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Eine einfache, zusammenfassende Übersicht über Seltene Erden und Neodym, für ein Bachelor Interdisziplinäres-Praktikum an der Uni Graz.

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Einführungspräsentation

  1. 1. Das Netzwerk der Seltenen Erden am Beispiel Neodym Christopher Kittel Stefan Kasberger Koordination: Birgit Bednar-Friedl Bakk. IP WS 2013 Foto: Mountain Pass (CA)
  2. 2. Systemisches Denken ● Ökonomische, ökologische, technische und strukturelle Bedeutung von Neodym ● Methoden aus Umwelt- und Verfahrenstechnik, Wirtschaftsgeographie, Ressourcenökonomik und Netzwerktheorie ● Ein reales Produkt vom Abbau bis zum Recycling ● Interdisziplinäres Arbeiten ● Wissenschaftliches Schreiben
  3. 3. Warum Seltene Erden? ● Strategisch relevant ● Ausgangsmaterial in High-Tech Industrie ● Versorgungsrisiko
  4. 4. Seltene Erden: Status Quo ● Was sind SE, wofür werden sie gebraucht? ● Woher, Wohin? ● Welche Entwicklungen finden gerade statt?
  5. 5. Seltene Erden: ● geringe Konzentrationen: – ● aktuell wenige Minen produktiv: – ● aufwändiger & teurer Abbau Bayan-Obo (China), Mountain Pass (USA) privater Handel: – Preise zw. 20 und 15.000 $ / kg
  6. 6. Seltene Erden: Eigenschaften ● gar nicht so selten – – ● Reserven 88.000.000 t (stat. Reichweite: 715a) Ressourcen 150.000.000 t (stat. Reichweite 1.220a) (Fraunhofer 2009) Gewinnung: – Gezielter Tagebau oder als Beiprodukt – aufwändige chemische Trennung
  7. 7. Seltene Erden: Bedeutung ● Verwendung in: – Neodym: Elektromotoren, Windkraft, Smartphones – Andere SE: Laser, Bildschirme, Kommunikation, LEDs, Leichtbau, Brennstoffzellen, Supraleiter
  8. 8. Ökonomische Situation ● Wichtigste Förderländer – ● China (über 90%) Wichtigste Abnehmer: – Japan, USA, Südkorea, Europa
  9. 9. Neodym ● ● Verwendung in Zukunftstechnologien: Telekommunikation, Energieerzeugung, Elektrofahrzeuge
  10. 10. Neodym: etwas genauer ● kommt v.a. in Monazite und Bastnäsit vor ● 3-wertiges Ion, Schmelzpunkt 1.021°C ● Relativ hohes magnetisches Moment – ergibt stärkste Permanentmagnete
  11. 11. Neodym: etwas genauer ● Verwendungen: – – Windkraftgeneratoren (82 kg / MW) – ● Auto-Elektromotoren (1 kg / Motor) wenige Gramm in Smartphones, u.ä. ~ 8.000 t/a, 100 $ / kg
  12. 12. Neodym: Datenlage ● Gut bei Geologie, Chemie und Physik ● Mittelmäßig bei Ressourcen / Reserven ● ● Schwierig, ökonomische Daten zu Handelsströmen zu finden Medien, Berichterstattung & Studien: deckt im allgemeinen alle Bereiche ab (Technologie, Ökologie, Unternehmen, Ressourcenlage, Produkte,...)
  13. 13. Neodym: Interessante Punkte ● Aufwand & Komplexität der Gewinnung ● Von Quasi-Monopol zu Oligopol ● Regulierung von strategischen Ressourcen ● ● Öffentlicher Diskurs zwischen High-Tech und Umweltschutz Aufbau geschlossener Rohstoffkreisläufe
  14. 14. Mögliche Startpunkte und Quellen ● Technisch / geologisch: USGS (United States Geological Survey) ● Aggregierte Daten: UN-Comtrade ● Übersichten: CBIC-Report ● gemeinsame Quellenbasis erarbeiten
  15. 15. Folien: https://github.com/skasberger/course-ip-neodym
  16. 16. Quellen ● Bild Folie 1: Google Maps https://maps.google.at/? ll=35.479613,-115.530081&spn=0.033165,0.063257&t=h&z=15 ● Bild Folie 2: http://www.michelecoscia.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/ps4.png ● Bild Folie 3: Peggy Greb, Agricultural Research Center of US Dep. Of Agriculture ● Grafik Folie 6: US Dep. Of Energy, Critical Materials Study S. 83 ● ● ● ● Grafik Folie 7: cc by-sa 3.0 unported wikicommons http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7d/Tableau_periodique_terres_rares.svg/800p x-Tableau_periodique_terres_rares.svg.png Bild Folie 10: USGS http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a6/USGS_rare_earth_oxides_production_gra ph.PNG/800px-USGS_rare_earth_oxides_production_graph.PNG Bild Folie 12: upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/75/Neodymium_Magnet_Ball_Grid.jpg Bild Folie 18: http://www.azubister.net/magazin/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Fotolia_duales-studium-vorteile_M.jpg

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