(UNDER THE AMERICAN CIVIL
GOVERNMENT)• free primary education was introduced to the country
• the first public schools were established by the united states army and
these became the precursor of the Philippine public school system
patterned after the state school system of the united states
• education act of 1901 (or act 74) establishing the department of public
instruction (forerunner of the department of education, culture and
• English is the medium of instruction.
• the department of public instruction introduced a three level system of
education: seven years basic elementary education (four years primary
and three years intermediate), four years secondary education, and
two years junior college
• during this period the university of the Philippines, Philippines school of
arts and trades, and Philippines normal school were established
• vocational training which led to the establishment of various vocational
schools all over the country.
• private schools during this period flourished
• the office of the superintended of private school were
created to control and supervise the private schools.
• in 1917, the private school law (act of 2706) was
enacted. it made obligatory the recognition and
inspection of private schools and colleges by the
department of public instruction so as to maintain a
standard of efficiency in all private schools and
• the department of public instruction created a committee
which took charge of the selection and approval of books.
• a study on the development education in the Philippine
known as Monroe survey of the Philippine education, the
study came out with the first comprehensive report on
Philippine education indicating the strengths and
weaknesses of American school system.
• industrial and agricultural secondary schools were organized
• primary and intermediate curricula were revised to
emphasize industrial training for community building.
• military training for males in secondary schools was also
5. 1931-1940 (COMMONWEALTH PERIOD)
• passage of the education act of 1940
(commonwealth act 586) – which provided for the
complete revision of the public elementary school
system of the country.
phase out of grade 7 from the elementary school
fixing the school entrance age to seven years old
introduction of double-single session program (
first class in the morning and the other class in
the afternoon under one teacher to
accommodate more children
6. 1941-1950 (JAPANESE OCCUPATION)
• Filipino teachers were ordered by the Japanese to
delete parts of textbooks which had reference to the
united states and Britain and to democratic principles
• in 1947, the department of public instruction was
changed to department of education. it was during
this year that republic act 137 was enacted creating
the board of textbooks. this law mandated all publics
schools to use only those books approved by the
• in the 1950s, the elementary education act (republic act 896)
was implemented authorizing the compulsory education of all
Filipino children, aged seven to thirteen. the act also repealed
commonwealth act 586, thus restoring grade 7 which, however,
double-single session was abolished and classes reverted to the
“each one teach one”process.
• r.a. 896 further made compulsory the enrolment of children in
the public school upon reaching the age of seven.
• republic act 1265 which was approved in 1955, all educational
institution were required to have a daily flag ceremony which
includes the singing of the Philippine national anthem.
• the government enacted a law (r.a. 1425) prescribing the
inclusion of a course on the life, works, and writings of our
national hero, dr. Jose Rizal, in the curricula of all public and
private schools from the elementary to the university levels.
• the magna carta for public school teachers (r.a. 4670) was
approved during the 1960s to promote and improve the
social and economic status of public schools teachers. the
magna carta included provision for the following areas ----
qualifications and procedures for recruitment of teachers,
additional compensation, health and injury benefits.
• in 1969, president Ferdinand Edralin Marcos created the
presidential commission to survey Philippine education
(PCSPE). it recommended the overhaul of the education
• the department of education was renamed department
of education and culture to stress the major role of the
department in economic and cultural development in
• the DEC reiterated the use of locally published
textbooks written by Filipinos in all levels of education
• president arcos passed presidential decree 1006
declaring teachers as professional and teaching as
profession. all teachers were required to pass the
professional board examination for teachers (PBET)
before they were allowed to teach
10. • in 1978, the department of education and culture was
changed to ministry of education and culture (MEC) by
virtue of P.D. 1397. the MEC aimed at decentralizing
bureaucracy in the education department by establishing
thirteen regional offices all over the country.
• in 1974, the national college entrance examination (NCEE)
was implemented. requiring all senior high school students
to pass the NCEE as a prerequisite for admission to any
college degree program.
• the government launched the survey outcomes of
elementary education (SOUTELE), a survey that revealed
the turbulent state of elementary education in the country
during the mid 70’s , as a result, the education department
undertook measures to revise the elementary education
curriculum and to improve the conditions of school teachers
and school facilities
• the education act of 1982 provided for the establishment and
maintenance of an integrated system of education
• article xiv of the 1987 constitution spelled out the various laws
pertaining to education in the Philippines as well as the right of Filipino
citizens, especially the children, to have access to quality education.
• in 1982 the ministry of education and culture (MEC) was renamed the
ministry of education, culture and sports. (MECS)
• based on the results of SOUTELE, the program for decentralizing
educational development (PRODED) was implemented to improve the
quality of elementary education in terms of pupil participation and
• the new elementary school curriculum (NESC) took effect beginning
with grade 1 in June 1983. the NESC was an effort to return to basic
education in response to the findings of the PCSPE in the early ‘70s
• the education department ordered the abolition of youth civic action
program (YCAP) as a curricular requirement effective the second
semester of SY 1983-1984.
12. • MECS was reorganized and then renamed
department of education, culture and sports (DECS)
when president Corazon Aquino became the
president in 1986
• several educational breakthroughs came along
during president Aquino’s term:
• the free public secondary education
• private education student financial
• continuation of the state scholarship study program
• the provision of loan assistance to poor but
deserving students through the study now pay later
• the expansion of alternative school systems for
tribal minorities and the disabled, and the launching
13. • in 1990, President Aquino formed the congressional
commission on education (EDCOM) which was
tasked to review the state of Philippine educational
system and manpower training of the country. the
EDCOM survey results published an a report
entitled “making education work: an agenda for
reform” concluded that the quality of Philippine
education was declining continuously because:
• the county was not investing enough in our
• our education establishment was poorly
• in 1991, the education for all (EFA) program was launched. the
program was aimed at reducing illiteracy rate by five percent by
• character education/good manners and right conduct was added
as a learning area in grade school.
• in 1993 the first national elementary achievement test (NEAT) was
conducted in line with the education department’s thrust to
improve the quality of elementary education and to provide a
basis for measuring such improvement.
• the national college entrance exam (NCEE) was abolished
following the implementation of the national secondary
assessment test (NSAT). the NSAT contained aptitude and
achievement components and was made a prerequisite for
graduation for high school. although the NSAT was made a
requirement for high school graduation, a low score in the test
would not prevent a high school graduate from entering college.
15. • in 1994 president Fidel Ramos signed onto law republic act 7791
lengthening the school calendar from 200 days to 220 days as a
measure to enhance the learning effectiveness of students.
• the commission on higher education (CHED) was establish to
develop reforms and innovations in higher education.
• in 1995 the technical education and skills development authority
(TESDA) was instituted to supervise non-degree technical-
• in 1996 the professional regulation commission (PRC) took over
the administration of the professional board examination for
teacher (PBET) and changed it to licensure examination for
• from 1996 to 1998 several special programs were launched by
DECS to address the immediate concerns of the different levels of
education. these projects included:
• war on waste(WOW)
• school inside a garden (SIGA)
• adopt-a-school program
• school of the future
16. • the Ramos administration also instituted several welfare programs
now being enjoyed by teachers, these are:
• increase in salaries
• teachers’ cooperatives
• shelter program
• hospitalization guaranty fund
• provident fund
• hazard pay
• in-service training programs, and
• scholarship programs
• in 1998 president joseph Estrada appointed brother Andrew
Gonzales, former president of de la salle university as a secretary
• the present DECS leadership has launched the following
programs/projects: non-formal education mobile program and the
lingua franca education projects.
17. • the non-formal education (NFE) mobile program is design to make
education accessible to rural out-of-school youth (OYS) to hep
them become more useful and productive members of the
• the lingua franca education projects aims to improve the
achievement levels of public schools by teaching grade one pupils
using their respective regional dialects such as Tagalog, Ilocano
and Cebuano instead of English.
• the “balik-pagtuturo” program is aimed to augment the teaching
force of the country public schools by reassigning teachers who
hold non-teaching position to the classroom
• the DECS also recently implemented the third elementary
education program (TEEP), a five-year program designed to
improve learning achievement of pupils
• the Estrada administration recently formed a body on educational
reforms to conducts a comprehensive study on Philippine
education. the presidential commission on educational reforms
(PCER) headed by secretary Gonzales is given a year to draw up
a package of education reforms that will boost the policy initiatives
A recent change in the Philippines’ educational system was implemented starting in
2011. President Aquino signed the K 12 education into law in 2013, adding three
years to the country’s basic education curriculum.
The new K 12 curriculum guide requires all Filipino students to have one year of
kindergarten, six years of elementary schooling (grades 1 to 6), four years of junior
high school (grades 7 to 10), and two years of senior high school (grades 11 to 12).
Prior to the implementation of the K 12 curriculum guide, the Philippines was one of
only three countries in the world and the only one in Asia that still had only 10 years
in basic education. (Angola and Djibouti are the other two).
This has always been seen as a disadvantage for our students who are competing
in an increasingly global job market. The longer educational cycle of the K 12
curriculum is seen as critical in giving Filipino students a higher quality of education.
19. The Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization –
Innotech (SEAMEO-Innotech) found the previous 10-year
educational cycle to be congested, with a 12-year
curriculum squished into 10 years.
As a result, Filipino students have trailed behind students
around the world in the areas of math, languages and
science. The new curriculum is aimed to fix that.
The K 12 curriculum is designed to enable graduates to join
the work force right after high school, and suitably prepare
those who want to go on to higher education.