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Lightning Round: Species Diversity

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Lightning Round: Species Diversity

  1. 1. When was the last time that same was the answer to change?
  2. 2. Earth is warming. Trees are losing ground.
  3. 3. Cities can be testbeds for assisted migration.
  4. 4. Apple Park is a visionary experiment in assisted migration.
  5. 5. Oaks support many other lifeforms.
  6. 6. “Exotics” can thrive and contribute.
  7. 7. Accelerating die-off is prompting search for replacements.
  8. 8. Ignored oaks are earning greater consideration.
  9. 9. Island Oak is leading the pack.
  10. 10. Cities can become native species refuges.
  11. 11. We can look beyond California for climate-adaptive trees.
  12. 12. Netleaf Oak can thrive in an urban environment.
  13. 13. Plan towards adaptation.
  14. 14. Please consider joining in assisting oak migration. Dave Muffly Oaktopia.org
  15. 15. Allyson Salisbury, Ph.D. Wind resistant species for hurricane-prone communities
  16. 16. 40% of 125 species missing wind ratings Drawing from Bloemndaal et al 2020 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-0381-2 Florida species
  17. 17. Wind ratings were developed by Duryea et al. 145 tree & palm species Based on damage surveys and expert opinions https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/photo/aerial-view-of-tampa-florida-royalty-free-image/86539297
  18. 18. Needed a revised classification system that is repeatable
  19. 19. Conceptual wind resistance model Characteristic 1 x Coefficient 1 Characteristic 2 x Coefficient 2 Etc. … Wind Resistance Rating Species or environmental data Generated based on training data How to choose characteristics?
  20. 20. Go fishing for research with a literature review https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fishing_in_the_haor_with_Seine_net.jpg 1) Studied characteristics that predicted hurricane wind resistance 2) Reported hurricane damage at the species level
  21. 21. Initial search turned up 5,449 papers Predictor Studies = 64 Species Damage Studies = 66 https://nara.getarchive.net/media/a-tree-is-uprooted-outside-the-naval-air- station-nas-key-west-navy-lodge-as-882596
  22. 22. Damage data from 700+ species Etc...
  23. 23. Ratings can guide species selection https://www.gettyimages.com/detail/photo/aerial-view-of-tampa-florida-royalty-free-image/86539297
  24. 24. Risk assessment protocols can identify high risk trees
  25. 25. Pruning can reduce damage to trees https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tree_Pruning_(cropped).jpg
  26. 26. Multiple proactive steps https://weather.com/storms/hurricane/video/hurricane-ians-winds-toppled-trees-and-shredded-buildings- through-placida-fl?cm_ven=hp-slot-5 Species selection Risk assessment Pruning Tree Roof
  27. 27. Mitigating hurricane damage to urban trees https://www.stlouis-mo.gov/government/departments/public-safety/emergency-management/about/Steps- of-Emergency-Management.cfm Steps of emergency management
  28. 28. CREDITS: This presentation template was created by Slidesgo, including icons by Flaticon, and infographics & images by Freepik THANKS! asalisbury@ufl.edu www.allysonsalisbury.com CREDITS: This presentation template was created by Slidesgo, including icons by Flaticon, and infographics & images by Freepik Collaborators Andrew Koeser Richard Hauer Michael Andreu Yujuan Chen Zachary Freeman Adriana Herrera-Montes Chai-Shian Kua Jake Miesbauer Cara Rockwell Hunter Thorn Benyao Wang
  29. 29. madrone takes care of us if we take care of them
  30. 30. origin
  31. 31. alias
  32. 32. gifts
  33. 33. decline
  34. 34. education @arbutusarme | research | BMPs conservation range of species tree health | seed | plant connection researchers and amateur madrone enthusiasts
  35. 35. emergent
  36. 36. adaptive
  37. 37. research
  38. 38. restoration
  39. 39. connection michael yadrick michael.yadrick@seattle.gov @arbutusarme
  40. 40. • Natalie van Doorn, PhD • USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station Climate-Ready Trees Study: a 5-year update Co-PIs: Alison Berry, Greg McPherson, Janet Hartin, Jim Downer, Darren Haver
  41. 41. Objective Help create a more resilient urban forest by shifting the palate of tree species, to those that perform well when exposed to climate stressors http://www.ecosacramento.net/2016/01/changes-to-sacramento-city-tree-ordinance/
  42. 42. Approach • Five-step process: to identify and evaluate the performance of seldom used but promising tree species McPherson, E.G., A.M. Berry, and N.S. van Doorn. 2018. Performance testing to identify climate-ready trees. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 29: 28-39. doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2017.09.003 • 3 climate zones in CA • 20-year evaluation period
  43. 43. CalAdapt Climate Model, Next 75 Years Temperature: In each climate zone, model projects ~5°F increase in avg. min temps & ~6-9°F increase in avg. max temps http://cal-adapt.org/tools/ pcm1 Precipitation: increased variability, more precipitation during each storm event, stronger winds but also mega-droughts
  44. 44. Australia Acacia aneura Mulga Acacia stenophylla Shoestring acacia Eucalyptus papuana Ghost gum Ghost gum Southwest US Chilopsis linearis Desert willow Hesperocyparis forbesii Tecate cypress Mariosousa willardiana Palo blanco Parkinsonia x 'Desert Museum' Desert Museum palo verde Prosopis glandulosa x 'Maverick' Thornless honey mesquite Prunus ilicifolia subsp. lyonii Catalina cherry Quercus fusiformis Escarpment live oak Quercus tomentella Island oak Thornless honey mesquite Palo Verde “Desert Museum” Selected Finalists Corymbia
  45. 45. Oklahoma-Texas-Western US Celtis reticulata Netleaf hackberry Ebenopsis ebano Texas ebony Maclura pomifera 'White Shield' White Shield osage orange Quercus canbyi Canby's oak Canby’s oak Asia Dalbergia sissoo Rosewood Pistacia ‘Red Push’ Red Push pistache Ulmus propinqua Emerald sunshine elm South America Cedrela fissilis Brazilian cedarwood ‘Emerald Sunshine’ elm Dutch elm disease & elm leaf beetle resistance Selected Finalists
  46. 46. In Each Climate Zone: 4 Park Sites • 2 reps per species • 96 trees total 1 Reference Site • 4 reps per species • 48 trees total Experimental Design Red Push Palo Blanco Island Oak Escarpment Pistache Live Oak Tecate Escarpment Maverick Palo Blanco Cypress Live Oak Mesquite Rosewood Island Oak Red Push Mulga Pistache Escarpment Tecate Maverick Palo Blanco Live Oak Cypress Mesquite Mulga Netleaf Brazilian Ghost Gum Hackberry Cedarwood Ghost Gum Maverick Rosewood Catalina Cherry Mesquite Netleaf Hackberry Mulga Palo Blanco Brazilian Cedarwood Tecate Netleaf Island Oak Red Push Cypress Hackberry Pistache Maverick Red Push Catalina Cherry Escarpment Mesquite Pistache Live Oak Rosewood Brazilian Ghost Gum Tecate Cedarwood Cypress Catalina Cherry Rosewood Netleaf Ghost Gum Hackberry Island Oak Braizilian Catalina Cherry Mulga Cedarwood Tree Cultivars: Mulga Acacia aneura Brazilian Cedarwood Cedrela fissilis Netleaf Hackberry Celtis reticulata Ghost Gum Corymbia papuana Rosewood Dalbergia sissoo Tecate Cypress Hesperocyparis forbesii Palo Blanco Mariosousa willardiana Red Push Pistache Pistacia 'Red Push' Maverick Mesquite Propospis glandulosa ‘Maverick’ Catalina Cherry Prunus ilicifolia subsp. lyonii Escarpment Live Oak Quercus fusiformis Island Oak Quercus Dimensions and Layout: Four rows running NW to SE with 12 trees in each row. Approximately 25 ft. x 25 ft. per tree. Total plot: 150 ft. x 325 ft. Climate-Ready Trees for Southern California Coastal Communities: Trial Planting Map at South Coast Research and Extension Center, Irvine, CA U.C. Davis & Pacific Southwest Research Station USDA Forest Service 150 ft. Bottom-left hand corner: 33.69219608 N° 117.71679171 W° Top-right corner: 33.69251042 N° 117.71646796 W°
  47. 47. Inland Valley Survival (2015-2020) Park (%) Ref. Site (%) Total (%) Acacia aneura 25 100 50 Acacia stenophylla 100 100 100 Chilopsis linearis ‘Bubba’ 63 100 75 Corymbia papuana 38 50 42 Celtis reticulata 75 100 83 Dalbergia sissoo 38 100 58 Ebenopsis ebano 38 100 58 Maclura pomifera ‘White Shield’ 64 100 73 Parkinsonia x ‘Desert Museum’ 63 25 50 Prosopis glandulosa x Maverick 100 100 100 Quercus canbyi 100 100 100 Ulmus propinqua 50 100 67 Total 63 90 71 Prelim results
  48. 48. Acacia stenophylla Inland Valleys Reference Site Inland Valleys Park Site Quercus canbyi Inland Valleys Reference Site Inland Valleys Park Site
  49. 49. Prosopis glandulosa x Maverick Inland Valleys Reference Site Inland Valleys Park Site
  50. 50. Chilopsis linearis ‘Bubba’ Inland Valleys Reference Site Inland Valleys Park Site Inland Valleys Reference Site Inland Valleys Park Site Maclura pomifera ‘White Shield’ • root stock suckers
  51. 51. Dalbergia sissoo Inland Valleys Reference Site Inland Valleys Park Site • root suckers
  52. 52. Parkinsonia x ‘Desert Museum’ Inland Valleys Reference Site Inland Valleys Park Site • branch splitting • blow over Corymbia papuana Inland Valleys Reference Site Inland Valleys Park Site
  53. 53. Thank you! natalie.vandoorn@usda.gov climatereadytrees.ucdavis Tree Planting and Maintenance • Sacramento Tree Foundation, Los Angeles Beautification Team & the many volunteers • City of Sacramento; LA Dept. of Rec and Parks • UC Riverside Citrus Research Center; South Coast Research and Extension Center; UC Davis Trees graciously donated by: • Mountain States Wholesale Nursery Funding • The Britton Fund • LA Center for Urban Natural Resources Sustainability • ISA Western Chapter • US Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • This is the Dish openspace at Stanford University, Here we see the namesake radiotelescope juxtaposed with a magnificent mature Blue Oak. Because of climate destabilization, this tree’s progeny will likely never reach this age in this place. Steve Jobs and I walked here and discussed this as he formed his vision for Apple’s new headquarters. Steve was a quick study. As we’ll see shortly, once he understood how climate change threatened trees, he came to view them as a technology for climate adaptation.
  • Earth is warming ten to a hundred times more rapidly than it did at the end of the most recent Ice Age. Trees are poorly evolved to migrate as quickly as this requires. Here in eastern San Diego County we see the carcasses of dead giant Coast Live Oaks next to thriving Engelman Oaks. In this area, summer monsoons are strengthening, weakening Coast Live Oak, favoring Engelmann. Might this be a clue to how to fill the ecological function of Coast Live Oak in other parts of its range where it’s destined to fail?
  • Humans have been moving plants from one place to another for millennia. We’ve many names for this process: agriculture, silviculture, gardening, landscaping. All of these are variants of assisted migration. Maybe this is the time to think about it more broadly. Maybe cities can be testbeds for assisted migration of tree species. This splendid Silverleaf Oak, native to the American Southwest and Mexico,is growing beautifully 1,000 miles north of its current native range in the Hoyt Arboretum in Portland.
  • Steve initially envisioned the Apple Park landscape as a mosaic of two nearby landscapes dear to him: the apricot and plum orchards of his younger years, and the oak woodland and savanna where he walked to reflect. Once he understood the challenge of climate change, he agreed to use Apple Park to assist migration of dozens of tree taxa. Roughly 5,000 oaks of more than 60 types grow in 60 acres of planted oak woodland. Many are of species absent elsewhere in California. Almost all have shown exceptionally rapid growth.
  • In many ecosystems, oak trees are a foundation for biodiversity. By moving them, we provide opportunity to follow for organisms dependent on them. Apple Park was a biodiversity wasteland of buildings and pavement. It now teems with diverse wildlife and employees love that. With studies comparing current biodiversity with baselines established in pre-project surveys, we may learn how well introduced tree taxa are providing habitat for organisms living in association with them in their native ranges and for others native to the Apple Park locale.
  • After two decades of participating in trials of assisted migration, I’m directly observing and learning from others that many “non-native” taxa are in their new environments growing as well as, or better than trees commonly planted, native and non-native alike. Here you see the first Engleman Oaks from Southern California planted as street trees in the Bay Area. Though nearly 500 miles north of their existing native range, they’re flourishing. Unlike many exotic plants, oaks are highly unlikely to become pest species.
  • Growing numbers of arborists, urban foresters and landscape architects are recognizing a connection between climate destabilization and die-off and clearly visible stress to many commonly planted tree species. Here in the Stanford University Arboretum, century-old Coast Live Oaks are dying without apparent cause, just as they are elsewhere. Coast Live Oaks are central ecological and visual elements of the landscape. With more warming and volatility ahead, tree professionals and others are wondering how to adapt.
  • Several of the oak taxa previously absent from the Apple Park site and its extended environs and planted there en masse are earning recognition, being produced in quantity, and being planted into the landscape by the thousands in a host of California cities. Here we see 15,000 oaks of a dozen taxa growing at Devil Mountain Nursery in California in response to a rapidly growing demand for varieties potentially better suited to the climate in those places a few decades from now during the middle years of their normal lifespan.
  • An example of exceptional success to date is Island Oak (Quercus tomentella). Ironically, it’s the rarest of all California oaks, normally confined to five relatively small islands off the California coast. The nursery industry, which first produced these in 2013, now sells thousands each year and continues to ramp up production to meet exponentially growing demand. This beautiful specimen, the champion Island Oak, grows in the Santa Barbara Botanical Garden and demonstrates how well the species can adapt to a new environment.
  • Island Oaks have proven so popular that we may be near the moment when Island Oaks in California cities outnumber those that remain in nature. In addition, the area of their new range dwarfs that of their current range, providing a buffer against environmental change. Here’s the first major crop of specimen-size Island Oak grown in California. These particular trees are now thriving at Apple Park. Engelmann Oak (Quercus engelmannii) is next in line for mass urban testing, but it may prove the only other California native oak suitable for assisted migration.
  • Fortunately the roster of trees that may prove well-adapted to future California climate conditions extends well beyond the state’s borders. In the mountains of the American Southwest and Mexico grow a plethora of other candidates. Two of these, Silverleaf Oak (Quercus hypoleucoides) and Netleaf Oak (Quercus rugosa) are already being purchased and planted in substantial numbers. Here you see a Silverleaf Oak 4,500 feet above Tucson clinging with grace and tenacity to a near-vertical rock face of Mount Lemmon.
  • Advocates of assisted migration, including me, acknowledge its risks. Too often well-intentioned people have sought to improve upon nature and failed. Testing assisted migration in urban areas where ecosystems have already been substantially altered poses fewer and smaller risks than does testing in wildland areas. Here, growing near a sound wall along US 101 on the San Francisco Peninsula, one of the first Netleaf Oaks ever planted into a public right of way in California thrives without irrigation and despite repeated strikes by automobiles.
  • As climate conditions continue to worsen, wildland managers may be able to look to cities for the species that will serve as replacements for failing natives. Wholesale changes to vegetation appear certain. Multiple researchers have observed and projected climate-induced loss of habitat. Whatever the risks of assisted migration, trees like these Island Oaks thriving along a street in Santa Barbara represent some of the many possible benefits of starting now to gather information about possible ways to replenish depleted landscapes.
  • In 2003, realizing that despite the horrific consequences of doing so, humans were likely going to continue accelerating our climate disruption, I began chasing acorns. In the two decades since then I’ve grown my love for oaks and become ever more committed to their future. II'll welcome your partnership as intelligent seed dispersal agents entering an increasingly volatile future at a speed without precedent in 400,000 years of human tenure, in looking for ways to adapt more successfully by hedging our bets.
    Michael Yadrick, plant ecologist at Seattle Parks and Recreation. 
    I support Green Seattle Partnership in the effort to restore and maintain forested natural areas in the city.
    I’m also a Certified Ecological Practitioner, 
    casual podcaster and 
    And co-creator of the Arbutus ARME
    We celebrate all-things Pacific madrone, highlighting conservation and restoration efforts while connecting tree researchers and enthusiasts along the way
  • We celebrate all-things Pacific madrone, highlighting conservation and restoration efforts while connecting tree researchers and enthusiasts along the way
    ḰEḰEIȽĆ (WSANEĆ) |  qʷuqʷuƛəc (So. Lushootseed)

    Tracking north of us in the Salish Sea, they refer to this trees as Arbutus – it is a fixture in the WSANEĆ origin story
    When people forgot to follow the Natural Laws, The Creator brought a flood to the whole world.
    Their people went in their canoes, tied the long Cedar rope to an Arbutus Tree at the top of the Mountain, and they tied our canoes together, side by side.
    The tide kept rising and the mountain went underwater.
    They were afraid, and were praying to survive.
    They could see a mountain top emerge in the distance. The water was going down. It kept going down and so we untied the rope and thanked the tree, and to this day they don’t burn Arbutus trees in their fires. 
  • My name Yadrick is from the Balkans, and my heritage is broadly European. We have traced some lineage back to Ireland. I would like to think it is possible that some of my ancestors interacted with other Arbutus, such as Arbutus unedo is indigenous to southern Europe and Ireland. This is a common tree in our landscapes that is related to madrone.
    El Oso y el Madroño (The Bear and the Strawberry Tree) is the official city crest of Madrid since at least the year 1212
    The first European note of madrone was in the diary Missionary Juan Crespi during the Portolá expedition of 1769-1770 in the Californias.
    The latin name for the tree is named for Archibald Menzies, the Scottish physician and naturalist who collected in the Pacific Northwest during the Vancouver Expeditions in early 1790s..
    It was Frederick Traugott Pursh who named the tree in honor of Archibald Menzies in his 1814 work, A systematic arrangement and description of the plants of North America.
    Below are some basics about the gifts madrone provides. The information is primarily derived from the North American Ethnobotany Database and other sources that are linked. These are historical AND contemporary cultural uses of the tree. disruption of knowledge transfer about people-madrone relationship

    Arbutus ARME also wishes to protect the cultural heritage and intellectual property rights of First Peoples while also developing accountability to racially oppressed communities. While we want to celebrate knowledge about the tree, we don't just want to talk about how humans use the tree. Learning about madrone is done by observing, listening, and following, and it takes time. Further, traditional ecological knowledge should not be easily accessed or taken without reciprocity and an understanding of the complex relationship between humans and the plants.

    Containers, furniture, carving, decoctions fuel/firewood skin aid preservative, bee pollination, food for birds, beverage, bait, decoration, fishhooks utensils, tools, toys, fuel/firewood, animal forage food, smoked, burn dressing teas, coverings 

  • MADRONE MYTHS: beautiful, but bound to fail hard to grow fragile and dying observe, don’t touch substitute
  • sunken black spots, blisters, rusts, molds, blotchy, brown lesions, branches burned or sooty, leaves silvery, cankers

    Choose well-drained sites, compatible vegetation & mycorrhizal associations
    Avoid soil compaction, irrigation, fertilization, pollution, and physical damage
    Madrone is drought tolerant, consider infrequent deep watering during extended drought periods
  • The wide-spreading root system is associated with ericoid mycorrhiza. The fungus is characterized by “coils” that form in the epidermal cells of the fine hair roots of ericaceous species. The fungi colonize the root cells and establish hyphal networks around the roots, providing increased water and nutrient absorption while the plant in turn provides the fungus with carbohydrates through photosynthesis.

    Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi also have hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes that are important in mobilizing nutrients from organic matter and leaf litter. This is a big reason for madrone’s ability to persist through drought and thrive in relatively harsh conditions such as rocky bluffs or soils we may characterize as "nutrient deficient."
    There has also been investigation into the symbiotic associations between the madrone soil community and links to nearby Douglas-fir that may assist with disease resistance in madrone.
    Navigating constant change
    The madrone range is the area where the species can be found. 
    Community science
    We celebrate all-things Pacific madrone, highlighting conservation and restoration efforts while connecting tree researchers and enthusiasts along the way
  • Good morning everyone! My name is Natalie van Doorn, I’m a research urban ecologist working for the Forest Service out of Albany, California.

    The Climate-Ready Trees research project is a collaborative effort with our principal investigators from the Forest Service, UC Davis, and UC Cooperative Extension. There are also many other folks from other organizations that are contributing to this study, as seen on this slide.

  • Our common objective is to help create a more resilient urban forest by shifting the palate of tree species,
    to those proven to perform well when exposed to a changing climate and other stressors
    such as heat, drought, high winds, pests, disease, and soil salinity.

    Essentially, we want to minimize the risk of tree loss.
    And for that, we need to know which species work and which ones won’t.
    And that’s because what did well in the past might not do well in the future.

  • To accomplish this, we are evaluating the survival and growth of seldom used but promising tree species, in 3 climate zones in CA: Inland Valleys, Inland Empire, and Southern CA Coast.
    We will be determining if they have qualities that make a good urban tree and have the potential to be resilient as
    droughts become more extensive, temperatures change, and pressure from pest and disease increases.

    We developed a five-step process to identify and evaluate the vulnerability of tree species. They are described in this paper led by McPherson in 2018.

    This approach is repeatable and can serve as a model for organizations and cities interested in climate adaptation through urban forestry.
  • Based on climate model projections,
    In each of our climate zones, we’re expecting 5 deg. F warming of the average minimum temperatures in the next 75 years.
    By 2100, average annual maximum daily temperature is projected to increase by 5.6 – 8.8 deg. F (CCCA).

    In general, stronger winter storms with more precip during each event and stronger winds
  • 12 species were selected for each climate zone. There’s some repetition across climate zones, so 19 species were selected in total.

    In general, the species are native to hotter parts of the world compared to the three climate zones chosen for this study.

    Here are the species from Australia and Southwest US

  • We have species from the Oklahoma-Texas-Western US area. (e.g. Canby’s oak)

    As well as from Asia and South America, like the rosewood from India and the Brazilian cedarwood from Brazil.

  • 4 parks in each climate zone.
    With 2 reps per spp, that’s 24 trees/park, total of 96 trees in each climate zone.
    1 reference site per zone. We chose UC research plots.
    With 4 reps per spp, that’s 48 trees/site.
    Park vs. reference sites:
    We’re interested in seeing what is the potential of each species under optimal maintenance/care but also how they grow in the real world, with all the ad-hoc care they tend to receive in public parks and the harsher urban environment.
  • Our metrics for success are: high survivorship, low invasiveness, community buy-in, and eventually nursery uptake.

    Today I’ll talk about survivorship and invasiveness – just in the Inland Valleys climate zone, that’s the one in the middle of the state centered around Sacramento.

    The general trend is that, except for Parkinsonia, the species in the reference site have equal or better survival than in park sites.

    Many haven’t had any mortality.
  • One of the species that has had no mortality is Acacia stenophylla, shoestring acacia. It’s a native to Australia. It has very long narrow, drooping leaves, small yellow flowers, and clusters of brown seed pods.

    However, it has grown root suckers in the last few years and grows vigorously from seed.

    Another tree that had no mortality and is growing well is Quercus canbyi, which is native to Texas and Mexico. It’s a very drought tolerant red oak species. It has slender, glossy leaves and attracts birds & squirrels.
  • Maverick mesquite is a grafted thornless cultivar of the Texas Honey Mesquite. It is a deciduous tree with lacy bright green foliage and smooth grey bark.

    Thus far, all of them are all alive although in varying conditions.

    It’s multi-stemmed and its natural growth habit is rather open and irregular; so probably best suited to parks or wide-open areas where it can spread out. And may require pruning.
  • Desert willow ‘Bubba’, is a more upright, less shrubby, selection of desert willow, originating in Texas. It produces large, fragrant, pink flowers.

    All the ones in the reference site are alive, but we’ve had some losses in the park sites.

    Similarly, ‘White Shield’ osage orange has had no mortality in the reference sites but some losses in the park sites.

    We’re seeing it has vigorous root stock suckers which are thorny because of the grafting.
  • The rosewood is experiencing dieback in the Inland Valley sites (but doing well in Southern CA) and there’s been some mortality in park sites.

    We’ve now started tracking the dieback to see if it tracks with freezing temperatures. Just a few cold nights might make the difference with this tree.

    Unfortunately the rosewood is also growing root suckers at a few sites.

  • In the reference sites only 2 species have had mortality, one of which is the Desert Museum palo verde. In the summer is has tons of yellow flowers and the canopy is buzzing with bees.

    The canopy grows rapidly which appears to lead to branch splitting and blow over. So the canopy needs to be brought in and up, and lodge poles used for support.

    And lastly for today, the ghost gum is the other species that’s had some mortality in the reference site. But the survivors are looking pretty good.
  • In addition to all the cooperators I listed in the first slide,
    there are so many others that have become involved
    and without whom this project would not have gone in the ground.

    We have a website if you’d like to learn more, and please don’t hesitate to email me with any questions or comments.

    Thank you!