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All of the personality theories focus at least some of their attention on understanding personality and identifying aspects of personality. Most are also. concerned with the application of theory to facilitate personality change probably biological and trait theory being exception which are more concerned with the identification of traits and far less concerned with change. We will focus on specific personality disorders and the 'symptoms' or personality characteristics associated with them. We will discuss the application of the theories that extend beyond understanding and reach into the realm of psychotherapy, or change. These theories include psychoanalytic and psychodynamic, behavioral and social learning theory, humanistic, and cognitive. Together, these four approaches predominate the world of psychotherapy.