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Parental neglect 2

  1.  • Definition of terms.Introduction • Types of Parental Neglect. • Causes of Parental Neglect. Parental Neglect • Signs and Symptoms . • Predisposing Factors. • Types of Depression. Depression OUTLINE
  2.  OUTLINE, CONTD. • Depression As An Aftermath Of Parental Neglect • Management Of Depression. • The Role Of Nurses In The Prevention And Control Of Parental Neglect.
  3.   Parental neglect and child neglect are used interchangeably because it is the children who are under the care of the parents.  Child neglect is defined as the persistent failure to meet a child’s basic physical and/or psychological needs resulting in serious impairment of health and/or development.  Parental neglect is a major risk factor for psychopathology, including internalising problems such as depression and anxiety INTRODUCTION
  4.   Lack of emotional interaction during the crucial early period of development can result in poor emotional regulation that may be part of a cascade of adverse neurobiological events rendering a child vulnerable to the effects of continuing neglect as childhood progresses.  Depression can be managed through both pharmacological and non- pharmacological therapies.  Nurses play significant roles in the prevention of child neglect through primary prevention roles. INTRODUCTION, CONTD.
  5.   Parental neglect is a crime consisting of acts or omissions of a parent which endangers the health and life of a child or fails to take steps necessary to the proper raising of a child.  Depression: it is a common and serious medical illness that negatively affects how you feel, the way you think and how you act.  Child: a child is defined by the Convention on the Rights of the Child(CRC) as “every human below the age of 18 years unless under the law applicable under the child majority is attained earlier.  Parenting: it is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood. Definition of terms
  6. PARENTAL NEGLECT • Parental Neglect is a type of maltreatment related to the failure to provide needed, age- appropriate care • Neglect is categorized as one of the four major types of child abuse, which of the four types, it is also the most common
  7.   Parents may neglect their children without wishing to, as do poor parents who don’t have the money for nourishing food. And neglect spans class lines, as in the case of wealthy latchkey kids with parents too busy to provide steady love and affection. Parental Neglect contd.
  8.   Physical neglect  Medical neglect  Supervising neglect  Environmental neglect  Educational neglect  Emotional neglect TYPES OF PARENTAL NEGLECT
  9. PHYSICAL NEGLECT  Physical neglect includes the refusal of seeking necessary health care, child abandonment, the desertion of child, failure to provide for the child’s safety,physical and emotional needs.
  10. MEDICAL NEGLECT  Medical neglect is the failure to provide for appropriate health care for a child. The child may exhibit signs of poor health, such as fatigue, infected cuts, and constant scratching of skin.
  11. SUPERVISING NEGLECT  Supervising neglect occurs when the adult responsible for a child either fails to supervise and keep the child from being harmed or fails to have someone else supervise the child and keep him or her from harm.
  12. Environmental Neglect  This type of neglect is related to both physical and supervisory neglect, but it occurs when children’s home environment are filthy.
  13. Educational Neglect  Educational neglect occurs when a child is allowed to engage in chronic truancy, or is of mandatory school age but not receiving schooling.
  14. Emotional Neglect  Emotional neglect occurs when children are deprived of their emotional needs (positive attachment with adults). It includes inadequate nurturing and affection, spousal abuse in the child’s presence, allowing a child to use drugs or alcohol.
  15.  Poverty  Poor social skill and relationships  Substance abuse  Depression in parents  A large family  Lack of Support for single- parents households.  Lack of child empathy. Causes of Parental Neglect.
  16.   The legal rights of the Nigerian child recognizes the basic concept that the child is the foundation of the society and he or she assures its continuity.  These laws are being encroached upon on a daily basis without appropriate sanction, not because we don’t have laws and policies on child protection but due to lack of social consensus and political will to successfully implement laws and policies.  The increasing spate of child abuse with its attendant consequences therefore calls for urgent assessment, prevention and mitigation in order to secure the future of Nigerian children PARENTAL NEGLECT IN NIGERIA
  17.   Depression is a disorder of the brain.  There are a variety of causes, including genetic, environmental, psychological, and biochemical factors.  This is the most common of the affective disorders;  It may range from a very mild condition, bordering on normality, to severe (psychotic) depression accompanied by hallucinations and delusions.  It is characterized by sadness, loss of interest or pleasure, feelings of guilt or low self-worth, disturbed sleep or appetite, low energy and poor concentration, besides feeling depressed DEPRESSION
  18.  SYMPTOMS OF DEPRESSION  Feelings of sadness or unhappiness  Irritability or frustration, even over small matters  Loss of interest or pleasure in normal activities  Reduced sex drive  Insomnia or excessive sleeping  Changes in appetite — depression often causes decreased appetite and weight loss, but in some people it causes increased cravings for food and weight gain
  19.   Changes in appetite  Agitation or restlessness  Irritability or angry outbursts  Slowed thinking, speaking or body movements  Indecisiveness, distractibility and decreased concentration  Frequent thoughts of death, dying or suicide  Crying spells for no apparent reason. SYMPTOMS OF DEPRESSION CONTD.
  20.  Genetics Biochemical Influence Neuroendocrine Disturbances Physiological Influences Other physiological conditions. Predisposing Factors of Depression
  21.  TYPES OF DEPRESSION Major depression Dysthymia Bipolar disorder (manic depression)
  22.  Suicidal ideation Self-medication Alcohol and drug abuse Loss of employment Low grades Poverty Problems with relationship COMPLICATIONS.
  23.   According to DSM V, a diagnosis of major depression can be made if five or more of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2weeks period and represent a change from previous functioning; at least one of the symptoms is either (1) depressive mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure. DSM V DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA
  24.   Traumatic experiences such as child abuse or neglect change the chemistry and even the structure of the brain.  They sensitize the stress response system so that those who are abused become overly responsive to environmental pressures.  Eventually, even small degrees of stress provoke an outpouring of stress hormones, and these hormones in turn act directly on multiple sites to produce the behavioural symptoms of depression  A hidden but serious act of parental neglect which sets a child up to be prone to depression throughout his/her lifetime is called childhood Emotional Neglect (CEN).  They push the brain’s fear centre into overdrive, churning out the negative emotions that steer the depression’s severity and add a twist of anxiety. DEPRESSION AS AN AFTERMATH OF PARENTAL NEGLECT
  25.   Depression can be managed through both Pharmacological an non- pharmacological therapies.  Non-pharmacological therapies : • Electro-convulsive therapy • Psychotherapy  Pharmacological therapy: • Anti-depressants medication.  Serotonin–Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors  Tricyclic Antidepressants  Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors Management of Depression.
  26.  Non-pharmacological therapies Psychotherapy Electroconvulsive therapy
  27.  Pharmacological therapies Anti-depressant medications  Serotonin–Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors  Tricyclic Antidepressants  Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
  28.   Risk for Suicide • Inquire about suicidal thoughts, plans and means. • Make environment safe • Short-term verbal or written contract. • Close observation • Frequent rounds at irregular intervals • Encourage open, honest expression of feelings. NURSING INTERVENTION FOR A DEPRESSED PATIENT
  29.   Low self-esteem/self positive deficit • Spend time with the patient and develop trust. • Focus on strength; minimise failures • Encourage group attendance • Teach assertive and effective communication • Show the client how to perform activities with which he or she is having INTERVENTION CONTD.
  30.   Powerlessness • Encourage participation in goal-setting and decision-making regarding own care. • Ensure that goals are realistic. • Encourage expression of feelings about areas not within client’s ability to control. INTERVENTION CONTD.
  31.   There are multiple approaches to the prevention of child abuse and neglect, from the level of the individual parent and child to the larger society.  Any effective approach to preventing child abuse and neglect must accommodate the complex causes of a problem and the diverse interests and needs represented by everyone who is affected by it.  Nurses provide direct service to children and families; therefore can play several important roles in the prevention of child abuse and neglect. PREVENTION OF PARENTAL NEGLECT; THE NURSES’ ROLE
  32.   Two primary prevention roles for primary-care nurses are: 1) Careful assessment of the home environment to identify modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for maltreatment, such as evidence of social isolation and lack of social supports; and 2) Nurses’ awareness of triggering situations that can contribute to maltreatment incidents, such as crying and toilet-training. Prevention contd.
  33.  Strategies used by nurses for the prevention of parental neglect are as follows:  Increasing services to families such as home visiting, early childhood education, and parent education.  Providing mental health services to parents and neglected children and youth.  Ensuring access for all children to affordable, quality health care, including prenatal, dental, and mental health services.  Increasing public awareness efforts to educate the public about child neglect, its seriousness, and how they can help prevent it, as well as foster a shared sense of societal responsibility.  Increasing research efforts to improve our understanding of child neglect abuse – its nature, extent, causes, and consequences, as well as what helps prevent and address it. PREVENTION CONTD.
  34.   Parents who are irresponsible and who forget or don’t know how to take care of their children’s needs. Also seen as parents who are too drunk or high to take care of their children, or who don’t care about their children’s needs and thus don’t bother to feed them or provide clothes and necessities.  Neglected children may cope by clinging and being dependent; by giving up and lacking motivation or hope; by withdrawing and resisting human contact.; it sets the child up to be more prone to depression throughout her lifetime . Conclusion
  35.   Nurses play a vital role by advocating for the clients (neglected children) to the right authority on policies or strategies to prevent and control parental neglect  They also play preventive role in educating the parents in child developmental stages and good parenting skills through home visiting and sensitization programme in the community. Conclusion contd.