S B B 3023 -
Bi o d i v e r s i t y An d
E v o l u t i o n Of
Pr o t i s t a An d
A n i ma l i a
NAME MATRIC NO
NABILAH BINTI KOMARUDDIN D20101037466
NUR SYAFIQAH BINTI ABD KADIR D20101037567
NAZRATUL ILYANA BINTI MOHAMAD D20101037470
YANTIE BINTI MAKLIN D20101037471
RIDWAN BIN SHAMSUDIN D20101037472
MARIAMAH BINTI ARON D20101037477
1.Most advance, intelligent invertebrates (squid,
nautilus, octopus, cuttlefish)
2. Included squid,octopus,nautilses and cuttlefish
3. have well developed senses and large brain (larger
than those of gastropods)
5.All predators (giant squid is the largest invertebrate)
6. They can also change texture and body shape
7. Cephalopods have advanced vision, can detect gravity
with statocysts, and have a variety of chemical sense organs
8. cephalopods lack a cornea, and have an everted retina
9.Most cephalopods possess chromatophores that is, coloured
10.cephalopods have an ink sac, which can be used to expel a
cloud of dark ink to confuse predators
11. closed circulatory system.3 heart
12.Nautiluses are the only extant cephalopods with
an external shell
13.Shell variable –
Nautilus –multi-chambered gas-filled shell
Cuttlefish -cuttlebone –internal shell
Squid –internal shell (pen)
Octopus –no shell
14.Reproduction -Dioecious, internal fertilization,
eggs fertilized by males then leave oviduct of
female and land on sea floor
• The earliest shells were
• Others had curved or
coiled shell such as
• The early nautiloid and
ammonoid shell are
heavy cause buoyancy by
a series of gas chambers.
• This enable the animal to
swim while carrying its
• The shell of Nautilus is coiled
but quite differ from
• Transverse septa divide the
shell into internal chambers.
• The living animal inhibits only
the last chamber.
• As it grows, it moves forward,
secreting behind it new
• The chambers are connected
by a cord of living tissue called
Cuttlefish have a
small, coiled or
curved shell, but it
is entirely enclosed
by the mantle.
Squids have no
shell. But leaving
only a thin, flexible
strip called a pen,
which the mantle
Octopus have no
NAUT I L US
the head with its tentacles can be extruded
from the opening of the body compartment of
Its 60-90 or more tentacles have no suckers
but adhere to prey by secretions.
The tentacles search for, sense and grasp food.
The head is the funnel.
The shell shelters the mantle, mantle cavity
and visceral mass.
Ot h e r t h a n
Na u t i l o i d s
Have only one pair of gills.
Octopuses have 8 arms with suckers.
Squids and cuttlefishes have 10 arms (8 out of
10 with suckers and the other 2 is retractile
Thick mantle allowing water to be taken into
the mantle cavity
Ce p h a l o p o d s
They have a closed circulatory system with a
network of vessels.
Blood flows through the gills via capillaries.
Branchial (gill) hearts, or accessory hearts
increase the blood pressure in the gills which
permits more rapid gas exchanges.
Have well-developed nervous systems-most
complex brain among invertebrates.
Nautilus has simple eyes but others have
elaborate eyes with cornea, lens, chambers and a
COL OUR CHA NGE S
Cephalopods has special numerous pigment-
filled bags called chromatophores in the skin.
Chromatophores are found in the skin, and
expand and contract to reveal or conceal small
dots of color.
Color changes in cephalopods is controlled by
the nervous system and hormones.
The color changes are used for camouflage or
to startle and warn potential predators in their
Cephalopods are believed has lack color
vision, it is proven in the experiments.
The photoreceptor of cephalopods are
rhabdomere cells. Hence, their ability to see
color depends on the number of pigments
The sac contains an ink
Most cephalopods have gland that secretes a
an ink sac that empties dark fluid containing the
into the rectum. pigment melanin.
The fluid is released through the
anus to form a “smokescreen” to
confuse an enemy.
by force expelling water from mantle cavity
through ventral funnel.
Funnel is mobile ( to control direction,
forced expulsion of water determined
Sq u i d a n d
c u t t l e f i s
In Squid (Loligo) and cuttlefish ( Sepia )
Streamlined (for speed)
Lateral fins – acts as stabilizer, rapid swimming
Na u t i l u s
In Nautilus - Gas filled chambers keep shell
Move slower compared to squid
Oc t o p u s
Has globular body, no fins
Swim backward by spurting water from their
Aid to crawling over rocks
Suction disc at arm- to anchor
Some deep water octopus- have fins,arm webbed
like umbrella, swim in medusae-like
Large octopus- have flatten body and swim by
Re p r o d u c
t i o n
Cl a s s
Ce p h a l o p
o d a
Oc t o p u s
Males changes in skin pigmentation and
Attract towards females and against rival
undergo copulation process
Co p u l a t i o n
pproduces a c e s s
special arm or modified
arm called a
Then transfers a sperm
packet to the female's
his own mantle cavity Arrow 1 :
and inserts it into the The spermatophore
mantle cavity of female groove of the inserted
near the oviduct Arrow 2 :
opening An oviducal gland
The female lays a number of
Some octopuse tends their eggs - guard their eggs
They clean them, provide them with fresh water and
defend them against enemies
The female octopus does not eat as long a she guards
the eggs. Often she dies after her offspring's hatching,
because she is too weak to defend herself against her
Ad a p t i v e
di v e r s i f
i c a t i on
Cephalopoda have a greatly
expanded visceral mass.
In cephalopoda the mantle cavity
was extended ventrally.
Evolution of chambered shell in
cephalopodo was are very important
contribution to their freedom from the
substrate and their ability to swim.
Elaboration of their respiratory,
circulatory, and nervous system is
correlated with their predatory and
Diversity is related to their
adaptation to different habitat, feeding
methods and mode of life.