Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.

(How) does Gamification work?

2.902 Aufrufe

Veröffentlicht am

(How) does Gamification work?
Juho Hamari ,Game Research Lab,
University of Tampere, Finland

Veröffentlicht in: Business
  • Login to see the comments

(How) does Gamification work?

  1. 1. Juho Hamari http://juhohamari.com
  2. 2. http://www.homesliceapp.com/wp-content/ uploads/2014/05/lifehacker.png
  3. 3. “Does gamification work?” or why we should not ask the question Citation: Hamari, J., Koivisto, J., & Sarsa, H. (2014). Does Gamification Work? – A Literature Review of Empirical Studies on Gamification. In Proceedings of the 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii, USA, January 6-9, 2014.
  4. 4. Authors Jonna Koivisto http://jonnakoivisto.com jonna.koivisto@uta.fi Harri Sarsa harri.sarsa@aalto.fi
  5. 5. Gamification - a trending topic ● Gartner predicts: By 2015, 50% of organizations have gamified their processes ● “Silverbullet” for customer/user engagement - because games are fun, gamified services are also fun ● Companies emerging that provide gamification services/systems ● Everyone wants to know “does gamification really work?”
  6. 6. Gamification - an untrending topic? ● “just a marketing gimmick!” ● “exploitative!” ● “bullshit!” ● “extrinsic rewards!” ● “nothing new!” ● “paternalism!” ● “manipulation!”
  7. 7. Gamification - an untrending topic ? HYPE UP: Gartner (2011) & IEEE (2014): Most organizations adopt ! HYPE DOWN: Gartner (2012): Most implementations fail ! Again: the idea is that gamification will succeed or fail as a whole
  8. 8. Research problem ● Clearly gamification is booming and we have very polarized opinions: either a “Silverbullet” or “Bullshit” ● But what does the research say? “Does it actually work?” ● What kind of research has been done under the flag of gamification?
  9. 9. Literature review Process
  10. 10. … whatever the case; a mindblowing increase in hits in the literature
  11. 11. Step 1: Search hits per db Database Total number of results Peer-reviewed papers EBSCOHost 399 17 Proquest 3423 124 Web of Science 56 56 Scopus 330 293 ScienceDirect 93 93 Google Scholar 3480 N/A ACM Digital library 239 196 AISel 30 30
  12. 12. Step 2: Focused searches ● Search words: gamification, gameful, gamif*, motivational affordances from all the databases ● Selection criteria ○ Empirical study ○ Peer-reviewed ○ Full research paper ○ in an international venue ● 24 papers found
  13. 13. Findings
  14. 14. Motivational affordances ● The list of affordances rather well corresponds to what can be considered the blueprint of gamification
  15. 15. Psychological outcomes ● Measured in 9 papers ○ 6 inferential, 3 descriptive ● Such as: Engagement, enjoyment, attitude, social influence, flow, task involvement, etc.
  16. 16. Behavioural outcomes ● Measured in 21 papers ○ 15 inferential, 6 descriptive ● Such as: Amount and quality of use/contributions, learning outcomes, intentions to use, task performance
  17. 17. Overview of variables Motivational affordances Psychological outcomes Behavioral outcomes Points Leaderboard Badges/Achievements Levels Story/theme Clear goals Feedback Rewards Progress Challenge Social comparison Clear goals Intrinsic motivations Extrinsic motivations Social influence Recognition Reciprocal benefits Attitude Motivation Happiness Flow Task involvement Social motivation Perceived added-value Fun Engagement Enjoyment Satisfaction Amount of use Quality of use Quality of completed tasks Task completion speed Amount of contributions Change in type of contributions Amount of social interaction Amount on contributions Intentions to continue using Intentions to recommend to others Change in energy consumption Learning effectiveness Task performance Time management Carefulness Learning Response patterns Increased knowledge
  18. 18. Contexts of the studies
  19. 19. Types of studies
  20. 20. Results in qualitative studies ● Both positive and negative perceptions ● Positive experiences in all of the studies ● The same aspects were most often disliked by some respondents in the study such as competition → individual differences.
  21. 21. Results in quantitative studies
  22. 22. Conclusions
  23. 23. “Does gamification work?” ● Simple answer: According to the literature review, most studies find positive effects from gamification to some dependent variables ● Realistic long answer: Well … ○ The studies are quite different (different variables, methods, etc.) ○ Methodological shortcomings ○ Relatively small amount of studies ○ Conflicting results ● Most studies report both positive and null results
  24. 24. Methodological shortcomings - to be avoided 1) Small sample sizes 2) No validated psychometric variables 3) Lack of control groups and thus inability to infer whether gamification affected user behavior 4) Lack of control between implemented motivational affordances 5) Experiment timeframes often short 6) None of the papers MEASURED variables from all 3 stages of gamification (affordance -> psych -> behavior) 7)Publication bias
  25. 25. “Does gamification work?” ● Further conclusion: ● its a horrible question to ask - “through the disillusionment” ● We should not care whether gamification works
  26. 26. Does drug X work?
  27. 27. Does drug X work?
  28. 28. Gamification
  29. 29. Gamification - what is it? Motivational affordances Psychological outcomes Behavioral outcomes Points Leaderboard Badges/Achievements Levels Story/theme Clear goals Feedback Rewards Progress Challenge Social comparison Clear goals Intrinsic motivations Extrinsic motivations Social influence Recognition Reciprocal benefits Attitude Motivation Happiness Flow Task involvement Social motivation Perceived added-value Fun Engagement Enjoyment Satisfaction Amount of use Quality of use Quality of completed tasks Task completion speed Amount of contributions Change in type of contributions Amount of social interaction Amount on contributions Intentions to continue using Intentions to recommend to others Change in energy consumption Learning effectiveness Task performance Time management Carefulness Learning Response patterns Increased knowledge
  30. 30. Gamification - what is it? Motivational affordances Psychological outcomes Behavioral outcomes Points Leaderboard Badges/Achievements Levels Story/theme Clear goals Feedback Rewards Progress Challenge Social comparison Clear goals Intrinsic motivations Extrinsic motivations Social influence Recognition Reciprocal benefits Attitude Motivation Happiness Flow Task involvement Social motivation Perceived added-value Fun Engagement Enjoyment Satisfaction Amount of use Quality of use Quality of completed tasks Task completion speed Amount of contributions Change in type of contributions Amount of social interaction Amount on contributions Intentions to continue using Intentions to recommend to others Change in energy consumption Learning effectiveness Task performance Time management Carefulness Learning Response patterns Increased knowledge
  31. 31. Future(through “Scope of enlightenment” to “Plateau of Productivity”) ● Future looks bright ● Moving from “disillusionment”, through “enlightenment” to realistic “productivity” ○ No longer questions whether gamification is “bullshit” or a “silverbullet” ○ Not a singular technology ○ There are no sure things that either work or don’t ○ It is not about the GAME MECHANICS (alone)
  32. 32. Future
  33. 33. Future - in practice(through “Scope of enlightenment” to “Plateau of Productivity”) ● Read specific (quality) empirical literature related to your own case ● Execute well → “make a good game” ● Think about all the steps ○ Which design is used ○ Which psychological aspects ○ Which behavioral outcomes ○ In which context ○ To whom
  34. 34. Future - in practice(through “Scope of enlightenment” to “Plateau of Productivity”) ● Create your theory about how gamification works in your case ● and test it by yourself (avoid methodological pitfalls) Motivational affordances Psychological outcomes Behavioral outcomes Badges Likes Enjoyment Flow Social influence Effective work Sustainable work Friendly working environment
  35. 35. Thanks! Workshop tomorrow with more about designing gamification, theorizing about it and testing it ! More research on the topic: http://juhohamari.com juho.hamari@uta.fi
  36. 36. ● Social factors related to social influence, recognition and reciprocal benefits were strong predictors for attitude towards using gamification to enhance physical exercise as well as for continuing using it ● The results show that the mere implementation of gamification mechanics (social comparison and clear goals) does not automatically lead to significant increases in use activity in the studied utilitarian service, however, those users who actively monitored their own badges and those of others showed increased user activity.
  37. 37. ● Perceptions of usefulness, playfulness and enjoyment are higher in the beginning but start to decline with prolonged tenure
  38. 38. ● Effects of a gamification plugin deployed in a learning management system compared to effects of a social networking site in the same educational setting. ● Both resulted in better performance than a traditional e-learning approach in terms of academic achievement, but for assessing knowledge, the traditional e-learning approach was better. ● However, participation rates and scores remained low with the new tools, although students’ attitudes were positive.
  39. 39. ● A large-scale (n > 1000) randomized, controlled experiment on the impact of incorporating a badge-based achievement system within an online learning tool ● Significant positive effect on the quantity of students’ contributions, without a corresponding reduction in their quality, as well as on the period of time over which students engaged with the tool
  40. 40. ● Gamification works for a while o Probably due to novelty effects ● Declines quickly
  41. 41. HOWEVER: ● Removing gamification results in drop of wanted behavior in an enterprise social networking service
  42. 42. Crowding-out-effect ● The initial (intrinsic motivations) are replaced and overpowered by “surrogate” motivations ● Undermining the initial intrinsic motivations ● “The rewards become more important than the activity”
  43. 43. ● Game-based rewards related to a fictional narrative read by teachers were provided when the school as a whole met a fruit or vegetable consumption goal in the alternating-treatments design. ● On intervention days, fruit and vegetable consumption increased by 39% and 33.
  44. 44. ● Female undergraduates took a math test in a virtual classroom after being exposed to one of three leaderboard conditions: leaderboard with men in top positions, leaderboard with women in top positions, and no leaderboard condition ● Participants in the female majority leaderboard condition performed more poorly on the test than those in the male leaderboard condition ● However, they showed a higher level of academic identification than those in the male and control conditions
  45. 45. ● One course received a gamified curriculum, featuring a leaderboard and badges, whereas the other course received the same curriculum without the gamified elements. ● Students in the gamified course showed less motivation, satisfaction, and empowerment over time than those in the non-gamified class. ● Effect on final exam scores was mediated by students' levels of intrinsic motivation, with students in the gamified course showing less motivation and lower final exam scores than the non-gamified class.
  46. 46. ● Findings suggest that points, levels and leaderboards by themselves neither make nor break users’ intrinsic motivation in non-game contexts. Instead, it is assumed that they act as progress indicators, guiding and enhancing user performance.
  47. 47. ● “providing feedback” and “designing for optimal challenge” into the collaboration environment, ... significant performance gains were realized.
  48. 48. Hamari, J., & Koivisto, J. (2013). Social motivations to use gamification: an empirical study of gamifying exercise. In Proceedings of the 21st European Conference on Information Systems, Utrecht, Netherlands, June 5–8, 2013. ● Network exposure, ● Social influence, ● Recognition, ● Reciprocal benefits ... increased favorable attitude and use intentions and WOM -> social aspects also important for adoption of gamification
  49. 49. Social aspects are also important ●Social features and community are important in supporting the gamification (Hamari & Koivisto 2013)
  50. 50. Novelty effects ● Intuitively gamification seems interesting for users ● People are curious and will explore the gamified elements which results in a temporary usage increase ● However, perceptions of usefulness and enjoyment decline with tenure (Koivisto & Hamari, forthcoming) as well as use (Farzan et al. 2008).
  51. 51. Context ● Utilitarian vs Hedonic services (Davis et al. 1992) ● Involvement of the user: Cognitive vs. affective (Zaichowsky 1994) ● Is the service used for intrinsic or extrinsic reason (Deci & Ryan 1985)
  52. 52. If the system is predominantly utilitarian, people might have an incompatible attitude with ”fun”
  53. 53. Mere addition of ”game-like” elements does not automatically transform the experience
  54. 54. The goal of the designer differs from what games are essentially about – voluntariness, autonomy, free choice
  55. 55. Player/user qualities
  56. 56. Types of studies Type of study Affordances Relationship Psychological Relationship Behavioral Full Aff->psych Psych->beh Aff->beh --------------------------------------------------------------------- > Aff->beh, psych hypo ( ) Descriptive
  57. 57. Gamification - what is it? ● Deterding et al. (2011) ○ The use of game design in non-game contexts ● Huotari & Hamari (2012) ○ The process of enhancing services/systems with (motivational) affordances for gameful experiences …. as means to increase X behavior Motivational affordances Psychological outcomes Behavioral outcomes
  58. 58. Take-aways (through “Scope of enlightenment” to “Plateau of Productivity”) ● Gamification should not be considered as one technology ● Don’t give in to the hype! ○ Who cares if its “bullshit” or a “silverbullet” !? ● “Does gamification work?” is a bad question ○ Variety of different technologies ○ Variety of sought after psychological outcomes ○ Variety of sought after behavioral outcomes ○ Variety of contexts ○ Variety of users ● Use common sense, read specific (quality) empirical literature, execute well, test yourself.
  59. 59. Does gamification work? ● Example studies on badges: ○ Dominguez et al. (2013): positive effect on practical assignments, possible negative on written assignments ○ Hakulinen et al. (2013): results depend on badge type ○ Denny (2013): Only positive effects on level on contributions ○ Hamari (2013): No automatic effects from being able to compare nor from clear goals, BUT for those with higher engagement with badges were also more likely to be active ○ Hamari (2014): Positive effect from badges overall ○ Fitz-Walter et al. (2011) & Montola et al. (2009) both positive and negative consequences
  60. 60. Future(through “Scope of enlightenment” to “Plateau of Productivity”) ● Context of gamification ○ Hedonic or utilitarian ○ Sporadic use ○ Voluntariness / autonomy ● User traits o Gaming motivations o Orientation towards goals ● Psychological mediators o How people actually experience gamification o Do users’ motivations actually change

×