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The rules of phonology ms dela torre

Assimilation and Dissimilation

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The rules of phonology ms dela torre

  1. 1. THE RULES OF PHONOLOGY Karen Joy P. dela Torre Discussant
  2. 2. Phonological rules are part of a speaker’s knowledge of the language. The phonemic representations are minimally specified because some features or feature values are predictable.
  3. 3. • The phonetic representation, derived by applying the phonological rules, includes all of the linguistically relevant phonetic aspects of the sounds. • Although the specific rules of phonology differ from language to language, the kinds of rules, what they do, and the natural classes they refer to are universal.
  4. 4. Assimilation Rules Vowel Nasalization is an assimilation rule or a rule that makes neighboring segments more similar by duplicating a phonetic property.
  5. 5. • We can use similar notations to state the nasalization rule as:
  6. 6. den /dɛn/ [dɛ̃n] deck [dɛk] den$tal [dɛ̃n$təl] de$note /di$not/- will not be nasalized, because the nasal segment does not precede the syllable boundary.
  7. 7. • It is easy to see in the formal statement of the rule that this is an assimilation rule because the change to [+nasal] occurs before [+nasal] segments. • Assimilation rules in languages reflect coarticulation—the spreading of phonetic features either in the anticipation or in the perseveration (the “hanging on”) of articulatory processes.
  8. 8. Voicing Assimilation • -the value of the voicing feature goes from [+voice] to [–voice] because of assimilation to the [–voice] feature of the final consonant of the stem. cats: /kæt + z/ → [kæts]
  9. 9. Homorganic Nasal Rule • -In this case the place of articulation— bilabial, alveolar, velar—of the nasal assimilates to the place of articulation of the following consonant. impossible [ĩmpʰasəbəl] intolerant [ĩntʰalərə̃nt] incongruous [ĩŋkʰãngruəs]
  10. 10. Dissimilation Rules • a segment becomes less similar to another segment. “It is sometimes easier to articulate dissimilar sounds.” “the sixth sheik’s sixth sheep is sick” “the second sheik’s tenth sheep is sick”
  11. 11. Fricative Dissimilation Rule • - This rule applies to sequences /fθ/ and /sθ/, changing them to [ft] and [st]. Fifth- fift Sixth- sikst
  12. 12. Feature-Changing Rules • The assimilation and dissimilation rules we have seen may all be thought of as feature- changing rules. Some feature-changing rules are neither assimilation nor dissimilation rules. • The rule in English that aspirates voiceless stops at the beginning of a syllable simply adds a nondistinctive feature.
  13. 13. • Generally, aspiration occurs only if the following vowel is stressed. pit repeat inspect compass – not aspirated • Aspiration also takes place even with an intervening consonant. crib [kʰrɪb] clip [kʰlɪp] quip [kʰwɪp]
  14. 14. “A voiceless, noncontinuant has [+aspirated] added to its feature matrix at the beginning of a syllable containing a stressed vowel with an optional intervening consonant.” • Aspiration is not specified in any phonemic feature matrices of English.
  15. 15. • Remember that /p/ and /b/ (and all such symbols) are simply cover symbols that do not reveal the phonemic distinctions. The nondistinctive feature “aspiration” is not included in these phonemic representations because aspiration is predictable.
  16. 16. Segment Insertion and Deletion Rules • Phonological rules may add or delete entire segments. • The process of inserting a consonant or vowel is called epenthesis.
  17. 17. • The examples of epenthesis: Insert a [ə] before the plural morpheme /z/ when a regular noun ends in a sibilant, giving [əz]. boxes glasses houses
  18. 18. Insert a [ə] before the past-tense morpheme when a regular verb ends in a non-nasal alveolar stop, giving [əd].
  19. 19. • Segment deletion rules are commonly found in many languages and are far more prevalent than segment insertion rules. mystery - mystry general- genral Memory- memry funeral- funral vigorous- vigrous Barbara- Barbra
  20. 20. Delete a /g/ word initially before a nasal consonant or before a syllable-final nasal consonant.
  21. 21. Movement (Metathesis) Rules -Phonological rules may also reorder sequences of phonemes, in which case they are called metathesis rules. ask - [æks] asking - [æskĩŋ] aminal [æ̃ mə̃nəl] for animal pusketti [pʰəskɛti] for spaghetti
  22. 22. From One to Many and from Many to One Phonological rules that relate phonemic to phonetic representations have several functions, among which the following are:
  23. 23. • The relationship between the phonemes and phones of a language is complex and varied. • Rarely is a single phoneme realized as one and only one phone. From One to Many and from Many to One
  24. 24. Consider the vowels in the following pairs of words: • In these cases the stress pattern of the word varies because of the different suffixes. The vowel that is stressed in one form becomes reduced in a different form and is therefore pronounced as [ə].
  25. 25. • The phonemic representations of all of the root morphemes contain an unreduced vowel such as /i/ or /e/ that is phonetically [ə] when it is reduced. “Change a vowel to a [ə] when the vowel is reduced.”