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Science notes grade 6
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MOLECULE

  1. 1. Prof. Sohaib Hasnain Punjab Group of Colleges, Faisalabad CHEMISTRY
  2. 2. WHAT IS MOLECULE
  3. 3. A molecule is the smallest particle of a pure substance which can exist independently.
  4. 4. WHAT IS PURE SUBSTANCE ? Element Atomic Elements Na, Li, Ca, K, Fe  Molecular Elements O2, Cl2, O3  Compound Molecular Compound H2SO4, CO2, C6H12O6, C6H6, CH4 Ionic Compounds NaCl, NaBr, KCl, NaF
  5. 5. “Molecular Elements and Molecular Compounds are termed as Molecule because these exist independently”
  6. 6. MOLECULAR ELEMENT  Oxygen MOLECULAR COMPOUND  Methane
  7. 7. Why Molecule Exists Independently?  Molecule is formed by the combination of atoms Atom forms bond to get stability Molecule is stable specie because it is formed by the combination of atoms Molecule exist independently, because it is formed by the unstable atoms which are now stable
  8. 8. CLASSIFICATION OF MOLECULES On the basis of following parameter:  ATOMICITY  NATURE  SIZE
  9. 9. ATOMICITY The number of atoms present is a molecule is called atomicity Examples SUBSTANCE MOLECULE ATOMICITY Carbon Dioxide CO2 3 Sucrose C12H22O11 45 Methane CH4 5 Sulphuric Acid H2SO4 7 Water H2O 3 Ethyl Alcohol C2H5OH 9
  10. 10. TYPES OF MOLECULE ON THE BASIS OF ATOMICITY  Mono-atomic Molecule The molecule which contain only atom. Examples : Noble Gases ( He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn)  Poly-atomic Molecule The molecule which contain two or more, same or different kinds of atoms Examples : CO, CO2, H2SO4, C12H22O11, C2H5OH, H2O, CH4
  11. 11. TYPES OF MOLECULE ON THE BASIS OF NATURE  Homo-atomic Molecule The molecule which are made up of same or one kind of atoms. Examples : He, Cl2, O3, P4, S8  Hetero-atomic Molecule The molecule which are made up of different kinds of atoms Examples : HCl, NH3, H2SO4,C6H12O6 .
  12. 12. TYPES OF MOLECULE ON THE BASIS OF SIZE Micro-molecules  They are small in size  They are simple molecule  They exist as monomer Examples CO2, H2O, CH4 Macro-molecules  They are large in size  They have large no. of atoms  They are exist as polymer Examples Haemoglobin, Starch, Cellulose Chlorophyll
  13. 13. HAEMOGLOBIN
  14. 14. What is Haemoglobin  It is a blood protein  It carries oxygen from lungs and transport to the all parts of body  Each molecule of hemoglobin is made up of 10000 atoms  It is made up of Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen and Iron  It is 68000 times heavier than the hydrogen atom
  15. 15. STRUCTURE OF HEMOGLOBIN

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