PTCs on a given news-story O Breaking a large print story into several TV stories and scripting them O Alternative approaches for a given TV story O Developing side stories and follow-ups for an evolving major news-story 72
  73. 73. News-selection O Proximity with the audience: geographical, emotional: demographics to be studied O Relevance to your target audience, importance in some functional area of life O Immediacy: in terms of time and application O Interest: psychographics of the audience O Drama: action, sensation, probe O Entertainment, fun, leisure, lifestyle O Variety, colour and wholesome character to the bulletin: variety in content and form 73
  74. 74. Sources of News O Reporters O Contacts O Newsroom Diary, Files O Check Calls, Emergency Services Radio O Politicians and Pressure Groups O Staged Events and News/Press Releases (text, video), Syndicated Recordings 74
  75. 75. Sources of News O Freelancers, Tip-offs, Hoaxes O Wire Services and News Agencies O Other News Media: Newspapers, Channels & Cyber O Shared Material O Planned Verticals 75
  76. 76. Getting the Story: Preparations O Newsroom Conference O Copy-testing O Balance of News O Visuals and the Actuality O The Brief and the Angle O Chasing the Contact, Venue/Location O Staged News Conferences O Beating the Clock/ Inter-bulletin Up gradation O Work Sequentially 76
  77. 77. How viewers view the news-1 Study by Newslab Research, CNN Images and visual content – the impact  Compelling negative images affect what viewers remember. Studies have found that viewers remember best what they see during and after the negative images but not what they see before the negative images. And they don’t remember what they hear before and during the negative images.  Stories with gd pics are remembered better than without.
  78. 78. How viewers view the news -2 Audio- Video match O If visuals are not linked to content they can become a distraction. Routine video , file tape,meetings,arrivals etc that does not match the content may make it harder for people to remember the content of a story  When audio – video don’t match, people can remember what they saw just about as well as they can when the two are redundant, but they remember much less of what they have heard  when video-audio match – viewers understand stories better and remember the details of those stories better than the stories where video doesn't match the audio .
  79. 79. How viewers view the news - 3 EDITING FAST  Quick edits increase attention but only to a point. If you are cutting between different scenes, rather than editing within a visual sequence, there is a falloff in detail memory as edit speed increases. If you stay with a sequence, it doesn’t seem to matter how your edits are – memory for detail just keeps getting better .  A combination of fast paced editing(changing from scene to scene) and emotional content can overload viewers. They pay attention and remember they saw something, but they cant recall the details.  Edits with a scene increase both attention and memory .
  80. 80. How viewers view the news -4 PRODUCTION  Production features like music, sound effects, slow motion, flash frames as transitions between shots and the obtrusiveness of the reporter’s voice can increase the attention but they appear to have no effect on memory !  Viewers say they find stories produced using these techniques less enjoyable, less believable, less informative than stories identical content produced without them..
  81. 81. How viewers view the news-5 Graphics O Graphics in stories can decrease memory for audio information at the time of graphic, particularly if the content is difficult or unfamiliar. O > An Animated graphics hold attention better than full screen graphics and they improve viewers understanding and memory, especially for stories rated difficult to understand.
  82. 82. How viewers view the news 6 Order, emotions  Stories told in chronological orders are remembered by people at least 15 % better …than a inverted pyramid style story  Using words high in imagery improves both attention and memory for stories with less pictures,  Using personal examples to illustrate a trend can give viewers a wrong impression if the example are not consistent with the trend, seeing more examples of a problem leads people to think the problem is more serious than the underlying statistics reflect..  People believed a problem was more serious when they saw stories featuring an emotional victim as opposed to an unemotional victim or no victim at all.

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