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Top 10 present and future innovations in the NoSQL Cassandra ecosystem (2022)

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Top 10 present and future innovations in the NoSQL Cassandra ecosystem (2022)

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Are you new to Apache Cassandra® and wondering what all the excitement is about? Or a veteran Cassandra user interested in understanding what’s new in the project?
Attend our live webinar on October 18 to learn about the latest Cassandra release and why it represents a big step forward but also all the initiative and new projects rising in the ecosystem, DataStax Director of Developer Relations Cedrick Lunven will walk you through new features in version 4.1.
Get the inside scoop on how version 4.1 adds exciting new features for operators and improves the security posture, without compromising the stability achieved in Cassandra 4.0. Get some insights about projects actually in progress to make Cassandra more easy to use (Stargate) but also to deploy (K8ssandra).

You will learn:
System-wide Guardrails
Denylisting Partition Keys
Diagnostic events via CQL, not just JMX
CQLSH Auth support for LDAP, Kerberos and more
Lots of new, pluggable extension points
Also, celebrate our open source community with highlights from the 2022 Apache Cassandra World Party and a look ahead to Cassandra 5.0!

Are you new to Apache Cassandra® and wondering what all the excitement is about? Or a veteran Cassandra user interested in understanding what’s new in the project?
Attend our live webinar on October 18 to learn about the latest Cassandra release and why it represents a big step forward but also all the initiative and new projects rising in the ecosystem, DataStax Director of Developer Relations Cedrick Lunven will walk you through new features in version 4.1.
Get the inside scoop on how version 4.1 adds exciting new features for operators and improves the security posture, without compromising the stability achieved in Cassandra 4.0. Get some insights about projects actually in progress to make Cassandra more easy to use (Stargate) but also to deploy (K8ssandra).

You will learn:
System-wide Guardrails
Denylisting Partition Keys
Diagnostic events via CQL, not just JMX
CQLSH Auth support for LDAP, Kerberos and more
Lots of new, pluggable extension points
Also, celebrate our open source community with highlights from the 2022 Apache Cassandra World Party and a look ahead to Cassandra 5.0!

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Top 10 present and future innovations in the NoSQL Cassandra ecosystem (2022)

  1. 1. Cedrick Lunven Director of developer Advocacy Top 10 present and future innovations in the NoSQL Cassandra ecosystem
  2. 2. Cédrick Lunven Developer Advocates, Events, Community, Partners 2 @clunven Directeur Developer Relations ➢ Speaker ➢ Streamer ➢ Author ➢ Training ➢ Community Manager ➢ Application developer ➢ Technical Architect ➢ Presales ➢ Support
  3. 3. Agenda 1. Why Cassandra 2. Top 10 innovations in the Cassandra Ecosystem 2.1. Cassandra 4.1 - CEP-03 = System-wide Guardrails 2.2. Cassandra 4.1 - CEP-13 = Denylisting Partition Keys 2.3. Cassandra 4.1 - CEP-18 = Pluggable Extension Points 2.4. Cassandra 4.2 - CEP-07 = Storage Indexed Storage 2.5. Cassandra 4.2 - CEP-19 = Tries Memtables 2.6. Cassandra 4.2 - CEP-21 = Transactional Cluster MetaData 2.7. Cassandra 4.2 - CEP-20 = Dynamic Data Masking 2.8. Cassandra 4.2 - CEP-15 = Acid Transaction 2.9. Communicate with any application using Stargate 2.10. Deploy Cassandra in Kubernetes 3. Resources 3
  4. 4. Why Cassandra ? 4
  5. 5. Relational Databases are Versatile 5 Fast Queries “Customer-facing” High number of transactions Usually Hot / Live Data High SLA Requirements (Response Time / Availability) OLTP: Online Transaction Processing OLAP: Online Analytical Processing Complex Queries Historical High volume of data Often “Cold Data” Used by / for Analytics Volume of Data Response Time
  6. 6. Relational Databases have limited scalability 6 They were designed to run on a single machine ● ● ●
  7. 7. Apache Cassandra = NoSQL Distributed Decentralised DBMS 7 NODE NODE NODE NODE NODE NODE NODE 1 Installation = 1 NODE ✔ Capacity = ~ 2-4TB ✔ Throughput = LOTS Tx/sec/core Communication: ✔ Gossiping DataCenter | Ring
  8. 8. Distributed ? 8 • Geographic Distribution • Hybrid-Cloud and Multi-Cloud On-premise
  9. 9. Always On Every second of downtime translates into lost revenue High Availability Apache Cassandra Built as a Technical Necessity Linear Scalability of Fortune 100 companies have adopted 90% Hyper-Scalability Millions of operations per day, hour, or second Faster Pace Every millisecond of latency has consequence Low Latency Data Everywhere On-premises, hybrid, multi-cloud, centralized, or edge Global Distribution
  10. 10. Use Cases 10 High Throughput High Volume Heavy Writes Heavy Reads Event Streaming Log Analytics Internet of Things Other Time Series Mission-Critical No Data Loss Always-on Scalability Availability Distributed Cloud-native Caching Pricing Market Data Inventory Banking Retail Tracking / Logistics Customer Experience API Layer Hybrid-cloud Enterprise Data Layer Multi-cloud Modern Cloud Applications Global Presence Workload Mobility Compliance / GDPR
  11. 11. Cassandra 4.1 (2022) ● CEP-03 = System-wide Guardrails ● CEP-13 = Denylisting Partition Keys ● CEP-18 = Pluggable Extension Points 11
  12. 12. Cassandra 4.0 (2021) Is a big Deal ! 12 ● Wait for 6 years ● Production Ready day 1 ● Features ○ 25% faster ○ Faster Big Clusters ○ Incremental Repairs ○ Virtual Tables ○ Transient Replicas
  13. 13. Cassandra 4.1 - What’s in it? ● Themes ● Major yearly release ● Usability ● Security ● Pluggability ● Features ● Configuration Improvements ● System-wide Guardrails ● Denylisting Partition Keys ● Pluggable Extension Points ● QA building blocks 13
  14. 14. Improved Configuration 14 ● Standard and Intuitive names ○ noun_verb ● Units in values
  15. 15. System-wide Guardrails (CEP-3) ● Hard and soft limits on magnitudes ● Disabling features entirely ● Disallowing specific configuration values ● Administrative users exempted ● Typically checked at the CQL layer ● Based on work in Astra 15 https://cassandra.apache.org/_/blog/Apache-Cassandra-4.1-Features-Guardrails-Framework.html
  16. 16. Cassandra 4.1 - Disabling Features ● Example: ALLOW FILTERING ● Configure in cassandra.yaml : ● Verify setting in cqlsh: ● Developer experience: 16
  17. 17. Cassandra 4.1 - Hard and Soft Limits ● Example: ALLOW FILTERING ● Configure in cassandra.yaml : ● Developer experience (soft limit aka warning): 17
  18. 18. Denylisting Partition Keys (CEP-13) 18 https://cassandra.apache.org/_/blog/Apache-Cassandra-4.1-Denylisting-Partitions.html ● Overloaded partitions break clusters ○ compactions, streaming, GC, etc ○ Bad data modeling choices ○ Unintended usage or attacks ● The solution: operators can identify partition keys for which queries will be disallowed overloaded keys
  19. 19. https://unsplash.com/@nevenkrcmarek Pluggable extension points ● Valuable mechanism to add new features without disrupting the core ○ Internal APIs and code restructuring ● Pluggable storage (memtables) ○ Next: SSTables ● Pluggable network encryption ○ External key providers ● Pluggable authentication ○ Extend cqlsh via Python modules ● External schema storage ○ etcd for Kubernetes environments 19
  20. 20. Updating to Cassandra 4.1 20
  21. 21. Upgrading to 4.1 ● In place upgrade from 4.0 ● No application changes ● Simple steps, same as last time ● 1. Verify your software versions ● 2. Perform a cluster-wide snapshot ● 3. Upgrade the first node and verify ● 4. Continue to each node in your cluster 21 https://foojay.io/today/have-you-upgraded-to-cassandra-4-0/
  22. 22. If you need help preparing for an upgrade to 4.1 ● For a limited time — until July 31, 2022 — our award-winning team of Apache Cassandra™ contributors are available to help evaluate the health of your clusters, including conducting a comprehensive health check, at a reduced price of $200 USD a month.* ● This special offer includes: ● Best practices, performance and security improvements, plus SLA achievement ● Expert-led health check of your Apache Cassandra environment ● On-going support for 1 year via DataStax Luna ● Expertise and peace of mind for your team ● How can you learn more and request this offer? https://www.datastax.com/lp/luna-apache-cassandra 22
  23. 23. Cassandra 4.2 (2023) ● CEP-07 = Storage Attached Index ● CEP-19 = Tries Memtables ● CEP-21 = Transactional Cluster MetaData ● CEP-20 = Dynamic Data Masking ● CEP-15 = Acid Transaction 23
  24. 24. Storage Attached Index 24 Intended to replace both 2i and SASI
  25. 25. Trie Memtables (CEP-19) 25
  26. 26. Transactional Cluster MetaData 26
  27. 27. ACID Transactions (CEP-15) 27
  28. 28. Cassandra Relationship With Developers 28 Easy Hard ● Scale ● Resilience ● Distribution ● Atomicity ● Serialized changes ● Complicated State Built-in Data Modeling & Code
  29. 29. Accord 29 Node 1 Node 4 Node 2 Node 3 ● Every node has a Reorder Buffer ● Clock skew is cool ● Leaderless timestamp protocol ● Fast Path Electorates: Fault tolerance ● TL;DR One Round Trip - ish Reorder Buffer Reorder Buffer Reorder Buffer Reorder Buffer Good for Cassandra ● Leaderless ● Scales like Cassandra ● Failure modes match
  30. 30. More Tools ● Communicate with any application using Stargate ● Deploy Cassandra in Kubernetes 30
  31. 31. Stargate Overview An open source API framework for data Stargate makes it easy to use a database for any application workload by adding plugin support for new APIs, data types, and access methods MICROSERVICES DEVELOPERS 31
  32. 32. Astra DB gRPC CQL GraphQL Document API Data API Cassandra 3.x Cassandra 4.x DSE 6.x API Extensions and Persistence Extensions 32
  33. 33. Stargate Cassandra Query Language GraphQL REST Document SQL like Table Model Structured Data Key-Value Data Strong Types Minimal query overhead Hierarchy of types and fields Structured Data Key-Value Data Low query overhead Row based Structured Data Key-Value Data Weaker Types High query overhead JSON Documents Semi-Structured Data Weaker Types High query overhead Drivers Open API More Performant More Flexible gRPC Structured Data (CQL) Lighter weight Native driver alternative Low query overhead 33
  34. 34. Connecting to your cluster (Before) NODE NODE NODE NODE NODE NODE NODE developers Apps CQL CQL CQL CQL CQL Drivers CQL CQL 34
  35. 35. Connecting to your cluster (with Stargates) NODE NODE NODE NODE NODE NODE NODE developers Apps SDK CQL CQL CQL CQL CQL Stargate Stargate Stargate CQL CQL CQL CQL CQL Load Balancer (HTTP) 35
  36. 36. + = 36
  37. 37. Apache Cassandra® Cass-Operator 37
  38. 38. Apache Cassandra® Cass-Operator Metrics Collector 38
  39. 39. Apache Cassandra® Cass-Operator Cassandra Medusa (backup/restore) Metrics Collector 📁S3, GCP,... Repear (repair) 39
  40. 40. Apache Cassandra® Cass-Operator Cassandra Medusa (backup/restore) Metrics Collector 📁S3, GCP,... Repear (repair) Stargate
  41. 41. Resources 41
  42. 42. Cassandra Community Events 42 ● 10/11 - London ● 10/13 - Amsterdam ● 11/08 - Hanoi ● 11/10 - Jakarta ● 11/10 - Santa Clara ● 11/10 - Houston ● 11/10 - Seattle ● 11/15 - Singapore Every Wednesday 12pm ET
  43. 43. Cassandra Community Resources Planet Cassandra is back! https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCvP-AXuCr -naAeEccCfKwUA 43 Developer Community https://www.datastax.com/dev/community
  44. 44. Ecosystem Updates ● Try out 4.1 features including guardrails 44 Coming soon: ● Cassandra 4.1 support ● Stargate 2.0 release ● New Docs API ● More APIs Coming soon: ● Cassandra 4.1 support ● K8ssandra Operator v1.2
  45. 45. Cassandra: The Definitive Guide, Revised Third Edition 45 https://www.datastax.com/resources/ebook/oreilly-cassandra-the-definitive-guide
  46. 46. Questions 46
  47. 47. Thank You! 47 @clunven

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