Sociologyunit1powerpoint 140222062818-phpapp02

Sociology
Unit 1: Foundations and Research
• Attendance
• Fire Drill Procedures
• Medical Team/Crisis Response Team
• Bathroom Sign-out
• Syllabus
• Assign Books
• Questions
First Day of Class
Unit 1 Overview
• Explain origins of sociology
• Explain the difference between the three major theoretical
perspectives in sociology.
• Analyze sociological research through a seven step research
process and an ethical perspective.
Unit EQ:
How does sociology view and think about society?
You will need to be able to “Do” the following:
• Sociology is a social science that looks at human society.
• Social upheaval in Europe during the 1700-1800’s led to
the development of the academic discipline of sociology.
• Sociology employs three major theoretical perspectives—
functionalism, conflict theory, and interactionism.
• Sociologists use several approaches to conducting
research, all sociologists follow a seven step research
process, ,and sociologists are bound by ethical guidelines.
You will need to be able to “Understand” the
following:
Unit 1 Outline
Concept 1: Examining Social Life
Concept 2: The Development of Sociology
Concept 3: Modern Perspectives
Concept 4: Conducting Sociological Research
Lesson 1 2 3
Lesson 21
Examining Social Life
EQ: What is sociology?
How does sociology differ from the other
social sciences?
• Social sciences
• Sociology
• Social interaction
• Social perspective
• Social imagination
Vocabulary
Lesson 1: Sociology and The Social Sciences
After directed, discuss and explore using textbook (pg 5)
Brainstorm the following questions:
1) What are social sciences?
2) What is sociology?
The Social
Sciences
Sociology and Other Social Sciences
Similarities Differences
Anthropology
Psychology
Economics
Political Science
History
Compare and Contrast Sociology and the Other Social Sciences
using textbook pages 5 & 6.
Assignment: Lunch Observation
Lesson 2: Sociological Perspective
Activator: Share Lunch Observations
Sociological Perspective
• Sociology can help you gain a
new perspective on yourself and the world
around you.
• This new view involves looking at social life
in a scientific, systematic way rather than
depending on common-sense explanations
usually found in the media.
• You can look beyond commonly held
beliefs to the hidden meanings behind
human actions.
Sociological Perspective Cont.
It can also be said that “sociological
perspective can help you find an
acceptable balance between your
personal desires and the demands of
your social environment.”
• Identify one area in your life where you
experience this tension.
• Write it down and raise your hand when
finished.
Case Study: Tattoos
Read with a Purpose
Highlight the following from the article:
• Old norms
• Reasons given for subgroups to get them (assigned)
• Limitations
Sociological Imagination
“the capacity to range from the most impersonal
and remote [topics] to the most intimate features
of the human self—and to see the relations
between the two.”
C. Wright Mills described the sociological
imagination as…
1) What does this mean?
2) Why would Mills think that all good sociologists
need to possess this?
The Development of Sociology
EQ: How did sociology develop?
Vocabulary
• Auguste Comte
• Harriet Martineau
• Herbert Spencer
• Social Darwinism
• Karl Marx
• Emile Durkheim
• Max Weber
• W.E. B. Du Bois
Activator: Discuss Key Factors/Events that led
to sociology
The Development of Sociology
• Using the section The Development of Sociology on p. 9,
create a web outlining the major factors that led to sociology
becoming a distinct a field.
Factors
of Development
Effects of the Industrial Revolution
1. Farms/cottage industry gives way to large scale
production
2. Factories replaced the home
3. Growth of factories resulted in the growth of cities
4. Rapid growth of urban population produced many
social problems
• Housing shortages
• Crime
• Pollution
• Difficulty adapting to impersonal urban life
5. Political movements (Revolutions)
Key Contributors to Sociology
Individuals Key Contributions
Auguste Comte
Harriet Martineau
Herbert Spencer
Karl Marx
Emile Durkheim
Max Weber
W.E.B DuBois
Early European Scholars
• Founder of sociology
• Coined the term sociology
• Scientific method to study social
life
• Studied social order/change
• Established the focus of
sociological study- marriage/family,
race, education, and religion
• Translated Comte’s work
• Scholars should advocate for
change
Early European Scholars
• Adopted biological model
• Society is a set of interdependent parts
• Influenced by Darwin
• Social change is a natural occurrence
• Social ills shouldn’t be corrected
• Survival of the fittest-Social Darwinism
• Society is influenced by economy
• Conflict between haves and have-
nots. (bourgeoisie v. proletariat)
• Led to the development of 1 major
sociological perspective—Conflict
Theory.
Later European Scholars
American Scholars: Jane Addams
18 Nationalities living in the area
$9.44 Average weekly wage for garment workers
12 Hours per day worked by garment workers
$1.25 Average daily wage for laborers
17-32 Weeks per year laborers were unemployed
$8.47 Average monthly rent
Answer the question
on pg. 13 in the
textbook.
American Scholars
• First African American to earn a
doctorate at Harvard
• First empirical community studies
in the U.S.
• Helped found the NAACP
Summarizing Activity
• 3 Factors that led to the development of sociology
• 2 Contributors
• 1 Question
Modern Perspectives
EQ: How do the three theoretical perspectives
differ in terms of their levels of analysis?
Vocabulary
• Functional perspective
• Conflict perspective
• Interactionist perspective
• Macrosociology
• Microsociology
Functionalist Perspective
• AKA Structural Functionalism
• Views society as a set of interrelated parts that work
together to produce a stable social system
• Society is held together through consensus
• Views the elements of society in terms of their function
• Function = positive consequences for society’s stability
• Dysfunction = negative consequences for society’s stability
• Manifest function = intended consequence of an element
• Latent function = unintended consequence of an element
Conflict Perspective
• Focus is on the forces that promote competition and change
• Competition over scarce resources is the basis of social
conflict
• Power/Wealth are in limited supply
• Power dynamics between those in control and those who are
not.
• Once a group obtains power, it uses its power to create a
system to keep them in power
• men/women, different age groups, or racial groupings
• Conflict leads to social change
• Topics of interest: family, racial relationships, workplace
Sociologyunit1powerpoint 140222062818-phpapp02
Interactionist Perspective
• AKA Symbolic Interactionism
• Focus is on how individuals interact with one another in
society
• How do individuals respond to one another?
• Interested in the meanings that individuals attach to their own
actions and to the actions of others.
• Interested in the role that symbols play
• Symbol: anything that represents something else. Ex. Words,
gestures, events
• Ex. American flag, bald eagle, Fourth of July, Uncle Sam
• Topics: child development, relationships with small groups and
mate selection
1. Symbolic interaction theory analyzes society by addressing the
subjective meanings that people impose on objects, events, and
behaviors.
2. Subjective meanings are given priority because it is believe that
people behave based on what they believe and not just on what is
objectively true.
3. Thus, society is thought to be socially constructed through human
interpretation.
4. People interpret one another’s behavior and it is these
interpretations that form the social bond.
EX. Studies find that teenagers are well informed about the
risks of tobacco, but they also think that smoking is cool, that
they themselves will be safe from harm, and that smoking
projects a positive image to their peers. So, the symbolic
meaning of smoking overrides that actual facts regarding
smoking and risk.
Symbolic Interactionism
Sociologyunit1powerpoint 140222062818-phpapp02
Assignment
• Locate a media article on a
social issue
• Discuss the social issue in
terms of Sociological
Perspectives.
• Articulate how each
perspective would view
the issue from your article.
• Compose a small
paragraph for each of the
three perspectives.
Conducting Sociological
Research
EQ: How is sociological research conducted?
Vocabulary
• Scientific method
• Hypothesis
• Variable
• Correlation
Activator:
1. What role do scientific methods
play in sociology?
2. Steps of the Scientific Method
Durkheim and the Scientific Method
Step Durkheim Example
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
ScientificMethod
Assignment
Read: Causation and Correlation
pg. 22-23
1. What is the difference?
2. How are they related to
variables?
Sociologyunit1powerpoint 140222062818-phpapp02
Correlation
Summarizing Activity
Steps of the Scientific Method
and Questions Remaining
Conducting Sociological
Research
EQ: How is sociological research conducted?
Vocabulary
• Scientific method
• Hypothesis
• Variable
• Correlation
• Survey
• Sample
• Historical method
• Content analysis
• Participant observation
• Case study
• Experiment
• Statistical analysis
• Ethics
Activator:
1. Other than experimentation, what
other research methods are there?
2. Steps of the Scientific Method
Methods of Sociological Research
Method Definition Advantages Disadvantage
Survey
Analysis of
Existing
Documents
Observation
Experiment
In pairs, complete the chart below. Use p.24-27 in the textbook.
Collect data on attitudes
and opinions. (Interviews
or Questionnaires)
Large amount of
information
gathered quickly
Sample needs to be
random. Bias of
response is a potential
problem.
Historical: Examining
documents from the past.
Content: counting the
amount of times a idea, word
or symbol appears.
Historical: Allows for
comparison between
time periods and
trend study. Content:
Inexpensive.
Observe behavior in actual
social setting either from a
distance or while involved.
Behavior not changed
by researcher
presence.
Using controlled
conditions to gather data
Setting may not
accurately reflect
real life.
Variable can be
controlled.
Enrichment Assignment
In Pairs, Complete “Conducting
Interviews on p. 24
Ethical Standards
• Confidentiality
• Deception
• Informed Consent
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Sociologyunit1powerpoint 140222062818-phpapp02

  • 2. • Attendance • Fire Drill Procedures • Medical Team/Crisis Response Team • Bathroom Sign-out • Syllabus • Assign Books • Questions First Day of Class
  • 3. Unit 1 Overview • Explain origins of sociology • Explain the difference between the three major theoretical perspectives in sociology. • Analyze sociological research through a seven step research process and an ethical perspective. Unit EQ: How does sociology view and think about society? You will need to be able to “Do” the following:
  • 4. • Sociology is a social science that looks at human society. • Social upheaval in Europe during the 1700-1800’s led to the development of the academic discipline of sociology. • Sociology employs three major theoretical perspectives— functionalism, conflict theory, and interactionism. • Sociologists use several approaches to conducting research, all sociologists follow a seven step research process, ,and sociologists are bound by ethical guidelines. You will need to be able to “Understand” the following:
  • 5. Unit 1 Outline Concept 1: Examining Social Life Concept 2: The Development of Sociology Concept 3: Modern Perspectives Concept 4: Conducting Sociological Research Lesson 1 2 3 Lesson 21
  • 6. Examining Social Life EQ: What is sociology? How does sociology differ from the other social sciences? • Social sciences • Sociology • Social interaction • Social perspective • Social imagination Vocabulary
  • 7. Lesson 1: Sociology and The Social Sciences After directed, discuss and explore using textbook (pg 5) Brainstorm the following questions: 1) What are social sciences? 2) What is sociology?
  • 9. Sociology and Other Social Sciences Similarities Differences Anthropology Psychology Economics Political Science History Compare and Contrast Sociology and the Other Social Sciences using textbook pages 5 & 6.
  • 11. Lesson 2: Sociological Perspective Activator: Share Lunch Observations
  • 12. Sociological Perspective • Sociology can help you gain a new perspective on yourself and the world around you. • This new view involves looking at social life in a scientific, systematic way rather than depending on common-sense explanations usually found in the media. • You can look beyond commonly held beliefs to the hidden meanings behind human actions.
  • 13. Sociological Perspective Cont. It can also be said that “sociological perspective can help you find an acceptable balance between your personal desires and the demands of your social environment.” • Identify one area in your life where you experience this tension. • Write it down and raise your hand when finished.
  • 14. Case Study: Tattoos Read with a Purpose Highlight the following from the article: • Old norms • Reasons given for subgroups to get them (assigned) • Limitations
  • 15. Sociological Imagination “the capacity to range from the most impersonal and remote [topics] to the most intimate features of the human self—and to see the relations between the two.” C. Wright Mills described the sociological imagination as… 1) What does this mean? 2) Why would Mills think that all good sociologists need to possess this?
  • 16. The Development of Sociology EQ: How did sociology develop? Vocabulary • Auguste Comte • Harriet Martineau • Herbert Spencer • Social Darwinism • Karl Marx • Emile Durkheim • Max Weber • W.E. B. Du Bois Activator: Discuss Key Factors/Events that led to sociology
  • 17. The Development of Sociology • Using the section The Development of Sociology on p. 9, create a web outlining the major factors that led to sociology becoming a distinct a field. Factors of Development
  • 18. Effects of the Industrial Revolution 1. Farms/cottage industry gives way to large scale production 2. Factories replaced the home 3. Growth of factories resulted in the growth of cities 4. Rapid growth of urban population produced many social problems • Housing shortages • Crime • Pollution • Difficulty adapting to impersonal urban life 5. Political movements (Revolutions)
  • 19. Key Contributors to Sociology Individuals Key Contributions Auguste Comte Harriet Martineau Herbert Spencer Karl Marx Emile Durkheim Max Weber W.E.B DuBois
  • 20. Early European Scholars • Founder of sociology • Coined the term sociology • Scientific method to study social life • Studied social order/change • Established the focus of sociological study- marriage/family, race, education, and religion • Translated Comte’s work • Scholars should advocate for change
  • 21. Early European Scholars • Adopted biological model • Society is a set of interdependent parts • Influenced by Darwin • Social change is a natural occurrence • Social ills shouldn’t be corrected • Survival of the fittest-Social Darwinism • Society is influenced by economy • Conflict between haves and have- nots. (bourgeoisie v. proletariat) • Led to the development of 1 major sociological perspective—Conflict Theory.
  • 23. American Scholars: Jane Addams 18 Nationalities living in the area $9.44 Average weekly wage for garment workers 12 Hours per day worked by garment workers $1.25 Average daily wage for laborers 17-32 Weeks per year laborers were unemployed $8.47 Average monthly rent Answer the question on pg. 13 in the textbook.
  • 24. American Scholars • First African American to earn a doctorate at Harvard • First empirical community studies in the U.S. • Helped found the NAACP
  • 25. Summarizing Activity • 3 Factors that led to the development of sociology • 2 Contributors • 1 Question
  • 26. Modern Perspectives EQ: How do the three theoretical perspectives differ in terms of their levels of analysis? Vocabulary • Functional perspective • Conflict perspective • Interactionist perspective • Macrosociology • Microsociology
  • 27. Functionalist Perspective • AKA Structural Functionalism • Views society as a set of interrelated parts that work together to produce a stable social system • Society is held together through consensus • Views the elements of society in terms of their function • Function = positive consequences for society’s stability • Dysfunction = negative consequences for society’s stability • Manifest function = intended consequence of an element • Latent function = unintended consequence of an element
  • 28. Conflict Perspective • Focus is on the forces that promote competition and change • Competition over scarce resources is the basis of social conflict • Power/Wealth are in limited supply • Power dynamics between those in control and those who are not. • Once a group obtains power, it uses its power to create a system to keep them in power • men/women, different age groups, or racial groupings • Conflict leads to social change • Topics of interest: family, racial relationships, workplace
  • 30. Interactionist Perspective • AKA Symbolic Interactionism • Focus is on how individuals interact with one another in society • How do individuals respond to one another? • Interested in the meanings that individuals attach to their own actions and to the actions of others. • Interested in the role that symbols play • Symbol: anything that represents something else. Ex. Words, gestures, events • Ex. American flag, bald eagle, Fourth of July, Uncle Sam • Topics: child development, relationships with small groups and mate selection
  • 31. 1. Symbolic interaction theory analyzes society by addressing the subjective meanings that people impose on objects, events, and behaviors. 2. Subjective meanings are given priority because it is believe that people behave based on what they believe and not just on what is objectively true. 3. Thus, society is thought to be socially constructed through human interpretation. 4. People interpret one another’s behavior and it is these interpretations that form the social bond. EX. Studies find that teenagers are well informed about the risks of tobacco, but they also think that smoking is cool, that they themselves will be safe from harm, and that smoking projects a positive image to their peers. So, the symbolic meaning of smoking overrides that actual facts regarding smoking and risk. Symbolic Interactionism
  • 33. Assignment • Locate a media article on a social issue • Discuss the social issue in terms of Sociological Perspectives. • Articulate how each perspective would view the issue from your article. • Compose a small paragraph for each of the three perspectives.
  • 34. Conducting Sociological Research EQ: How is sociological research conducted? Vocabulary • Scientific method • Hypothesis • Variable • Correlation
  • 35. Activator: 1. What role do scientific methods play in sociology? 2. Steps of the Scientific Method
  • 36. Durkheim and the Scientific Method Step Durkheim Example 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
  • 38. Assignment Read: Causation and Correlation pg. 22-23 1. What is the difference? 2. How are they related to variables?
  • 41. Summarizing Activity Steps of the Scientific Method and Questions Remaining
  • 42. Conducting Sociological Research EQ: How is sociological research conducted? Vocabulary • Scientific method • Hypothesis • Variable • Correlation • Survey • Sample • Historical method • Content analysis • Participant observation • Case study • Experiment • Statistical analysis • Ethics
  • 43. Activator: 1. Other than experimentation, what other research methods are there? 2. Steps of the Scientific Method
  • 44. Methods of Sociological Research Method Definition Advantages Disadvantage Survey Analysis of Existing Documents Observation Experiment In pairs, complete the chart below. Use p.24-27 in the textbook. Collect data on attitudes and opinions. (Interviews or Questionnaires) Large amount of information gathered quickly Sample needs to be random. Bias of response is a potential problem. Historical: Examining documents from the past. Content: counting the amount of times a idea, word or symbol appears. Historical: Allows for comparison between time periods and trend study. Content: Inexpensive. Observe behavior in actual social setting either from a distance or while involved. Behavior not changed by researcher presence. Using controlled conditions to gather data Setting may not accurately reflect real life. Variable can be controlled.
  • 45. Enrichment Assignment In Pairs, Complete “Conducting Interviews on p. 24
  • 46. Ethical Standards • Confidentiality • Deception • Informed Consent