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The Social Semantic Web:ICWSM Tutorial<br />Alexandre Passant<br />John Breslin<br />
Introduction<br />Why is this important?<br />
The Social Web<br />is exploding!<br />image from tinyurl.com/nuketest<br />
61% = social networks<br />11% = forums<br />11% = UG content sites, e.g. urbandictionary.com<br />10% = UG marketplaces, ...
Sites go up...<br />image from tinyurl.com/rocket15<br />
Facebook and Twitter<br />
...and sites come down<br />image from tinyurl.com/elhell<br />
Bebo<br />
Object-centred sociality (AKA social objects) gives some explanations<br />Users are connected via a common object:<br />T...
It’s the social objects we create…<br />Discussions<br />Bookmarks<br />Annotations<br />Profiles<br />Microblogs<br />Mul...
…that connect usto other people<br />
Boom!<br />
image from tinyurl.com/orionw<br />The amount of stuff out there is vast<br />
Social websites are like data silos<br />image from pidgintech.com<br />
Many isolated communities of users and their data<br />image from pidgintech.com<br />
Need ways to connect these islands<br />image from pidgintech.com<br />
Allowing users to easily move from one to another<br />image from pidgintech.com<br />
Enabling users to easily bring their data with them<br />image from pidgintech.com<br />
Semantics<br />
The Semantic Web<br />A brief overview<br />
What’s in a page ? And in a link ?<br />?<br />?<br />?<br />
Tim Berners-Lee, The 1st World Wide Web Conference, Geneva, May 1994<br />	To a computer, the Web is a flat, boring world,...
Aims of the Semantic Web<br />Bridging the gap between a Web of Documents to a Web of Data, with typed objects and typed r...
A bit of history<br />Memex, Vannevar Bush, 1945:<br />“A device in which an individual stores all his books, records, and...
The Semantic Web, circa 2010<br />Most standardisation work is done in the W3C:<br />http://www.w3.org/<br />The Semantic ...
image from www.w3.org/2007/03/layerCake.png<br />The Semantic Web stack<br />
Identifying resources with URIs<br />URIs are used to identify everything in a unique and non-ambiguous way:<br />Not only...
Defining assertions with RDF<br />URIs identify resources:<br />How do we define assertions about these resources?<br />We...
RDF by example<br />@prefix dct: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> . <br /><http://example.org/dm110-semweb><br />dct:title“Intr...
RDFa<br />A way of embedding RDF in (X)HTML documents:<br />One page for both humans and machines<br />Don’t need to repea...
RDFa example<br />
Defining semantics with ontologies<br />RDF provides a way to write assertions about URIs:<br />But what about the semanti...
Ontologies consist mainly of classes and properties<br />:Person a rdfs:Class .<br />:father a rdfs:Property .<br />:fathe...
Metadata and ontologies<br />
Notable ontologies<br />Social networks and social data: <br />FOAF, SIOC<br />Software development: <br />DOAP, BEATLE<br...
Linked Data<br />Building a “Web of Data” to enhance the current Web<br />Exposing, sharing and connecting data about thin...
The LOD cloud<br />2007<br />2008<br />
The LOD cloud<br />2008<br />2009<br />
image from richard.cyganiak.de/2007/10/lod/lod-datasets_2009-07-14.png<br />
Representation models for the Social Semantic Web<br />Using ontologies to model social data<br />
Semantics can help social websites, and vice versa<br />By using agreed-upon semantic formats to describe people, content ...
The Social Semantic Web<br />
FOAF<br />Friend Of A Friend<br />
FOAF (Friend-of-a-Friend)<br />An ontology for describing people and the relationships that exist between them:<br />http:...
FOAF (Friend-of-a-Friend)<br />
FOAF (Friend-of-a-Friend)<br />
FOAF at a glance<br />
FOAF from Flickr<br />
FOAF from Twitter<br />
Exporting FOAF data<br />Facebook:<br />http://www.dcs.shef.ac.uk/~mrowe/foafgenerator.html<br />Twitter:<br />http://sema...
Distributed identity with FOAF<br />
Interlinking identities and networks<br />
Cross-site social recommendations with FOAF<br />
Distributed authentication with FOAF+SSL<br />
SIOC<br />Semantically-Interlinked Online Communities<br />
SIOC, pronounced shock<br />image from tinyurl.com/siocshock<br />
Semantically-Interlinked Online Communities (SIOC)<br />An effort from DERI, NUI Galway to discover how we can create / es...
61<br />The aims of SIOC<br />To “semantically-interlink online communities”<br />To fully describe content / structure of...
Some of the SIOC core ontology classes and properties<br />
64<br />
Designed to fit with other ontologies<br />
Combining SIOC and FOAF<br />
68<br />From last October<br />
SIOC and other RDFa in Drupal 7<br />Drupal is a CMS used by whitehouse.gov, warnerbrosrecords.com, uk.sun.com, motogp.com...
Semantic search<br />
71<br />
72<br />Find out more about the SIOC project<br />
Semantic presence<br />Modeling presence and status updates using semantics<br />
Motivations<br />There is a need to unify presence information and status notification processes across different services...
Online PresenceOntology<br />@@ TODO<br />
The OPO model<br />
Sharing spaces allow us to…<br />Solve the identity fragmentation problem related to status messages sharing:<br />We may ...
@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>.@prefix opo: <http://ggg.milanstankovic.org/opo/ns#>.@prefix fo...
@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>.@prefix opo: <http://ggg.milanstankovic.org/opo/ns#>.@prefix fo...
Semantic tagging<br />Bridging the gap between folksonomies and ontologies<br />
Tagging issues<br />Tagging enables user-generated classification of content with evolving and user-driven vocabularies<br...
Use case illustrating such issues<br />Corporate use case > 3 years, 12257 tags, 21614 posts:<br />54.2% of tags used once...
The long tail of tags<br />
The Tag Ontology<br />The “Tag Ontology” by Newman from 2005:<br />http://www.holygoat.co.uk/projects/tags/<br />Based on ...
SCOT<br />SCOT (Social Semantic Cloud of Tags):<br />http://scot-project.org/<br />A model to describe tagclouds (tags and...
MOAT<br />MOAT (Meaning Of A Tag):<br />http://moat-project.org/<br />A model to define “meanings” of tags<br />e.g. SPARQ...
MOAT with DBpedia example data<br />
Tagging process with MOAT and DBpedia<br />
MOAT in Drupal<br />
CommonTag<br />CommonTag:<br />http://commontag.org/<br />A joint effort by AdaptiveBlue, DERI at NUI Galway, Faviki, Free...
Life cycle for CommonTag data<br />
NiceTag<br />NiceTag Ontology:<br />Tagging meets speech act theory<br />Focus on the link between a tag and a tagged item...
Extracting ontologies from tags<br />FolksOntology:<br />Semi-assisted extraction of relationships between tags<br />FLOR:...
Mining hierarchical relationships from co-occurrence of tags by Halpin et al.<br />
LODr: semantic tagging for social data<br />
Faviki: bookmarking meets DBpedia<br />
Unifying conversations<br />Some more semantically-enhanced systems<br />
Linking IRC to the Web of Data<br />
Mailing lists<br />
102<br />Bulletin boards<br />
SMOB<br />
Distributedarch<br />
An ontology stack for microblogging<br />Combining the previous vocabularies for a complete representation of microbloggin...
Semantic #tagging<br />User-driven interlinking<br />Real-time URIs are suggested when writing content<br />Added ability ...
Semantic microblogging mashups<br />
SPARQLing Social Semantic Web data<br />Find all posts and their titles by John, using SELECT, and combining vocabularies ...
SPARQLing Social Semantic Web data (2)<br />Find all users that posted replies to John’s blog since January 2008, introduc...
SPARQLing Social Semantic Web data (3)<br />Find all content created by someone with a given OpenID URL:<br />Browse someo...
Parse SPARQL results<br />SPARQL XML<br />JSON:<br />Easiest<br />Many extensions (e.g. PHP5)<br />Many examples<br />
Querying RDF files<br />Redland: http://librdf.org<br />Bindings: Available for PHP, Python, etc.<br />Example in Python:<...
Need more data?<br />Translate any data to SIOC:<br />Re-use SIOC tools for non-SIOC data<br />Semantic Pipes:<br />http:/...
From data to knowledge<br />Semantic wikis<br />
Issues with traditional wikis<br />Structured access<br />Information reuse<br />Made for humans, not machines<br />JohnGr...
All authors that live in Europe? (query)</li></ul>Information reuse:<br /><ul><li>The authors from RandomHouse (views)
And what if I don't speak English? (translation)</li></li></ul><li>Semantic wikis<br />Capture some information about the ...
From wikis to semantic wikis<br />
Structure / content<br />
SemperWiki<br />
Semantic MediaWiki<br />An extension of MediaWiki, allowing users to add structured information to pages:<br />Classifying...
Input using Semantic MediaWiki<br />
One possible output from a SMW query<br />
IkeWiki<br />
UfoWiki<br />
FromWikipedia…<br />
…to DBpedia<br />@@ TODO<br />
DBpedia mobile<br />
Semantic social networks<br />Using semantics in the analysis of social networks and social websites<br />
SNA with semantics<br />Combining ontologies, folksonomies and SNA:<br />Mika, “Ontologies Are Us”, ISWC 2005<br />Ontolog...
boards.ie use case<br />10 years of conversations, 150k users, 7M posts:<br />Analysing the structured data that people li...
From raw data to rich data<br />
Some of the main sources of structured data<br />
New possibilities for SNA and SMA<br />
Semantic Enterprise 2.0<br />Enterprise 2.0 goes semantic<br />
Some serious applications for Web 2.0<br />Web 2.0 in research environments:<br />Using wikis for project proposals<br />S...
Enterprise 2.0<br />Web 2.0 includes applications such as blogs, wikis, RSS feeds and social networking, while Enterprise ...
Enterprise 2.0 and the Web<br />Many enterprises have an online presence on various Web 2.0 services to reach their custom...
The SLATES acronym<br />Search: Easy and relevant access to information<br />Links: Enable better browsing capabilities be...
Social aspects of Enterprise 2.0<br />Enterprise 2.0 introduces new paradigms in organisations with regards to knowledge s...
Keys to Enterprise 2.0 adoption<br />Combining top-down and bottom-up approaches helps to realise Enterprise 2.0:<br />Top...
Business metrics for Enterprise 2.0<br />13% of the Fortune 500 companies have a public blog maintained by their employees...
Open-source applications <br />Open-source Web 2.0 apps can be efficiently used in organisations to build Enterprise 2.0 e...
Information fragmentation issues<br />Heterogeneity of people, services, needs and practices leads to various services and...
Lack of machine-readable data and tagging issues<br />Enterprise 2.0 enables and encourages people to provide valuable con...
Semantic Web in enterprises<br />Semantic Web technologies are already widely used in organisations:<br />Ontology-based i...
A Semantic Enterprise 2.0 architecture<br />Lightweight add-ons to existing applications to provide RDF data:<br />Exporte...
The RDF Bus approach<br />RDF Bus architecture (Tim Berners-Lee):<br />Add-ons to produce RDF data from existing Web 2.0 a...
Relational DB to RDF mapping<br />Relational data (RDB) is structured data and can be mapped to RDF straightforward:<br />...
LOD and Semantic Enterprise 2.0<br />Huge potential for internal IT infrastructures to enhance existing applications (mash...
Reusing LOD example (BBC Music Beta)<br />
Semantic Enterprise 2.0 use cases<br />Electricité De France R&D:<br />Integration of Enterprise 2.0 components using ligh...
Use case: EDF R&D<br />
Use case: CWE interoperability<br />private folders<br />BC semantic folder<br />BSCW shadow folder<br />
Use case: European Space Agency<br />
Recent developments<br />Facebook Open Graph, Twitter Annotations, etc.<br />
Facebook Open Graph<br />Allows metadata from external pages to be embedded (and claimed) within Facebook<br />e.g. metada...
A sample thing described using the OGP<br />
How we could link Open Graph things to blog posts / reviews<br />
OGP RDF schema (FOAF, DC, SIOC, GR)<br />
Twitter Annotations<br />A forthcoming initiative by Twitter whereby it will be possible to attach arbitrary metadata to a...
What if your car could tweet?<br />image from knightriderfestival.com<br />
Diaspora effort<br />http://nyti.ms/aDYjKQ and http://joindiaspora.com<br />
OneSocialWeb<br />
Appleseed project<br />
166<br />Lots more efforts……but not joined up!<br />Social Graph API<br />DiSo<br />DataPortability<br />
Everywhere real-time streams<br />image from sonyericsson.com<br />
Some conclusions<br />We’re not there yet, but we’re getting there…<br />
This area is hot right now<br />image from tinyurl.com/fireflames<br />
170<br />A vocabulary onion, building on FOAF, SKOS, SIOC, SIOC Types, DC<br />
171<br />Disconnected sites on the Social Web / Web 2.0 can be linked using Semantic Web vocabularies<br />
174<br />Summary<br />Object-centred sociality refers to how we really use social websites:<br />Can use semantics to desc...
image from tinyurl.com/starshiptr<br />
…now at Amazon.com<br />Our new book…<br />
References<br />http://tinyurl.com/sswrefs<br />
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Diaspora effort<br />http://nyti.ms/aDYjKQ and http://joindiaspora.com<br The Social Semantic Web

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Diaspora efforthttp://nyti.ms/aDYjKQ and http://joindiaspora.com

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