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  1. Prepared by: Marie Lyn Adezas Agcol and Roschella Anong Mama
  3. 1. Consistent, proactive discipline is the crux of effective classroom management. “Prevention is better than cure”, so goes the adage. If we are proactive in our approach to discipline we prevent unnecessary disciplinary problems from cropping up. We have not to wait for disciplinary problems to erupt for us to take a move.
  4. 2.Establish routines for all daily tasks and needs. Routinized collection of assignments, passing of papers, and preparation for experiments saves as a lot of time and effort. We have not to explain or instruct our pupils/ students on how to pass papers, collect assignments, prepare for experiments day in and day out because we have established the routines for these everyday tasks. They have become habitual for each member of the class.
  5. 3. Orchestrate smooth transitions and continuity of momentum throughout the day. Smooth transitions and continuity of momentum throughout the day ensure us that every instructional moment is made use of wisely. No unnecessary lull is created that will breed classroom restlessness, which is the father of disciplinary problems.
  6. 4. Strike a balance between variety and challenge in students’ activities. A variety of student activities will ensure that students’ multiple intelligences and varied learning styles are considered in the conduct of student activities. Most of the time our activities fall under the word use, talking, writing will certainly challenge the linguistically intelligent students but bore the logic and math wizards and other groups of different intelligences. When boredom creeps into the classroom, we have disciplinary problems in our hands.
  7. 5. As classroom manager, be aware of all actions and activities in the classroom. Our heightened awareness of everything that is happening in our classroom puts our pupils and students on their toes all the time. While our back faces them when we write on the board, our “eyes on the back of our heads” will make our pupils and students feel that we know what they are doing. This is what Kounin calls with-it-ness.
  8. 6. Resolve minor inattention and disruption before they become major disruptions. The old adage “a stitch on time saves nine” aptly applies here. We have not to wait until our class is out of control. Misdemeanor has a “ripple effect” if not checked early. Conflagration begins with a spark. Put out the spark early enough to avoid conflagration. We ought to respond to inappropriate behavior promptly.
  9. 7. Reinforce positive behavior Be generous with genuine praise. Some teachers are quite stingy with praise. These are the teachers who think will become less when they praise others. They have the so-called “subtraction mentality.” Other teachers are overgenerous with their praise. Their praises overflow so much that they give praise even when is not appropriate. For our praise to be genuine it must be given according to merit. It is our way of appreciating and recognizing hard work and good behavior.
  10. 8. Treat minor disturbance calmly. “Do not make a mountain out of a mole.” If a stern look or gesture can kill the inappropriate behavior so be it. That’s the end period! Let us not make a fuss about it.
  11. 9. Work out a physical arrangement of chairs that facilitates an interactive teaching-learning process. There is no doubt that external environment affects us. The most common arrangement of tables and chair in the classroom is one where the teachers’ table and chairs are in front and the student’s desk or chairs are arranged in rows facing the teacher. This seat arrangement does not always enhance interaction among students. Let us work for a flexible seating arrangement where we can re-arrange seats or desk to suit our learning needs and conditions.
  12. 10. Make good use of every instructional moment. Minimize discipline time to maximize instructional time.
  14. Time is of the essence in learning. How much students learn depends upon the amount of time they spend in learning. The impact of time however on achievement is influenced also by the quality of instruction and the learning tasks. No matter what amount of time is spent, no learning takes place if there is poor instruction and poorly devised learning tasks. It is observed that classes where students are occupied with learning activities, where time is managed properly, learn more.
  15. HERE ARE SOME RESEARCH-BASED EFFECTIVE TECHNIQUES TO MAKE WISE ALL OF TIME: Orchestrate smooth classroom transitions. Remain involved with the students during the entire class period allowing for no idle time. Use fillers, in case you finish the lesson ahead of time. Examples of fillers are reciting a favorite stanza then letting others explain the meaning or conducting a short contest about the lesson.
  16. Use a common place to keep materials such as scissors, school supplies. This saves time. You have not to look for them when you need them. Follow a consistent schedule and maintain the procedures and routines established at the beginning of the year.  Prepare materials in advance. Make clear and smooth transitions. Limit disruptions and interruptions through appropriate behavioral management technique. Cont…
  17. FOR QUALITY OUTPUT WITHIN AN ALLOTTED PERIOD, HERE ARE SOME SUGGESTIONS: Schedule all activities with corresponding time allotment way ahead of time. Early preparations could avoid haste and confusion. Provide enough time for everything you expect to happen. Avoid rushing since you know you have carefully allotted required time for every activity. Quality may suffer. Anticipate difficulties or failure of some operations in order to be able to pursue alternative actions.
  18. Be flexible with time assignments. If students are observed to be so interested and eager to continue working, allow a little more time for them to complete and achieve the objectives with satisfaction. Set the example by showing that you are time- conscious. They will develop the same precision regarding time utilization. Cont…
  19. Discipline is controlled behavior. It constitutes the next important concern of teachers as part of good management. No matter how well- managed a learning environment is, students will occasionally misbehave. Teachers must be ready to deal with them with utmost care and consideration.
  20. SOME CAUSES OF DISCIPLINARY PROBLEMS  Unfavorable learning conditions -The classroom may not be conducive to learning if it is: •overcrowded with more than the regular number of students to a class. • with poor lighting facilities and inadequate ventilation. • with furniture and storage cabinets disorderly positioned, making the collection and retrieval of tools less efficient. •with inappropriate seating arrangement such that distractions can easily occur •near sources of noise which obstruct understanding of the lesson.
  21.  Teacher’s poor management skills - The teachers’ lack of adequate knowledge and skills in handling occurrences of misbehavior likewise contribute to a trouble-prone setting.  Students’ varied background - The students bring to the classroom a surprising record of individual attitudes, interests and abilities. Said characteristics could be traced from their differences in: a) family background, b) physical and mental capacities, and c) emotional traits among others.
  22. HOW TO PREVENT DISCIPLINE PROBLEMS To prevent discipline problems, teachers can: implement group-oriented methodologies such as: 1) cooperative learning approach, 2) team learning, 3) peer tutoring, and 4) group projects and collections.  use varied teaching techniques develop patience, compassion, genuine respect and care for the students.
  23. Schools differ in how they achieve and maintain good discipline. Following are some common practices. 1. Discipline is the students’ responsibility. If they misbehave, the teacher accepts no excuses. They must be ready for the consequences. 2. Discipline is the teachers’ way of establishing a desirable student- oriented environment for learning. 3. Discipline is coupled with effective teaching strategies and techniques. 4. Discipline is achieved through the effects of group dynamics on behavior. 5. Discipline is believed to be the exclusive responsibility of the teachers.
  24. WAYS OF DEALING WITH DISCIPLINE PROBLEMS ACCEPTABLE AND EFFECTIVE: 1. Use verbal reinforcers that encourage good behavior and discourage bad tendencies. 2. Use nonverbal gestures, frown or a hard look to dissuade them from mischiefs. 3. Dialogues can help in discovering problems and agreeing on mutually beneficial solutions 4. Focus attention on one who is unruly and is about to disturb the neighbors.
  25. 5. Award merits for good behavior and demerits for inconsistencies and lapses. 6. A private one-on- one brief conference can lead to a better understanding of mistakes that need to be remedied or improved. 7. Give students the free to express or explain agitated feelings and misgivings rather than censure them right away.
  26. UNACCEPTABLE AND INEFFECTIVE: 1. Scolding and harsh words as a reprimand will have a negative effect on the entire class. 2. Nagging and faultfinding, together with long “sermons” are repugnant and nasty. 3. keeping a student in a “detention area” during or after classes as a penalty for misbehavior is a waste of time and occasion for learning. The shameful experience is not easy to forget. 4. Denying a student some privileges due to unnecessary hyperactivity can all the more encourage repetitions.
  27. 5.Assignment of additional homework compared to the rest can make them dislike the subject. 6.Use of ridicule or sarcasm could humiliate and embarrass a student. 7.Grades for academic achievement should not be affected due to misdemeanor.
  28. FURNITURE ARRANGEMENT Furniture such as chairs and tables for demonstrations or displays must be positioned appropriately. Exhibit shelves are either permanently pinned to the wall or are made to stand at the sides. White board for writing and clarifying lesson discussions, together with bulletin boards, are available for posting important messages and outstanding pieces of students work, art and illustrations.
  29. Below are some sample seating arrangements: Students in rows face front of classroom (door is in back of room) Door 1. Traditional rows in columns are ideal for establishing classroom management. This arrangement allows students to focus on you when you are lecturing or teaching routines and procedures. It is great for direct instruction.
  30. Students face center of classroom 2. Position student desks so that they face the center when you are facilitating classroom discussions. The outer area is ideal for skits, role playing, and student demonstrations. It creates a friendlier atmosphere and can be used in lieu of traditional rows.
  31. Students at tables face front of room 3. Situate chairs around tables so that students do not have their backs facing you. When it is time for small group activities, they can move their chairs to face each other. This arrangement is ideal for cooperative learning activities. Be aware that seating students in groups invites dialogue, which is great if that is your purpose.
  32. Students desks grouped so students face each other 4. This format is wonderful if you have desks because you can rearrange them from traditional rows into groups and back again, depending on your lesson plan. Teach students how to quickly rearrange the desks to facilitate small group work.
  33. Clean rooms, hallways and surroundings are wholesome places to stay in. the teacher should schedule who is responsible for their neatness on a regular basis. The physical environment must also be a safe place where curious, overactive and energetic children are always o n the go. During class hours proper lighting and ventilation must be provided and maintained for everybody’s comfort.
  34. Refers to the established activities or procedures that are repeatedly done. 1. Teach pupils to learn how to form various grouping and return to standard arrangement with minimum confusion. 2. Do not use the first few minutes of the class session to collect materials when students are potentially most alert to instruction.
  35. 3. “Overlapping” technique is used for collection and distribution of materials. It refers to the teacher’s ability to attend to the task at hand and at the same time prevent an extraneous situation from getting out of control. 4. Prepare for transition by planning distinct types and sequences of teacher- pupil activity e.g. checking homework assignment, presentation of new material, giving assignment, monitoring seatwork. Transition should be quick and quiet.
  36. This refers to emotional climate and communications affecting learning conditions. 1. Maintain positive climate characteristics which allow students to choose a variety of activities to achieve common goals. 2. Develop sense of interdependence, common bonds, defined group expectations and relationship qualities that enhance wholesome emotional climate.
  37. 3. Develop communication characteristics that promote wholesome classroom relationship like positive constructive conversations aimed at understanding on another’s point of view. 4 . Render different forms of assistance by providing class meetings or students to have an opportunity to examine the ideas and feelings that influence value judgment.