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Killeen Parks Master Plan

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Killeen Parks Master Plan

  1. 1. KILLEEN PARKS MASTER PLAN UPDATE 2017 IN ASSOCIATION WITH D R AFT
  2. 2. D R AFT
  3. 3. iiiKilleen Parks Master Plan Update KILLEEN PARKS MASTER PLAN UPDATE 2017 IN ASSOCIATION WITH D R AFT
  4. 4. iv Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Understanding the Community PLACEHOLDER FOR RESOLUTION D R AFT
  5. 5. vKilleen Parks Master Plan Update PLACEHOLDER FOR LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL D R AFT
  6. 6. vi Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Understanding the Community THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK D R AFT
  7. 7. viiKilleen Parks Master Plan Update Acknowledgments The Killeen Parks Master Plan Update was developed by the City of Killeen with the technical assistance and design help of Halff Associates, Inc. A special thanks goes to the many residents, landowners, and community leaders for their insight and support throughout the duration of this study. The following individuals are recognized for their significant contributions to the preparation of the 2017 Parks Master Plan Update. City Council Jose Segarra, Mayor Brockley Moore, Mayor Pro Tem Jonathan Okray Juan Rivera Gregory Johnson Shirley Fleming Dick Young Jim Kilpatrick City Staff Brett Williams, Executive Director of Community Services Pete Vento, Parks & Public Grounds Superintendent Halff Associates, Inc. Matt Bucchin, AICP, LEED Green Associate Gail Ferry, PLA, ASLA, CLARB Jim Carrillo, FAICP, ASLA Kyle Hohmann Aaron Cooper, PLA Melissa Knox Jordan Pickering D R AFT
  8. 8. viii Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Understanding the Community THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK D R AFT
  9. 9. ixKilleen Parks Master Plan Update Table of Contents Acknowledgments......................................................................................................vii Chapter 1 - Plan Introduction and Context Why Do We Plan for Parks & Recreation in Killeen?..................................................2 What is a Parks Master Plan?.......................................................................................2 Planning Process for a Parks Master Plan...................................................................3 Time Frame...................................................................................................................4 Benefits of Parks, Recreation, and Open Space to the Citizens of Killeen..............4 Parks and Recreation Trends that can Impact the City of Killeen.............................4 Role of the Killeen Parks and Recreation Division...................................................10 Previous Planning Efforts in the City of Killeen........................................................10 Park Planning Areas for Killeen..................................................................................12 Chapter 2 - Understanding the Community History..........................................................................................................................16 Regional Context........................................................................................................18 Demographics............................................................................................................19 Growth Context..........................................................................................................24 Public Engagement....................................................................................................26 Parks and Recreation Vision.......................................................................................43 Plan Goals and Objectives.........................................................................................44 Chapter 3 - The System Today Introduction.................................................................................................................48 Park Classifications.....................................................................................................48 Inventory Overview.....................................................................................................52 Park Profiles.................................................................................................................59 Existing Connectivity..................................................................................................88 Public Recreation Programs.......................................................................................90 Chapter 4 - Standards and Needs Introduction.................................................................................................................92 Assessment Methods.................................................................................................92 2016 Access-Based Assessment................................................................................93 2026 and 2036 Access-Based Assessment...............................................................96 Access to Parkland......................................................................................................98 Neighborhood Accessibility......................................................................................98 D R AFT
  10. 10. x Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Understanding the Community Current Need Areas...................................................................................................98 KISD School Sites.......................................................................................................98 Community Accessibility..........................................................................................102 Potential Community Parkland................................................................................102 Potential Regional Parkland.....................................................................................102 Special Use................................................................................................................106 Recreation Facilities..................................................................................................106 Trails...........................................................................................................................106 Parkland & Trail Needs in the City’s Growth Area..................................................110 Summary of Parkland Needs...................................................................................112 Park Facilities.............................................................................................................114 Summary of Park Facility Needs..............................................................................114 KISD Facilities............................................................................................................116 Demand-Based Assessment....................................................................................118 Resource-Based Assessment...................................................................................120 Benchmarking...........................................................................................................122 Chapter 5 - Recommendations and Actions Recommendation Categories.................................................................................126 Parkland Acquisition and Natural Resource Preservation.....................................127 Parkland Planning, Design, and Maintenance.......................................................133 Park Renovations and Development.......................................................................142 Connectivity..............................................................................................................172 Recreation Facilities and Programming..................................................................178 Policies.......................................................................................................................189 Chapter 6 - Implementation Introduction...............................................................................................................200 Coordinated Implementation..................................................................................200 Texas Parks and Wildlife Department Compliance...............................................201 Prioritized Action Plan..............................................................................................203 Plan Update...............................................................................................................212 Potential Funding Sources.......................................................................................212 Appendix A - Supplemental Information Appendix B - Heritage Oaks Park Master Plan Appendix C - Westside Regional Park Master Plan Appendix D - Potential Funding Sources D R AFT
  11. 11. xiKilleen Parks Master Plan Update Maps Map 1.1 Planning Area...............................................................................................13 Map 2.1, Regional Context........................................................................................18 Map 2.2, Growth Context...........................................................................................25 Map 3.1, Existing Parks System.................................................................................55 Map 3.2, Existing Trail Network.................................................................................89 Map 4.1, Neighborhood Park Accessibility..............................................................99 Map 4.2, Neighborhood Park and Existing KISD School Accessibility................100 Map 4.3, Neighborhood Park and Existing and Future KISD School Accessibility...............................................................................................................101 Map 4.4, Community Park Accessibility..................................................................103 Map 4.5, Community Park Accessibility with Development of Potential Future Parks...............................................................................................................104 Map 4.6, Regional Park Accessibility with Development of Potential Future Parks...........................................................................................................................105 Map 4.7, Special Use Park and Amenities Accessibility........................................107 Map 4.8, Recreational Facility Accessibility............................................................108 Map 4.9, Trail Accessibility.......................................................................................109 Map 4.10, Growth Area Needs................................................................................111 Map 4.11, Open Space Resources..........................................................................121 Map 5.1, Target Future Parkland and Connectivity Areas.....................................129 Map 5.2, Potential Conder Park Improvement Areas............................................157 Map 5.3, Potential Lions Club Park Improvement Areas.......................................159 Map 5.4, Potential Long Branch Park Improvement Areas...................................161 Map 5.5, Potential AA Lane Park Improvement Areas..........................................163 Map 5.6, Potential Maxdale Park Improvement Areas..........................................165 Map 5.7, Potential Timber Ridge Park Improvement Areas.................................167 Map 5.8, Potential Pershing Park Improvement Areas..........................................169 Map 5.9, Potential Andy K. Wells Hike and Bike Trail Improvement Areas.........171 Map 5.10, Killeen Trail Opportunities.....................................................................173 D R AFT
  12. 12. xii Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Understanding the Community Figures Figure 1.1, Planning Process........................................................................................3 Figure 1.2, Benefits of Parks, Recreation, and Open Space.....................................5 Figure 2.1, Killeen’s History........................................................................................16 Figure 2.2, Age Distribution.......................................................................................20 Figure 2.3, Household & Family Income...................................................................21 Figure 2.4, Educational Attainment..........................................................................21 Figure 2.5, Poverty Level............................................................................................21 Figure 2.6, Occupation by Industry...........................................................................22 Figure 2.7, Commute Time........................................................................................22 Figure 2.8, Killeen Historical & Projected Population..............................................24 Figure 2.9, Survey Respondent Demographics........................................................27 Figure 2.10, Current Satisfaction with Parks and Recreation Elements..................28 Figure 2.11, Current Level of Satisfaction with Recreational Facilities and/or Programs.....................................................................................................................28 Figure 2.12, Favorite Recreation Activities...............................................................29 Figure 2.13, Trail-Related Statements.......................................................................30 Figure 2.14, Recreational Needs...............................................................................31 Figure 2.15, Priorities for Future Parks and Recreation Division Actions...............32 Figure 2.16, Council District Breakdown of Respondents.......................................32 Figure 2.17, Citywide Survey Highlights...................................................................33 Figure 2.18, Council District 1 Survey Highlights.....................................................34 Figure 2.19, Council District 2 Survey Highlights.....................................................35 Figure 2.20, Council District 3 Survey Highlights.....................................................36 Figure 2.21, Council District 4 Survey Highlights.....................................................37 Figure 2.22, Youth Satisfaction with Parks................................................................38 Figure 2.23, Youth Desired Activities........................................................................38 Figure 2.24, Youth Favorite Recreation Activity.......................................................39 Figure 2.25, School Transportation...........................................................................39 Figure 3.1, Park Classifications..................................................................................48 Figure 3.2, Parkland Distribution by Council District...............................................59 Figure 4.1, Assessment Methods..............................................................................92 Figure 4.2, Importance of Park and Recreation Improvements............................118 Figure 5.1, Categorized Actions..............................................................................126 D R AFT
  13. 13. xiiiKilleen Parks Master Plan Update Tables Table 2.1, Historical Population Growth ..................................................................19 Table 2.2, Age Comparisons ....................................................................................19 Table 2.3, Race & Ethnicity ........................................................................................20 Table 2.4, Top Most Needed Facilities/Activities.....................................................30 Table 3.1, Killeen’s Existing Parks System.................................................................56 Table 4.1, Percent of Need Met by Existing Parks Only, 2016................................95 Table 4.2, Percent of Need Met with Development of Potential Future Parks......96 Table 4.3, Percent of Need Met with Development of Potential Future Parks, 2026..............................................................................................................................97 Table 4.4, Percent of Need Met with Development of Potential Future Parks, 2036..............................................................................................................................97 Table 4.5, Summary of Parkland Needs..................................................................112 Table 4.6, Target Level of Service for City-Owned Park Facilities.........................115 Table 4.7, Target Level of Service Including City-Owned and KISD Facilities.....117 Table 4.8, 2016 Benchmarking for Killeen’s Parks and Recreation System..........122 Table 5.1, Parkland Acquisition and Natural Resource Preservation Actions......127 Table 5.2, Parkland Planning, Design, and Maintenance Actions........................133 Table 5.3, Park Renovations and Development Actions........................................142 Table 5.4, Connectivity Actions...............................................................................172 Table 5.5, Recreation Facilities and Programming Actions...................................178 Table 5.6, Policy Actions...........................................................................................189 Table 6.1, Summary of Priority Facility Needs in Killeen.......................................202 Table 6.2, Prioritized Implementation Action Plan.................................................204 D R AFT
  14. 14. xiv Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Understanding the Community THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK D R AFT
  15. 15. The City of Killeen strives to provide and preserve a high-quality, well-distributed, and well-connected parks and recreation system for the use and enjoyment of its residents and visitors. Local access to passive and active recreation, preserved natural areas, and opportunities for community interaction provides mental, physical, environmental,andeconomicbenefitstoacity.Awell-usedandwell- loved parks and recreation system fosters community relationships and increases residents’ sense of pride for their community. This Parks Master Plan first identifies wants and needs of the community, elected and appointed officials, and City staff. Considering public feedback received, it then defines the desired direction for the City’s parks and recreation system and lays out clear goals and actions for staff to implement in order to lead towards a positive future the community can be proud of. PLAN INTRODUCTION & CONTEXT 1D R AFT
  16. 16. 22 Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Plan Introduction and Context Why Do We Plan for Parks & Recreation in Killeen? While Killeen is located adjacent to the largest army base in the country (Fort Hood), the City still maintains much of its quaint and rural character. Located 16 miles east of IH-35 in the western portion of Bell County, Killeen has a rich history as a farm community and military base. Since the 1940s when Fort Hood was first established, Killeen has strived to provide the best facilities for its residents. This Parks Master Plan is intended to build upon that desire so that the City of Killeen will continue to offer one of the best parks systems in Central Texas. From its rural character to its modern recreational amenities, residents of Killeen are proud to be part of this community. The year 2016 is an opportune time for Killeen to update its Parks Master Plan. Currently the City is experiencing rapid growth, especially in the southern quadrant. However, nearly 80 percent of existing parks are located in the northern area, thereby leaving the newly developed areas in the south underserved. The City is also pursuing development of two major parks (Heritage Oaks in the southeast and Westside Regional Park in the northwest) to provide facilities to those residents. While this will add two new signature parks to the system, there are still large areas that remain underserved. Higher education opportunities are also growing within the City. Texas A&M Central Campus is expected to continue growing with approval for a third building on the campus. However, there are no university plans to provide on-campus housing for its students. Therefore, the demand for housing in Killeen is expected to continue rising throughout the next severalyears.Duetothechangesingrowthanddevelopment, the need for park facilities should be further analyzed. This Parks Master Plan document is the culmination of the park planning effort. It provides an assessment of the current parks and recreation system in Killeen in the year 2016, and examines potential opportunities to fill key recreational needs. The plan is intended to guide staff and appointed and elected officials as they decide how best to meet and prioritize the recreation needs of Killeen over the next 10 years and beyond. It is an ambitious plan, but one that can be tackled in readily achievable steps as demand increases and resources become available. What is a Parks Master Plan? Parks are defined as an area of land that is dedicated and preserved for the enjoyment of the public. Parks offer opportunities for recreation, both active (such as organized sports) and passive (such as picnicking). A parks master plan is intended to guide a city in the process of acquiring parks and open space, and developing parks with amenities to allow for recreation such as trails, athletic fields, or pavilions. Open space is land that is dedicated for conservation and preservation often due to its ecological value, wildlife habitat quality, cultural significance, and functional role to assist with flood management. Open space can be ideal for bird watching, wildlife viewing, and relaxation. Strategically dedicating land as open space can contribute significantly to attaining and preserving a sense of rural character in a city environment. The importance of open space is often overlooked by cities since the land is not actually programmed for a specific ” ” “Parks and open space improve our physical and psychological health, strengthen our communities, and make our cities and neighborhoods more attractive places to live and work.” ~ Paul M. Sherer, The Trust for Public Land D R AFT
  17. 17. 3Killeen Parks Master Plan Update recreational activity. Additionally, because the land does not require regular maintenance, sometimes people think the area is vacant instead of intentionally preserved. However, the very reason for it not requiring regular maintenance can be a great asset as it offers outdoor enjoyment, visual pleasure, and ecological function at a minimum cost to a city. In some cases, passive recreational activities (such as trail walking and nature viewing) are combined to provide human connection to the natural environment; something that is becoming increasingly more scarce as the U.S. population urbanizes. The 2016 Parks Master Plan Update for the City of Killeen aims to:    Point out opportunities and recommend alternatives for improving the park system.    Look at the potential growth of the City, assess where additional facilities will be needed as the City grows, and assess what types of facilities are most needed.    Guide City staff in acquiring land to meet future park and open space needs.    Prioritize key recommendations of the Parks Master Plan so that the most significant deficiencies are addressed as quickly and as feasibly as possible.    Guide City staff and City leaders in determining where and how parks funding should be allocated over the next five to 10 years. Planning Process for a Parks Master Plan There are many steps in a park planning process. These steps are illustrated in Figure 1.1, Planning Process, and include: understanding the existing conditions in the community and developing appropriate goals for the parks system, seeking public input, analyzing park and recreation needs, developing recommendations, and offering implementation strategies. Figure 1.1, Planning Process 1. Develop Goals for the Parks System 2. Seek Public Participation 3. Inventory Existing Facilities and Review Conditions 4. Analyze Park and Recreation Needs 5. Develop Recommendations for the Parks Master Plan 6. Action Plan and Implementation Strategies The most important component of any planning process is seeking public input from the citizens, staff, and appointed and elected officials in Killeen. This allows residents to determine what their preferred park and recreation priorities should be for the next five to 10 years (see Appendix A, Supplemental Information, for copies of meeting notices, sign-in sheets, meeting minutes, and a copy of the original survey). The recommendations of a parks master plan are typically divided into three categories. The first category includes near-term recommendations that can be implemented immediately, address the needs of the existing population, D R AFT
  18. 18. 44 Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Plan Introduction and Context or are actions that should be undertaken to renovate existing facilities. The second and third categories include mid-term and long-term recommendations that have a longer time frame and are visionary in order to address the needs of the future of Killeen. Time Frame The Parks Master Plan for the City of Killeen is intended to be a 20-year document and addresses the time frame from the year 2016 to 2036. The most specific recommendations will be provided for the first five years. Guiding recommendations will be provided for years six through 10 and broader visionary recommendations will extend beyond a 10-year time frame. Furthermore, based on suggestion by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD), the Parks Master Plan should be updated after a five-year period, or perhaps sooner if significant changes occur within the parks system that alters the needs of recreation within the City of Killeen. The following steps are recommended when reviewing and periodically updating this Parks Master Plan:    An annual workshop by the Killeen Parks and Recreation Division staff with the City Council should be conducted to review progress and successes.    Provide opportunities for public involvement through citizen meetings, interviews, and workshops. Benefits of Parks, Recreation, and Open Space to the Citizens of Killeen There are numerous benefits to offering a high quality parks and recreation system. In fact, parks serve as a visual expression of how much a city government values providing a high quality of life to its citizens. A superior parks system will provide a healthier environment, improve the well being of children and adults, and remind residents every day about what is attractive and fun in their community. Additional benefits of access to parks and recreation are listed in Figure 1.2, Benefits of Parks, Recreation, and Open Space. Parks and Recreation Trends that can Impact the City of Killeen Quality of life is defined by many different things such as quality job opportunities, affordable homes, and quality schools for a community’s children. The beauty of a city, the amount of open space that is provided, and the variety of recreational amenities and programs also has a direct impact on quality of life. Relative to the mobile nature of society today, these offerings play a large role in determining where people choose to reside, which consequently affects population and economic growth. It is therefore important to understand regional and national trends related to parks and recreation facilities. The trends that are discussed are expected to carry forward into the future and be relevant for the lifespan of this Parks Master Plan. General Trends in Our Culture Today    Sedentary devices take up a significant portion of people’s leisure time. At the touch of their fingers, most people have smart phones, tablets, hundreds of channels on cable television, sophisticated gaming consoles, and easy access to surfing the Internet. So much of people’s downtime is preoccupied with these devices.    Safety has become a huge concern to most people. Many parents no longer allow their children to go to area parks unattended which has resulted in the declining use of neighborhood parks.    People want to have enjoyable experiences, instantly. People expect to have high-quality recreation, and to be provided with activities they will enjoy. Through the media and Internet, people are exposed to the best from around the world. As a result, there are expectations that local facilities and activities will be of the highest quality possible. People often also expect local recreation to be made available for free. While they might expect D R AFT
  19. 19. 5Killeen Parks Master Plan Update Individual and Community Benefits    Helps ensure an overall higher quality of life    Provides refuges of safety for at-risk youth, which can in turn help reduce juvenile delinquency    Provides opportunities for people of all ages to be physically active, socially engaged, and cognitively stimulated Economic Benefits    Increases property value of homes in close proximity to parks    Can help attract new businesses to the community by improving the standard of living Environmental Benefits    Protects and preserves vital green spaces and critical wildlife habitat    Educates visitors regarding the appropriate use of natural areas as recreational areas    Contributes to clean air and water Personal Health Benefits    Access to parks and nature increases the frequency of exercise and improves psychological and social health    Play is critical for child development    Staying active can help reduce the risk of heart disease, diabetes, obesity, depression, and other health problems Figure 1.2, Benefits of Parks, Recreation, and Open Space to pay a fee to use a recreation center or to be a part of an athletic league, they expect parks and festivals/ community events to remain free for public use.    Being healthy has become a nationwide concern. Obesity and heart disease have become so prevalent in society that the White House started the “Let’s Move” campaign to get Americans to exercise. It is possible that funding or grants for physical, outdoor activities may be more readily available in the future to help reduce obesity rates.    Traditional grant sources and public funding are not as easy to find. The federal surpluses briefly experienced at the turn of the century are now a thing of the past, and deficit spending has become the norm over the past decade. As a result, little help has been given from the federal government, and even popular grant programs such as enhancement funds for trails and beautification are not always available. When they are, they are becoming more competitive.    Most of society is now cashless. Very few people carry cash, and even fewer will carry their wallet when they visit a park or exercise on a trail. A parks department that accepted credit cards or offered online registration was considered cutting edge nearly a decade ago. Today, however, that has come to be expected by people. In fact, today people are looking for even easier ways to sign up for a sports league or rent a pavilion for a private party. It is projected that in the very near future, parks departments will offer mobile apps for smart phones that allow convenient ways to register for programs, pay user fees, or get information about upcoming events. Outdoor Recreation Trends    One of the most important and impacting trends in parks and recreation today is the increased demand for passive recreation activities and facilities. Passive recreation, as compared to active recreation, includes activities such as walking and jogging on trails, picnicking, enjoying nature, and bird watching. It focuses on individual recreation D R AFT
  20. 20. 66 Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Plan Introduction and Context rather than organized high-intensity pastimes like team athletics (which has long been the focus of parks and recreation departments nationwide). People desire opportunities to use parks and open space on their own time and in their own way.    Across Texas, the provision of trails is the top priority for citizens. Numerous surveys, public meetings, questionnaires, and in-person interviews have shown that people, on average, place the importance of trails above the provision of any other single type of recreation amenity or facility. Many factors contribute to this, including the demand for passive recreation (as discussed above), greater focus on health, rising transportation costs, and increasing funding opportunities for bicycle and pedestrian facilities. The 2009 Parks Master Plan for Killeen showed that residents ranked more trails as one of the highest priorities.    Related to the previous two trends, the protection of and access to open space and natural areas is growing in popularity across the nation. As people are increasingly using trails, they generally prefer to use trails that are located in scenic areas in order to enjoy the outdoors.    While passive recreation is in greater demand, active recreation activities still play a large role in city parks and recreation systems. One major trend over the last few years has been changing participation rates in various city-sponsored league sports. Examples of these changing participation rates include decreased participation in youth softball, dramatically increased participation in youth soccer, and the emergence of new league sports such as adult soccer, kickball, and youth lacrosse. That said, it continues to be the case that league sport participation rates vary greatly from city to city depending, in part, on activities offered by the school district and other organizations such as the YMCA, Boys and Girls Club, and in some cases, churches.    Splash pads and spraygrounds have become exceedingly popular as opposed to traditional swimming pools. Spraygrounds offer a lower cost aquatic facility and the excitement of water is provided in a safe and clean environment. The principle is spray nozzles, drop buckets, and other features that either regularly or intermittently (for a sense of surprise) spray and/or drop The splash pad at Long Branch Park provides relief to Killeen’s youth during long hot summers. D R AFT
  21. 21. 7Killeen Parks Master Plan Update at these larger centers, while also being more convenient for families to recreate together. These types of centers also provide increased staff efficiency.    There is also a trend of combining separate senior activity areas into a large community center. Such an area with a distinct entrance separate from the main center entrance gives the desired autonomy of seniors while providing convenient access to the various opportunities in a recreation center including an indoor walking track, warm water exercising, and adequately sized fitness areas.    Many cities today are seeking a higher fee structure to help offset operational costs. Observation reveals a range from a 50 to 60 percent operational cost recapture rate all the way to a 100 percent recapture rate across the state of Texas.    University students today have elaborate recreation and aquatic facilities at their disposal. New graduates are leaving their universities with expectations for cities to provide comparable facilities. As quality of life is an important component of a new graduate’s job search water on children excited with expectation. The water is collected directly in surface drains from where it is circulated. Important factors to consider for the selection and preparation of an appropriate site are accessibility, visibility, and location away from debris such as leaves or other materials that can possibly clog the drain system.    In Killeen and other cities throughout parts of Texas, residents prefer covered amenities more so than having enclosed ones. An example of this is the Harker Heights covered soccer stadium. Since it is covered, both players and spectators are protected from the weather such as direct sunlight or rain. Having covered facilities allows them to be used throughout most of the year. Other examples could be covered basketball courts or having several pavilions available for picnicking in parks. Indoor Recreation Trends    Nationally there is a trend of moving away from providing multiple smaller recreation centers to providing a single large-scale center for an entire community (up to a 15 to 20 minute drive time for users). This trend responds to increased diversity of programming that can be provided The Family Recreation Center is an example of a large-scale recreation center meant to serve the City of Killeen. D R AFT
  22. 22. 88 Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Plan Introduction and Context and residence decision, this trend has influenced what new recreation centers provide. Environment and Recreation Trends    As cities and towns continue to grow and expand, citizens are becoming increasingly aware of the diminishing amounts of open space and natural areas in and around their communities. Similarly, this increased awareness parallels an increased interest in preserving open spaces, rural landscapes, and natural areas along creeks, lakes, wooded areas, prairies, and other environmentally and culturally significant locations.    Related to this increased interest in the preservation of open spaces and natural areas is an increased interest among citizens to consider alternative development strategies within their communities. This is in order to preserve and provide access to natural areas, decrease traffic congestion, encourage walking and bicycling, enhance property values, and increase and enhance recreation opportunities within their community. Alternative development strategies often considered include mixed-use development, new urbanism, and conservation developments. In fact, Killeen’s 2010 Comprehensive Plan repeatedly recommends conservation or cluster development as a means of preserving more open space.    The attributes of a community play a large role in attracting (or detracting) people to a city or region. Research shows that the quality of a city’s environment (its climate, park space, trails, and natural resources) is a significant factor in attracting new residents. As such, high-quality, high-quantity parks and open space systems will attract people while low-quality, low- quantity parks and open space systems will detract people. Population Trends The population of the United States is starting to shift dramatically from what it was decades ago. This, in turn, will have a direct affect on recreation programming in terms of the types of people our cities are now serving and the types of activities they are interested in. Emilyn Sheffield of California State University at Chico notes five key demographic changes in the United States that directly impact recreation.1 1 Sheffield, Emilyn (2012), “Five Trends Shaping Tomorrow Today.” Parks & Recreation Magazine. http://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_ DOCUMENTS/stelprdb5389201.pdf The Andy K. Wells Hike and Bike Trail includes preserved open space intended to connect citizens of Killeen to the natural environment. D R AFT
  23. 23. 9Killeen Parks Master Plan Update 1. The population is growing, but more slowly. The population from the 2000 to 2010 census only increased 9.7 percent. That’s down from a 13.2 percent growth rate the decade before. 2. Baby boomers are shifting the median age of our population. From the 2010 census it was determined that 13 percent of the population was over the age of 65, and that is expected to increase to 20 percent by the year 2050 as baby boomers continue to age. In fact the baby boomer generation as a whole, and the elder seniors over age 65 create a combined total of about 39 percent of the current population of the country. This shift demonstrates the need to program for activities that accommodates retirees, and offer events that are multi-generational for the whole family — grandparents, parents, and children. 3. As the older portion of our population increases, the younger population is decreasing. In 2010, the population under age 18 reached an all-time low at 24 percent. Children, youth, and teens will continue to be primary users of recreation facilities, so the change in programming for this cohort might not be as dramatic as for other groups. 4. The population is becoming more racially and ethnically diversified. This is especially true of Texas which is a majority-minority state, meaning the majority of the population is of a minority background. This shift can change a parks department by offering events that cater to their population’s unique cultural backgrounds and heritage. 5. The distribution of our U.S. population is changing. It is no surprise to those living in Texas that the 2010 decennial census reported that over half the population lives in only 10 states (Texas being one of them along with California, New York, Florida, Illinois, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Georgia, North Carolina, and Michigan). In fact, they further reported that 25 percent of the population lives in Texas, California, and New York alone. One could argue that the rapid growth of our population in Texas will continue, and it is important to continue developing programs and facilities that appeal to everyone. Texas - Overall Health Considerations America’s Health Ranking tracks the nation’s health by state, based on a variety of health issues. The ranking has been done annually for the past 20 years by the United Health Foundation and the American Public Health Association. Texas had an overall ranking of 34 out of all 50 states in 2015.2 Factors such as the high rate of uninsured people, high prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and obesity, and the low immunization coverage among children all contribute to a low ranking.    Texas is ranked last (50 out of 50) in the category “lack of health insurance.” Over 20 percent of the Texas population does not have health insurance which is the highest in the country.    Texas is ranked number 13 in “underemployment rate” at 9.9 percent.    Ranked at number 36 in “children living in poverty,” 23.8 percent of persons under the age of 18 are living in poverty.    Ranked at number 40 in “obesity,” 31.9 percent of the population of Texas is considered obese. This is continuing to trend higher. In fact, the obesity rate has increased nine percent within the past two years in the state of Texas.    The state is number 40 in “public health funding” with an average of $48.87 per person. 2 http://www.americashealthrankings.org/TX D R AFT
  24. 24. 1010 Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Plan Introduction and Context Role of the Killeen Parks and Recreation Division The City of Killeen is the primary governmental entity that provides parks and recreational facilities for the citizens of Killeen, through the Parks and Recreation Division. Additional recreational facilities are provided to residents through the Killeen Independent School District (KISD), Bell County, Home Owner Association (HOA) parks, Fort Hood Army Base for military personnel, and the local YMCA and Boys & Girls Club. The implementation of this Parks Master Plan will be led primarily by the City of Killeen Parks and Recreation Division. However, everyone in Killeen has a vested interest in ensuring the parks system in the City continues to be one of the best in Central Texas. This includes:    All governmental entities, including the City of Killeen, Bell County, KISD, and other advisory group entities.    The business community in Killeen, including property owners, developers, commercial entities, and others. The Parks Master Plan follows the general guidelines for local park master plans established by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD). This document will be filed with TPWD and allows the City to be more competitive for grant opportunities as they become available. Previous Planning Efforts in the City of Killeen Part of any planning process for a citywide parks system includes understanding what has been previously recommended, what recommendations have been accomplished, and what studies have been done by other recreation providers. Oftentimes, the recommendations of other plans can fulfill a deficiency, and this can prevent unnecessary duplication of park and recreation facilities. The following pages summarize previous planning studies which inform this Parks Master Plan, including the 2010 Killeen Comprehensive Plan and the previous Parks Master Plans (2009 update, 2005 update and 1999 plan). 2010 Killeen Comprehensive Plan The City of Killeen prepared its Comprehensive Plan in 2010. The Comprehensive Plan provided a “big picture” vision for the overall growth of the City. It addressed all facets of the community from development and transportation, to housing and public facilities. The Comprehensive Plan also included goals and strategies for parks and recreation. A summary of the public input conducted during the Comprehensive Plan planning process revealed that in terms of parks and recreation, residents of Killeen wanted better access to parks from their neighborhoods and more trails, specifically along drainage corridors. The Comprehensive Plan establishes planning themes to guide the parks system as the City continues to grow. These planning themes include investing in the existing parks that are located in the older neighborhoods, developing parks in the growth areas of the City, and preserving key areas of open space. The Comprehensive Plan upheld the recommendations of the 2009 Parks Master Plan as implementation priorities for the parks system. 2009 Parks Master Plan The City of Killeen first developed its parks master plan in 1999. The plan was subsequently updated in 2005 and 2009. The survey that was conducted as part of the 2009 Parks Master Plan update found that 65 percent of respondents D R AFT
  25. 25. 11Killeen Parks Master Plan Update were either satisfied or very satisfied with the variety of recreation programming that was offered in Killeen. Skate park facilities, hike and bike trails, and aquatic facilities were ranked as the most important facility needs in the community. Furthermore, residents did not feel that the two community parks were adequate in serving the entire City. The 2009 Parks Master Plan established a series of priorities that were intended to be completed through the year 2019. Several of the priorities have been completed since the Plan was adopted, including:    Renovation of existing pavilions and restrooms in Long Branch Park;    Constructing a family aquatic center in Lions Club Park;    Constructing a spray park in Long Branch Park;    Constructing a new playground structure in Long Branch Park;    Constructing a skateboard park in Long Branch Park;    Constructing a hike and bike trail at Lions Club Park;    Constructing a restroom facility at Conder Park;    Developing Westside Community Park and trail; a grant will fund the first phase which will be a 1.3-mile trail corridor;    Renovation of the Killeen Community Center;    Acquiring parkland for the construction of a community park on Killeen’s eastern perimeter; and    Renovation of Conder Community Park; including a disc golf course, multi purpose field, and two basketball courts. The Parks and Recreation Division has also completed several projects to improve the parks system which were not specifically recommended in the 2009 Parks Master Plan. These projects include:    Lou Hansen Pavilion and covered playground at Lions Club Park;    Two sand volleyball courts at the Killeen Community Center Complex; The skateboard park in Long Branch Park provides a specialized recreation opportunity for the community. D R AFT
  26. 26. 1212 Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Plan Introduction and Context    Dog Park at the Killeen Community Center Complex;    Two basketball courts at Long Branch Park;    Disc golf course at Conder Park;    Two futsal courts at AA Lane Park; and    Chess in the Park at Hunt Park. Park Planning Areas for Killeen This Parks Master Plan is intended to analyze the park, recreation, and open space needs of the City of Killeen and its extraterritorial jurisdiction (ETJ). For the purpose of this planning study, the City was subdivided into planning areas using the City Council districts. The planning areas used in this Parks Master Plan are delineated on Map 1.1, Planning Area. The recommendations of the Parks Master Plan include the land area within both the City limits and the ETJ. D R AFT
  27. 27. 13Killeen Parks Master Plan Update Map 1.1 Planning Area Planning Area D R AFT
  28. 28. 14 Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Plan Introduction and Context THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK D R AFT
  29. 29. First and foremost, this Parks Master Plan strives to ensure that the community of Killeen is provided with appropriate and adequate recreational opportunities that meet the current and future needs of its citizens. In order to determine appropriate facilities and services for Killeen, the community is analyzed in terms of history; regional context; demographics; past, current, and potential growth patterns; and community input received through stakeholder meetings, a public survey, and public open houses. Both the physical and demographic makeup of the city, and the wants and needs expressed by residents, helps determine the current and future recreation needs of the citizens. UNDERSTANDINGTHECOMMUNITY 2D R AFT
  30. 30. 1616 Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Understanding the Community History In 1881, the Gulf, Colorado, and Santa Fe Railway platted a 70-block town on its land near the adjacent community known as Palo Alto. The town was named after the assistant general manager of the railroad, Frank P. Killeen. At this time the population was approximately 40 people. The town was populated by residents from local areas as well as those attracted to the area through a railroad-sponsored national campaign. By 1884, the population had reached 350 people. As Killeen become an important shipping location for the cotton, wool, and grain from the surrounding farms, the town continued to grow. In 1900, the town had a population of 780 people. Around this time, bridges were built over Cowhouse Creek and other streams which ultimately doubled the trading area of Killeen. By 1914, the town had electric lighting, and public water system.1 1 Handbook of Texas Online, John Leffler, “Killeen, TX,” accessed 1881 Community platted and named after Frank P. Killeen Population ~ 40 Figure 2.1, Killeen’s History Throughout the Great Depression, federal New Deal programs helped to create job growth. At this time the community was enhanced with paved streets, updated water and sewage systems, and widened bridges. U.S. Highway 190 was constructed through the area during the depression.2 To meet the demands of World War II, Camp Hood was created as a military training base in 1942. Thousands of people moved to the area including construction workers, soldiers, and their families. The opening of Camp Hood changed the local economy, since the base encompassed half of the Killeen’s trade area. To accommodate the needs of the military base, farms and cotton gins were shut down and new businesses were started in the community. In 1949, the adoption of the City Charter established the council-manager form of government for the City.3 At this time, the population was around 1,300 people. In 1950, Camp Hood transitioned to Fort Hood and was established as a permanent army base. Population increased quickly to 7,045 people and almost 100 new commercial buildings were constructed between 1950 and 1951.4 Over the years, the City’s population and economy have followed the expansion and contraction of the military January 18, 2016, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/ articles/hdk01. 2 Ibid. 3 http://www.killeentexas.gov/council 4 Handbook of Texas Online, John Leffler, “Killeen, TX,” accessed January 18, 2016, http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/ articles/hdk01. 1900 The construction of bridges over Cowhouse Creek doubled the trading area of Killeen Population ~780 1942 Camp Hood created as a military training base 1949 City Charter established council-manager form of government Population ~1,300 1950 Camp Hood transitioned to permanent Army base, Fort Hood 1955 City Master Plan created Population ~ 21,076 1965 Opening of Central Texas College and Darnall Army Medical Center 1980 Killeen became the largest city in Bell County Population ~ 49,307 Image source: http://www.hood.army.mil/history/1940/north_camp_opens.htm An influx of soldiers at Camp Hood in 1943 increased the population of Killeen. D R AFT
  31. 31. 17Killeen Parks Master Plan Update presence at Fort Hood. By 1955, the City had grown to approximately 21,076 people and the City’s infrastructure was strained by the size and needs of Fort Hood. As a result, a City Master Plan was created to address the needs for additional amenities such as street improvements, parks, and recreation centers.5 Between 1965 and 1970, key educational, military, transportation, and City service developments further increased the population of Killeen. In 1965, the Central Texas College opened to serve the area6 and the Darnall Army Medical Center opened at Fort Hood.7 The Darnall Medical Center is now the biggest U.S. Army hospital and Fort Hood is the most populous U.S. military installation in the world.8 By 1970, a municipal airport opened and the City built a new library. Killeen became the largest city in Bell County in 1980 when the population reached 49,307 people. In an effort to attract tourists to the area, the City adopted “Tanks for the Memories” as the official City slogan in the late 1980s. In 1999, the Tarleton State University - Central Texas branch opened in Killeen.9 This later became part of the Texas A&M University system. At this time the City created their first Parks 5 Ibid. 6 http://www.ctcd.edu/about-ctc/about-us/history/ 7 http://www.crdamc.amedd.army.mil/visitors/history.aspx 8 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Hood 9 http://www.tamus.edu/about/history/ Master Plan. By 2000, the City’s population had increased to 86,911 people. Key civic and recreational resources were opened in and near the City between 2000 and today, including the Civic and Conference Center (2002) and the Killeen-Fort Hood Regional Airport (2004). The City staff updated its Parks Master Plan in 2005 and opened the Killeen Family Recreation Center and Senior Center in 2008. The City’s Parks Master Plan was updated again by staff in 2009 and the Lions Club Park Family Aquatic Center was opened. One of the City’s newest parks, Mickey’s Dog Park, was recently opened in 2015. ThegrowthanddevelopmentofFortHoodhas,andcontinues to, impact the economy, population size and composition, racial and ethnic diversity, and recreational needs of Killeen. 1999 Tarleton State University - Central Texas branch opened First City Parks Master Plan created 2000 Population ~ 86,911 2002 Civic and Conference Center opened 2004 Killeen-Fort Hood Regional Airport opened 2005 Killeen Parks Master Plan updated 2008 Family Recreation Center and Senior Center opened 2009 Killeen Parks Master Plan updated 2015 Mickey’s Dog Park opened Texas A&M - Central Texas is one of two higher education institutions in Killeen. D R AFT
  32. 32. 1818 Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Understanding the Community Regional Context The City of Killeen is located in the northwestern portion of Bell County, in central Texas. Killeen is situated approximately 70 miles north of Austin and 150 miles south of Dallas. U.S. Highway 190 provides east-west connectivity to the City from Interstate 35 and the City of Harker Heights to the east, and Fort Hood and Copperas Cove to the northwest. State Highway 195 provides connectivity from the south. State Highway 210 creates a loop connection between these two highways through the western portion of the City, providing primary connections to both Central Texas College and Map 2.1, Regional Context Texas A&M University - Central Texas. Fort Hood, one of the largest military installations in the world, is located directly north of Killeen. As such, the shifting demographics of the military base have a strong impact on the community and its needs. Belton and Stillhouse Hollow Lakes are situated east of the City. The City includes nearly 105 square miles within in limits, with an additional 2.31 square miles in its extraterritorial jurisdiction (ETJ). D R AFT
  33. 33. 19Killeen Parks Master Plan Update Demographics Historic Population Growth The City of Killeen has experienced a 297-percent increase in its population since 1970. The periods with greatest population growth were between 1980 and 1990, and 2000 and 2010 with 50 and 47 percent increases, respectively. Between 2010 and 2015 the population continued to grow, albeit at a slower rate of 10 percent. Due to its continued high rate of growth, the City of Killeen makes up an increasingly greater portion of the population of Bell County. While the City makes up less than 10 percent of the Bell County land area, it is home to over 42 percent of the county’s population. See Table 2.1, Historic Population Growth for a breakdown of the City’s population numbers and changes over time. Age Comparisons In order to determine the current and future recreation needs of Killeen’s residents, it is important to analyze the age breakdown of the population. In 2014, the greatest portions of the City’s population included children under five years of age (11.10%) and men and women between ages 20 and 34 (31.32%) (see Table 2.2, Age Comparisons). While Bell County alsohasahigherpercentageofthepopulationunderfiveyears old and between 20 and 34, the difference in percentages is much less pronounced than in Killeen. Both Bell County and the City have a less even population distribution than the state of Texas. The median age for the City of Killeen (27.7) is significantly lower than that of Bell County (30.5) and the state of Texas (34.7). The City’s proximity to Fort Hood, and the large number of military personnel in the area contribute to the lower median age and the more pronounced population distribution difference. Table 2.1, Historical Population Growth Year City of Killeen (Persons) Percent Change City Percent of County Population Bell County (Persons) Percent Change 1970 35,500 -- 28.52% 124,482 -- 1980 42,296 19% 26.79% 157,889 27% 1990 63,525 50% 33.24% 191,088 21% 2000 86,911 37% 36.52% 237,974 25% 2010 127,921 47% 41.23% 310,235 30% 2015 140,806 10% 42.04% 334,941 8% Source: City of Killeen; Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2015, U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division Table 2.2, Age Comparisons Age % Texas % Bell County % City of Killeen Under 5 years 7.22% 8.69% 11.10% 5 to 9 years 7.48% 7.47% 7.39% 10 to 14 years 7.39% 7.57% 6.67% 15 to 19 years 7.17% 6.73% 5.70% 20 to 24 years 7.35% 9.44% 11.75% 25 to 34 years 7.24% 9.21% 10.76% 30 to 34 years 7.25% 7.84% 8.81% 35 to 39 years 6.76% 6.52% 6.77% 40 to 44 years 6.82% 6.24% 6.90% 45 to 49 years 6.32% 5.49% 5.66% 50 to 54 years 6.52% 5.76% 5.74% 55 to 59 years 5.96% 4.77% 3.98% 60 to 64 years 5.03% 4.39% 3.68% 65 to 69 years 3.93% 3.49% 1.89% 70 to 74 years 2.87% 2.40% 1.16% 75 to 79 years 1.97% 1.15% 0.54% 80 to 84 years 1.42% 1.33% 0.81% 85 years and over 1.29% 1.51% 0.69% Median Age 34.7 30.5 27.7 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2014 Population Estimates (as of July 1, 2014), Table PEPANNRES D R AFT
  34. 34. 2020 Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Understanding the Community Age Distribution As seen in both Table 2.2, Age Comparisons, and Figure 2.2, Age Distribution, the population of Killeen is dominated by two general age groups, those under five years of age and those from 20 to 34 years of age. When compared to the United States, Killeen has a significantly lower percentage of the population in the 45 and over age group and has a greater percentage of women than men. While the majority of the population is under 40 years old today, if these residents remain in Killeen for years to come, the City will need to be prepared to provide appropriate recreation opportunities for a wide range of age groups. As a percentage of the young aged population is likely due to the proximity to Fort Hood, it is important for the City to continue to monitor the population demographics to determine what percentage of these young people remain in Killeen long term and how many new residents in this age category arrive over the years. When considering recreation opportunities, there is clearly a need for additional adult options. Race & Ethnicity In comparison to Bell County and the state of Texas, the City of Killeen is significantly more racially diverse (see Figure 2.3, Race & Ethnicity). While the greatest percentage (39.4%) of the population is white, there is also a significant black or African American population. Persons with Hispanic or Latino heritage also make up a large part of the population at 24.1 percent. As the City is relatively diverse, opportunities exist for recreational activities, festivals, etc. to celebrate the diverse heritage of the City’s residents. Table 2.3, Race & Ethnicity Race & Ethnicity Texas Bell County City of Killeen White 75.2% 62.8% 39.4% Black or African American 12.0% 21.3% 35.0% American Indian & Alaska Native 0.5% 1.1% 1.6% Asian 4.3% 3.0% 3.8% Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander 0.1% 0.8% 1.6% Other 5.5% 6.0% 11.3% Two or More Races 2.5% 5.1% 7.3% Hispanic or Latino Descent 38.6% 23.5% 24.1% Source: 2014 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, B02001 Race: Total Population; B03002 Hispanic or Latino Origin by Race: Total Population Figure 2.2, Age Distribution D R AFT
  35. 35. 21Killeen Parks Master Plan Update Household & Family Income Householdincomecontainsincomefromallworkingresidents age 15 and up living in the same housing unit, regardless of relation. Family income contains income from two or more people related by birth, marriage, or adoption who are living together. Killeen has a significantly lower median family income compared to the state and Bell County (see Figure 2.3, Household & Family Income). Conversely, the City has a similar median household income as the county and state. As a result, families in Killeen may have a harder time paying housing costs than those in other areas of the county. Educational Attainment Over 90 percent of Killeen’s residents have a high school education or higher. This is comparable to the remainder of Bell County, but almost 10 percent greater than the state of Texas. Conversely, less than 18 percent of Killeen residents have a Bachelor’s Degree or higher. This is over five percent less than Bell County and 10 percent less than the state. As it stands, residents may be at a disadvantage in being hired for professional jobs due to a lack of qualifications. Providing the local workforce with additional learning and training opportunities can help equip them with higher level skills sets. Poverty Level When compared to Bell County (14.1%) and the state (17.2%), Killeen has a lower number of individuals below the poverty level (13.0%) (see Figure 2.5, Poverty Level). There are comparable percentages of families below the poverty level for Bell County and the City, both of which are lower than the state. While higher education levels in the City are less than the county and state, it is likely that employment in the U.S. military has provided greater financial stability to some individuals in the City. Figure 2.3, Household & Family Income Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2014 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics Figure 2.4, Educational Attainment Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2014 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, S1501: Educational Attainment Figure 2.5, Poverty Level Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2014 1-Year American Community Survey, DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics D R AFT
  36. 36. 2222 Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Understanding the Community Occupation by Industry The educational services, healthcare and social assistance; public administration; and retail trade industries are the largest employers in Killeen (see Figure 2.6, Occupation by Industry). This is primarily due to the Killeen Independent School District and the Metroplex Hospital. As the largest city in Bell County and close proximity to Fort Hood, Killeen benefits from a concentration of public administration, retail trade, and professional services jobs. Commute Time The mean commute time in Killeen is approximately 20 minutes (see Figure 2.7, Commute Time). This commute time is comparable to Bell County and almost five minutes less than Texas. Of the residents who commute in Killeen, 84 percent drive by themselves, while 11 percent carpool. As the population continues to increase, traffic congestion may become a greater issue. The addition of safe bicycle and pedestrian connections to key destinations can help to reduce the use of vehicles for nearby daily trips. Figure 2.6, Occupation by Industry Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2009-2013 5-Year American Community Survey, DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics Figure 2.7, Commute Time Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2009-2013 5-Year American Community Survey, DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics D R AFT
  37. 37. 23Killeen Parks Master Plan Update Demographic Impact of Fort Hood While analyzing the demographics of the City of Killeen, it is important to consider the population living and working in and around Fort Hood. As a military installation, population totals are frequently shifting due to worldwide events that are outside the City’s ability to influence or control. In 2014, there were a total of 49,439 people working on the base and an additional 75,013 family members living on and off the base.1 While Fort Hood does have its own recreation programs, employees and families on and off the base are also served by Killeen’s park and recreation resources. As the number of deployed soldiers fluctuates, the total population that may be served by the Killeen parks and recreation system similarly shifts. 1 Fort Hood Demographics Information Brief to Col. Matthew Elledge, 26 March 2014. USAG Plans, Analysis, and Integration Office Imagesource:http://blog.rallypoint.com/2013/05/where-is-fort- hood-killeen-texas.html As the largest U.S. Army base in the country, the military and civilian population of Fort Hood impacts the parks and recreation needs in Killeen. D R AFT
  38. 38. 2424 Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Understanding the Community Growth Context Population Projections As the City plans for the future needs of its residents, it is important to understand both the historical and potential growth of its population and developed areas. As previously described in Table 2.1, Historical Population Growth, the City’s population has grown steadily for the last four decades, with a 289-percent increase since 1970. Based on approved future construction, available land for future growth, and proximity to Fort Hood, the population of Killeen is projected to continue on an upward trajectory. Planning for accurate population growth is an inexact science even under ideal conditions. While there are a variety of population projection models, most projection tools are based on an analysis and extrapolation of historical growth data. The City’s Planning Division utilizes projection numbers from the Texas State Data Center’s (TSDC) county-level population projection data. The TSDC 0.5 Scenario, which is based on growth trends from 1990 to 2000, is accepted as the most appropriate growth scenario for the City. Based on the TSDC 0.5 Scenario, Figure 2.8, Killeen Historical & Projected Population, illustrates the City’s projected population through 2050. By 2036 (the extent of this Parks Master Plan’s intended time frame), the City’s population is projected to increase by an additional 34 percent, to approximately 188,300 people. This projected population increase creates additional demand on, and resources for, the City’s parks and recreation system. Potential Growth Areas In recent years, Killeen has experienced residential development at varying rates. Illustrated on Map 2.2, Growth Context, residential growth between 1995 and today has largely been concentrated in the western portion of the City, with additional development occurring in the south over the last 15 years. Future growth beyond the City limits is constrained to the north and west by Fort Hood, and to the east by Harker Heights. Considering that, growth over the next 20 years will likely be concentrated in the southern portion of the City and its ETJ. Development of the parks and recreation system over the next 20 years will need to ensure that adequate resources are developed to serve the currently unfulfilled need for recreation in the south. Figure 2.8, Killeen Historical & Projected Population * 2036 188,300 people D R AFT
  39. 39. 25Killeen Parks Master Plan Update Map 2.2, Growth Context Growth Context D R AFT
  40. 40. 2626 Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Understanding the Community Public Engagement Several different engagement types were used to gain an understanding of the thoughts and ideas of the public. Through the use of a variety of engagement strategies, different user types were given a chance to express their opinions. Stakeholder meetings, two Citywide public surveys, public open houses, and meetings with City Council were all included in the public engagement component of this Parks Master Plan. Stakeholder Meetings Over the course of two days at the onset of the project, a series of eight stakeholder meetings were held to gain the insight and opinions of a variety of user groups. More than 50 people attended the key stakeholder meetings including representatives from the development community; Greater Killeen Lions Foundation; the Planning and Zoning Commission; athletic coaches; Killeen Independent School District; the Senior Citizens Advisory Board and Senior Council Executive Board; Senior Center, Recreation Center, and Parks and Recreation Division staff; and the Administration. Throughout the different meetings, a series of trends regarding the needs of the City were identified. Many of these trends were similarly identified in the public survey. Some of the key elements, needs, and desires identified in the meetings are summarized below.    There is desire for more shade in parks and additional family recreation opportunities.    People love the existing trails; additional linear parks and trails (of varying materials) are needed to provide greater Citywide connectivity.    There is desire for additional on-street bicycle lanes.    Additional practice fields and indoor and outdoor facilities are needed.    There is a need for additional opportunities for free public recreation.    A multi-use athletic complex would be well-used.    The City needs better distribution of parks.    There is a need for additional water-based recreation.    Safety in parks and on trails is a public concern.    Seniors and single soldiers are under-served populations.    There is a need for non-athletic recreation options for teenagers.    Ensure that adequate green space is preserved as the City is further developed.    There are opportunities for cooperation between the City and KISD.    Seniors desire greater park access and additional recreation options. Key stakeholders provided valuable insight into the wants and needs of the community. THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK D R AFT
  41. 41. 27Killeen Parks Master Plan Update 27 Public Survey An extensive Citywide public survey was conducted to gather information on residents’ opinions on parks and recreation, trails, athletics, and what types of activities are needed in Killeen. The survey was provided online as well as in hard copy. There were a total of 1,132 respondents who completed the online survey, or less than one percent of the total residents of Killeen. Respondents represented a wide range of age groups (see Figure 2.9, Survey Respondent Demographics). The majority of the respondents ranged in age from 20 to 44 years of age. Over 80 percent of respondents were residents of Killeen. Of those who lived in Killeen, just under 40 percent did not have children living at home. Substantially more females completed the survey than males. Figure 2.9, Survey Respondent Demographics Are You Male or Female? What is Your Approximate Age? Are You a Resident of the City of Killeen? Do You Have Any Children Under the Age of 19 Living in Your Home? Check All That Apply. D R AFT
  42. 42. 2828 Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Understanding the Community Current Level of Satisfaction with Parks and Recreation Elements Respondents were asked to rank their level of satisfaction with the quality, appearance, and maintenance of the parks and recreation elements in Killeen. As illustrated in Figure 2.10, Current Satisfaction with Parks and Recreation Elements, respondents most frequently indicated they were very satisfied or satisfied with sports fields (73.8%), the water park (67.5%), and overall parks and recreation (82.2%). Respondents were least satisfied with the golf course (46.8%), classes and programs (56.8%), and nature areas (54.5% ). Notably, the lowest ranked satisfaction rating (i.e., the golf course) still received a very satisfied or satisfied rating from 46 percent of respondents. Current Level of Satisfaction with Recreational Facilities and/or Programs for Different Age Groups When asked to rate their satisfaction level with the recreational facilities and programs offered for different age groups, respondents were generally satisfied with all groups (see Figure 2.11, Current Level of Satisfaction with Recreational Facilities and/or Programs). Respondents were most frequently very satisfied or satisfied with options for children ages five through 12 (51% of respondents), and least satisfied with recreation options for teens ages 13 through 19 (37% of respondents). Figure 2.10, Current Satisfaction with Parks and Recreation Elements Figure 2.11, Current Level of Satisfaction with Recreational Facilities and/or Programs D R AFT
  43. 43. 29Killeen Parks Master Plan Update Figure 2.12, Favorite Recreation Activities Favorite Recreation Activities Respondents were asked to pick their top five recreation activities for the household. The first choices most frequently identified were walking/hiking on trails (8.3%), soccer (6.7%), and playing on playgrounds (6.8%). Illustrated in Figure 2.12, Favorite Recreation Activities, are the recreation activities respondents were asked to choose from, in descending order of the number of votes each received. The top five activities chosen overall, were going to festivals or special events (39.5%), walking/ hiking on trails (37.1%), swimming (28.1%), playing on playgrounds (26.2%), and arts and crafts classes (19.3%). BMX biking and skateboarding were least frequently selected as a top choice for recreation activities. D R AFT
  44. 44. 3030 Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Understanding the Community Trails Respondents were asked how strongly they agreed or disagreed with a variety of trail-related statements. Most respondents indicated they strongly agree or agree that they would like more trails near where they live (72.8%) and more trails developed as alternative means of transportation in the City (71.6%). The lowest percentage of respondents preferred riding their bicycles on streets and roads instead of off-street trails (18.1%). Recreational Needs In order to determine overall facility and activity priorities, respondents were asked to indicate the level of importance they associated with various facilities and upgrades. General lightingofparks(90.5%),additionalrestroomsinparks(88.0%), and more trees and shade (81.8%) were most frequently identified as very important or important (see Figure 2.14, Recreational Needs, on the next page). Respondents were then asked to choose their top three priority items. More pedestrian and bicycle trails was ranked as the highest priority overall. The top five facilities or activities chosen by survey respondents are listed in Table 2.4, Top Most Needed Facilities/Activities. Figure 2.13, Trail-Related Statements Table 2.4, Top Most Needed Facilities/Activities Top Five 1 More pedestrian and bicycle trails 2 Additional restrooms in parks 3 Adult-oriented recreational programming, such as wine tasting, workshops, dances. 4 General lighting of parks for evening use 5 Additional recreational programs such as summer day camps, dance, yoga, pottery, etc. D R AFT
  45. 45. 31Killeen Parks Master Plan Update Figure 2.14, Recreational Needs D R AFT
  46. 46. 32 Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Understanding the Community Priorities for Future Parks and Recreation Division Actions As the City establishes a series of priorities to direct future Parks and Recreation Division actions, respondents were asked to rank a series of 10 priorities. Respondents indicated that the most important park and recreation issues include providing parks that can be used by people with disabilities (35.2% ranked as top priority), developing signature park facilities (32.2%), and renovating and adding to existing parks (30.6%) (see Figure 2.15, Priorities for Future Parks and Recreation Division Actions). The lowest ranked issues were to develop an outdoor fitness park (21.8%), creating an “art in the park” program (16.1%), and to expand adult athletic leagues (14.8%). Figure 2.15, Priorities for Future Parks and Recreation Division Actions Public Survey by Council District If public survey respondents indicated they lived in the City (84%), they were then asked to identify which City Council district they lived in (see Figure 2.16, Council District Breakdown of Respondents). As the City plans for expansions and updates to the existing parks system, it is important to determine if wants and needs vary in different areas of the City. Consequently, select survey questions were analyzed by district. An initial citywide analysis is illustrated in Figure 2.17, Citywide Survey Highlights. A summary of respondent demographics and key questions analyzed are then by council district in Figures 2.18 through 2.21 on pages 34 through 37. Figure 2.16, Council District Breakdown of Respondents D R AFT
  47. 47. 33Killeen Parks Master Plan Update Top Five Favorite Recreation Activities 1. Going to festivals or special events 2. Walking / hiking on trails 3. Swimming for leisure / fitness 4. Playing on playgrounds 5. Art/crafts classes Top Five Daily Recreation Activities in the Past Year 1. Walked for fitness or to get somewhere in the City 2. Used a non-City fitness center such as a private gym 3. Visited a City park or park facility 4. Used the Andy K. Wells or Lions Club Park Hike & Bike Trails 5. Participated in a youth athletic leagueMale or Female Respondents Figure 2.17, Citywide Survey Highlights 28.9% 71.1% Approximate Age Children Living at Home How safe do you feel while in City parks? If you or your family DO NOT use parks or recreational facilities in Killeen, why don’t you? D R AFT
  48. 48. 34 Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Understanding the Community Top Five Favorite Recreation Activities 1. Walking / hiking on trails 2. Going to festivals or special events 3. Swimming for leisure / fitness 4. Art/crafts classes 5. Playing on playgrounds Top Five Daily Recreation Activities in the Past Year 1. Walked for fitness or to get somewhere in the City 2. Visited a City park or park facility 3. Used the Andy K. Wells or Lions Club Park Hike & Bike Trails 4. Visited a City playground 5. Used a non-City fitness center (e.g., a private gym) Figure 2.18, Council District 1 Survey Highlights Male or Female Respondents If you or your family DO NOT use parks or recreational facilities in Killeen, why don’t you? * 26.1% 73.9% Approximate Age Children Living at Home District Overview: • 11 Parks • Andy K. Wells Hike & Bike Trail How safe do you feel while in City parks? D R AFT
  49. 49. 35Killeen Parks Master Plan Update Top Five Favorite Recreation Activities 1. Going to festivals or special events 2. Walking / hiking on trails 3. Swimming for leisure / fitness 4. Playing on playgrounds 5. Art/crafts classes Top Five Daily Recreation Activities in the Past Year 1. Walked for fitness or to get somewhere in the City 2. Used a non-City fitness center such as a private gym 3. Visited a City park or park facility 4. Used the Andy K. Wells or Lions Club Park Hike & Bike Trails 5. Participated in a youth athletic leagueMale or Female Respondents Figure 2.19, Council District 2 Survey Highlights * 32.2% 67.8% Approximate Age Children Living at Home District Overview: • 6 Parks • 0 Trails How safe do you feel while in City parks? If you or your family DO NOT use parks or recreational facilities in Killeen, why don’t you? D R AFT
  50. 50. 36 Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Understanding the Community Top Five Favorite Recreation Activities 1. Going to festivals or special events 2. Walking / hiking on trails 3. Swimming for leisure / fitness 4. Playing on playgrounds 5. Playing in a youth athletic league Top Five Daily Recreation Activities in the Past Year 1. Walked for fitness or to get somewhere in the City 2. Used a non-City fitness center such as a private gym 3. Visited a City park or park facility 4. Participated in a youth athletic league 5. Used the Andy K. Wells or Lions Club Park Hike & Bike TrailsMale or Female Respondents Figure 2.20, Council District 3 Survey Highlights * 27.7% 72.3% Approximate Age Children Living at Home District Overview: • 7 Parks • Lions Club Park Trail How safe do you feel while in City parks? If you or your family DO NOT use parks or recreational facilities in Killeen, why don’t you? D R AFT
  51. 51. 37Killeen Parks Master Plan Update Top Five Favorite Recreation Activities 1. Going to festivals or special events 2. Walking / hiking on trails 3. Playing on playgrounds 4. Swimming for leisure / fitness 5. Basketball Top Five Daily Recreation Activities in the Past Year 1. Walked for fitness or to get somewhere in the City 2. Used a non-City fitness center such as a private gym 3. Visited a City park or park facility 4. Participated in a youth athletic league 5. Visited a City playground Male or Female Respondents Figure 2.21, Council District 4 Survey Highlights * 26.5% 73.5% Approximate Age Children Living at Home District Overview: • 2 Parks • 0 Trails How safe do you feel while in City parks? If you or your family DO NOT use parks or recreational facilities in Killeen, why don’t you? D R AFT
  52. 52. 3838 Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Understanding the Community Youth Survey A second Citywide survey was specifically targeted at the youth in the City of Killeen. Survey respondents were asked their opinion of existing parks, what their favorite recreational activities are, and what they’d like to change about the current parks and recreation system. There were 464 youth who completed the survey. The survey was distributed by the KISD and offered to children from kindergarten through 12th grade. Around 25 percent of respondents were in eighth grade and, similar to the full public survey, there were more female than male respondents. Respondents were asked to identify their favorite park. Notably, over 70 percent of youth indicated Lions Club Park was their favorite. Respondents were then asked what they would add or change to make their favorite park better. Desired changes that were frequently noted include expanding the overall size of the parks and playground areas, providing more shade and evening lighting. The youth would also like more variety of activities, additional water-based activities, volleyball and basketball courts, and bike trails. Satisfaction with Parks The youth were asked to rate how happy they were with the parks in their neighborhood. As depicted in Figure 2.22, Youth Satisfaction with Parks, nearly 75 percent of respondents indicated they were happy or very happy with the parks in their neighborhood. Desired Activities Killeen youth were asked what types of activities or recreation they would like to do which is not available in Killeen. The activities identified are illustrated in Figure 2.23, Youth Desired Activities (note that the larger the word, the greater number of responses it received). The most frequently identified activities were swimming, basketball, and volleyball. Currently, most youth play on playgrounds when they visit parks or meet with friends. They also enjoy walking on trails, playing basketball or volleyball, or going swimming. Figure 2.22, Youth Satisfaction with Parks Figure 2.23, Youth Desired Activities D R AFT
  53. 53. 39Killeen Parks Master Plan Update Favorite Recreation Activity When asked to identify their favorite recreation activity, Killeen youth responded that they most enjoyed basketball (35.3%) and art classes (35.1%) (see Figure 2.24, Youth Favorite Recreation Activity). Swimming for leisure and fitness (24.8%) and playing on playgrounds (22.3%) were also among their top favorite activities. Approximately 70 percent of the youth respondents with local access to a private neighborhood park or pool do not visit the private facilities. Conversely, almost 70 percent of respondents have used a City-operated pool or park. Respondents were also asked if having access to WiFi in City parks was important. Approximately 70 percent of the respondents answered that they considered it important or very important. Transportation The survey asked youth how they normally get to school (see Figure 2.25, School Transportation). Over 60 percent indicated that their parents drive them while 30 percent of respondents ride the bus and around 22 percent walk alone or with friends. For those who don’t walk or ride their bikes to school, most indicated the distance is too far or they do not feel that it is safe. Figure 2.24, Youth Favorite Recreation Activity Figure 2.25, School Transportation D R AFT
  54. 54. 4040 Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Understanding the Community Public Open House In November 2015, a public open house was held to solicit feedback from the general community. A variety of exercises were used to gain input regarding parks and recreation wants and needs in the City including park types and locations, park and trail design and amenities, and multi-generational recreation programming. A total of 35 attendees were at the open house. Those who attended evenly represented the different areas of Killeen. Additionally, some residents who live in the City’s extraterritorial jurisdiction (ETJ) and in Harker Heights were in attendance. Some key results of the public open house exercises are listed below and depicted on this and the following page. Park Need Areas During the stakeholder meetings and public survey, a need for a more evenly distributed parks system was identified. As a follow up, open house attendees were asked to identify up to two locations they felt were priority areas for additional parks. The majority of responses indicated parks in the western and southern portions of the City are most needed. Attendees also felt that a park in the far northeast section of the City is needed. What Types of Parks are Most Needed? During the open house, attendees were asked to identify the types of parks they felt were most needed in the community. Indoor facilities, neighborhood parks, and community parks were the top three choices. Pocket parks and special use parks were identified as a lower priority among attendees. Attendees were also asked to identify what types of special amenities they would be most interested in having in select parks. A challenge course, community garden, public art in parks, and mini golf were the top choices. Horseshoe pits and futsal courts received no votes from attendees. Select public open house response boards D R AFT
  55. 55. 41Killeen Parks Master Plan Update Water-Based Recreation Attendees were asked to choose their top two priorities for new water-based recreation in the City. Approximately 65 percent of attendees selected an indoor pool as their most desired water-based recreation type. Kayaking, canoeing, and paddle boarding, and a kid’s adventure water play park were the next most desired recreation types. Park Design Elements As the City considers developing new parks and upgrading existing parks, it is important to understand residents’ priorities for various park design elements. Attendees were asked what essential park design elements they think make an excellent neighborhood or community park. Lighting was selected by over 65 percent of respondents as a high priority. Additional priority elements included an internal loop trail and sports courts. Park Design Policies Attendees were then asked whether they supported a variety of park design policies. Approximately 45 percent of attendees indicated their support for designing park facilities using sustainable, efficient “green” design solutions. The use of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) techniques and the design of park landscapes using water- efficient and native landscaping were the second and third highest selected park design policies. Trail Types Needed It is understood that Killeen residents largely support the idea of additional trails in the City. To better identify the types of trails that are most desired, attendees were asked to choose two types of trails the City should prioritize for funding. Crushed granite trails and shared-use paths were the top types of trail design that were selected. Attendees were also asked if they support the City building fitness stations in conjunction with the trail network. Over 70 percent Select public open house response boards D R AFT
  56. 56. 4242 Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Understanding the Community of attendees responded that they want fitness stations along City trails. Priority Trail Locations Open house attendees were asked two questions regarding priority trail locations. They were asked whether the City should prioritize City connector trails or internal loop trails. All attendees who answered this question selected connector trails over loop trails. Attendees were then asked to choose two priority connector trails through the City. Trails connecting Heritage Oaks Park (future park) to Texas A&M University Central Texas and Westside Regional Park (future park) to Texas A&M University Central Texas were the first and second priorities, respectively. Bike Facilities In order to determine the bicycle facilities that should be considered for use in the City, attendees were asked what types the City should prioritize for funding. Mountain bike trails, buffered bike lanes, and cycle tracks were the highest priorities. Non-buffered bike lanes and sharrows were among the lower priority types that attendees selected. When asked if Killeen should consider striping on-street bicycle lanes on existing streets where the street width, traffic volume, and parking configuration can accommodate it, over 60 percent of attendees supported this idea. Recreation Programs Attendees were asked what types of recreation programming they and their families are most interested in. Over 45 percent of attendees indicated athletics as a top interest. The arts and health and fitness were the second and third top activities that attendees expressed interest in. Adult Recreation Programs Attendees were next asked what types of adult-oriented recreation programming they are most interested in. Entertainment, social exercise clubs, adult sports, and adventure races were the top activities selected. Public open house attendees provided their opinions on the recreational needs of the City. D R AFT
  57. 57. 43Killeen Parks Master Plan Update Support for Grand Ideas The community has expressed interest in some new big ideas for the City. Attendees were asked to select each item they supported and/or write in their own unique idea. A teen recreation center received the greatest amount of support. A City natatorium and youth and adult sports complex received the second and third highest support, respectively. City Council Meetings As the legislative body of Killeen, the City Council plays a crucial role in both setting the City’s strategic direction and implementing the Parks Master Plan recommendations. Accordingly, the City Council was engaged early and often throughout the planning process. The first City Council presentation was held in October 2015. The presentation provided a project introduction and identified the Council’s thoughts and priorities for the Parks Master Plan. A second mid-point briefing was held with the City Council in Spring 2016 to overview identified needs and provide guidance as to Parks Master Plan recommendations. A later workshop was held with the City Council to present the draft plan and establish priorities. Following a successful public engagement strategy, and strong community support, the City Council adopted the Parks Master Plan on ______, 2017. Parks and Recreation Vision A vision statement incorporates an understanding of a community’s wants and needs and illustrates a collective aspiration for the future. The City’s vision for their parks and recreation system provides direction for the goals and objectives which form the framework for this Parks Master Plan. The Killeen Parks and Recreation Division is comprised of nine different internal divisions including the Community Center Operations, Parks, Lions Club Park Operations, Family Aquatic Center, Recreation, Athletics, Cemetery, Senior Citizens, and Pools. Each internal division has a unique description and major goals. In order to ensure that the nine divisions are working cohesively towards a common goal, the following overarching vision statement has been developed for the Killeen Parks and Recreation Division. By the year 2036, Killeen will be known for a safe, well-distributed, well-connected, and well-maintained system of parks, recreation, and preserved open space. Community-wide access to diverse, affordable, high- quality recreational, athletic, aquatic, and health and fitness programming will provide emotional, educational, and physical health benefits, opportunities for social interaction, and promote a high quality of life for residents and visitors. Killeen envisions achieving this by continuing to foster positive relationships and partnerships with businesses and both governmental and non-governmental organizations in the community. Through the provision of adequate resources, increased efficiency, and accurate record keeping, Killeen will enhance, promote, and provide improved multi-generational, passive and active, indoor and outdoor, cultural and recreational services in a cost-effective manner. To implement this vision, the following mission statement guides daily decision making of the Parks and Recreation Division staff: The mission of the Killeen Parks & Recreation Department is to enhance, promote, and provide parks, recreation facilities, and programs to all citizens for a better quality of life. D R AFT
  58. 58. 4444 Killeen Parks Master Plan Update - Understanding the Community Plan Goals and Objectives Goals and objectives are an important element in the planning process. They provide the underlying philosophical framework by which the Parks Master Plan recommendations and actions will be developed. They also provide guidance for future decisions and development of the parks and recreation system as the City evaluates the need for improvements. Goals describe the desired outcome for a plan. They differ from the overall vision in that they speak directly to a particular component of the parks and recreation system. Objectives are identified statements or policies that work towards the goal. They are more specific than a goal and address particular issues related to meeting the needs the goal addresses. The following goals for this Parks Master Plan are based on input received from the public survey, public open house, and stakeholder meetings. Goal 1. Continue to develop an interconnected pedestrian/bicycle trail system throughout the City. Objective 1.1. Work towards creating bicycle and pedestrian trails, pathways, and routes to provide safe connections to all parts of the City including residences, parks, civic facilities, schools, and businesses. Objective 1.2. Appropriately develop greenbelts and linear parks which preserve and utilize drainage, utility, and natural creek corridors as potential Citywide linkage corridors. Goal 2. Provide an even and adequate distribution of park facilities Citywide. Objective 2.1. Identify park and recreation need areas using diverse and reasonable criteria, including analysis of needs by planning area, reasonable calculations of the potential level of use, and the walkability of each facility to cost-effectively respond to Citywide needs. Objective 2.2. Provide sufficient funding and resources to ensure that park and recreation needs of all residents are being met. Objective 2.3. Seek opportunities to acquire land for parks in key locations throughout the City. Objective 2.4. Seek partnership opportunities to meet parks and recreation needs and avoid duplication of services throughout the City. Objective 2.5. Encourage and provide opportunities for residents to participate in the planning, development, maintenance, and operation of the City’s parks and recreation system. Objective 2.6. Preserve the ability to respond to unique development opportunities as they arise, if they address key needs and goals, even if out of the proposed sequence of improvements. Goal 3. Preserve and protect unique natural open spaces, floodplain corridors, and drainage corridors for public use within the City and its extraterritorial jurisdiction (ETJ) lands. Objective 3.1. Preserve as much as possible of the remaining undeveloped 100-year floodplain within the city limits and ETJ. Objective 3.2. Establish criteria, policies, and methods to identify and preserve key open space and natural areas worthy of preservation throughout the City and ETJ. Objective 3.3. Identify important natural space corridors and lands, and prioritize preservation of key areas. Objective 3.4. Establish mechanisms to acquire lands for protection through acquisition, purchase of easements, or outright dedication of parkland or floodplain lands to ensure that adequate parkland and open space is maintained as the City continues to D R AFT

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