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Sequential constraints of phonemes ms sangkula

Lexical gaps

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Sequential constraints of phonemes ms sangkula

  1. 1. Sequential Constraints of Phonemes Presented by Riza A. Sangkula
  2. 2. B L IK Arrange these cards to form all the possible words that these four phonemes could form.
  3. 3. You might order them as follows: B L I K K L I B B I L K K I L B LBKI, ILBK, BKIL, and ILKB are not possible words in the language.
  4. 4. If you heard someone say: “I just bought a beautiful new blick.” You might ask: “What’s a blick?” If you heard someone say: “I just bought a beautiful new bkli.” You would probably reply, “What did you say?”
  5. 5. After a consonant like /b/, /g/, /k/, or /p/, another *stop consonant is not permitted by the rules of the grammar. *Stop Consonant or plosive is the sound made by completely blocking the air and then releasing it. /p/ /t/ /k/ - voiceless stops /b/ /d/ g/- voiced stops If a word begins with an /l/ or /r/, the segment must be a vowel. That is why /lbrk/ does not sound like an English word.
  6. 6. Phonotactic Constraints define what sound sequences are possible and what other sound sequences are not possible in a given language. ten tne net nte etn ent Native speakers of English know not only that there does not happen to be a word tne, but also that there could not be such a word in English, since plosive + nasal clusters do not occur at the beginning of any word in this language.
  7. 7. Nasal + Plosive clusters English has three nasal stops (m n ŋ), three voiceless plosives (p t k) and three voiced plosives (b d g). Each set consists of a labial (m p b), an alveolar (n t d), and a velar (ŋ k g) consonant.
  8. 8. The clusters in red occur only across a morpheme boundary, e.g. dreamt, dreamed, tomcat, home-grown, chickenpox, cranberry, pancake, downgrade, ping pong, dingbat, Washington, banged, etc. Within a morpheme only the ones in green are possible, that is, only nasal+plosive clusters where the two share their place of articulation temper, timber, winter, panda, anchor (aŋkə), finger (fɪŋgə).
  9. 9. Every language has its own unique set of phonotactic constraints. Sound combinations that could not possibly be English words might very well be words in another language. For instance both English and Georgian have the sound segments [t], [A], [m]. In English we have Tom but no mot, mta or tma; although mot could be a word. In Georgian we have mta, mountain; and tma hair, but no tom or mot.
  10. 10. German allows /kn/ in words like 'Knoten', meaning 'knot' - we can see from the spelling that English used to allow this sequence as well.  Another important point about phonotactic constraints is that they vary from language to language, as this example of English and German has just shown.
  11. 11. Why do languages have Phonotactic Constraints? The main reason has to do with the limits on the talker's ability to pronounce sequences of sounds as one syllable, and the listener's perception of how many syllables he or she hears from a given sequence of phonemes. For example a sequence like /pʁ/ i.e. a voiceless bilabial followed by a voiced uvular fricative. Most of us with some training can produce this sequence (e.g. /pʁa pʁit/ etc.) as a monosyllabic word even though it doesn't occur
  12. 12. One of the main reasons why languages have phonotactic constraints is because their sequential arrangement is itself a cue to the number of syllables in a word.
  13. 13. Have you ever searched your brain for a word to describe what you are trying to express, but you just couldn’t find one? Maybe it’s because there’s not a word for it at all.
  14. 14. Lexical Gaps A lexical gap, also known as a “lacuna” or “accidental gap,” is a word in a language that could exist because it follows the grammatical rules of the language but is nonexistent. For example, the Indonesian word mencolek describes the trick of tapping from behind on the opposite shoulder of another person to confuse them. Sadly, there is no English equivalent for the word,
  15. 15. 1. The act of jumping out to scare someone (vbyafnout in Czech) 2. The extra weight people gain from emotional binge eating (kummerspeck, German) 3. If someone loses a spouse, they’re a widow; if someone loses a parent, they’re an orphan; but there is no word for a parent who loses a child. 4. The act of gazing in to the distance (boketto, Japanese) Some examples of Lexical Gaps in English
  16. 16. 1. The act of scratching the head to help remember something (pana po’o, Hawaiian) 2. There is no word for to not look. 3. When teeth chatter from the cold or from anger (zhaghzhagh, Persian) 4. The squeaking/kissing sound made by sucking air past lips to gain the attention of a dog or child (faamiti, Somoan) 5. A person who asks a LOT of questions (pochemuchka, German)
  17. 17. Accidental Gap  a non-existing word which is expected to exist given the hypothesized morphological rules of a particular language. In English it is possible to derive nouns from verbs by adding the suffixes -al and - tion to the verbal stem. However, some such derivations do not exist, although there are no grammatical reasons for their
  18. 18.  (i) recite recital recitation propose proposal proposition  (ii) arrive arrival *arrivation refuse refusal *refusation  (iii) derive *derival derivation describe *describal description
  19. 19. Semantic gaps  A gap in semantics occurs when a particular meaning distinction visible elsewhere in the lexicon is absent.
  20. 20. male female neutral father mother parent son daughter child brother sister sibling uncle aunt nephew niece cousin For example, English words describing family members generally show gender distinction.
  21. 21. REFERENCES  http://seas3.elte.hu/phono/notes/nasal plosiveclusters.html  http://clas.mq.edu.au/speech/phonetic s/phonology/syllable/syll_phonotactic. html  http://seas3.elte.hu/phono/notes/141- phonotactics.html  https://caecholier.com/3857/arts- entertainmentlifestyle/lexical-gaps- haunt-the-english-language/

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