SlideShare verwendet Cookies, um die Funktionalität und Leistungsfähigkeit der Webseite zu verbessern und Ihnen relevante Werbung bereitzustellen. Wenn Sie diese Webseite weiter besuchen, erklären Sie sich mit der Verwendung von Cookies auf dieser Seite einverstanden. Lesen Sie bitte unsere Nutzervereinbarung und die Datenschutzrichtlinie.
SlideShare verwendet Cookies, um die Funktionalität und Leistungsfähigkeit der Webseite zu verbessern und Ihnen relevante Werbung bereitzustellen. Wenn Sie diese Webseite weiter besuchen, erklären Sie sich mit der Verwendung von Cookies auf dieser Seite einverstanden. Lesen Sie bitte unsere unsere Datenschutzrichtlinie und die Nutzervereinbarung.
BY: MS. LAURENCE F.
SENTENCE AND PHRASE
WHAT IS PROSODY?
This refers to the study of the tune and
rhythm of speech and how these features
contribute to meaning.
It is also consists of distinctive variations
of stress, tone, and timing in spoken
It is a theory of the way in which the flow
of speech is organized into a finite set of
It is also, however, a theory of
interactions between phonology and the
components of the grammar.
4 PROSODIC FEATURES:
1. SYLLABLE STRUCTURE
2. WORD STRESS
3. SENTENCE AND PHRASE STRESS
WHAT IS A SYLLABLE?
It is commonly known to be a speech unit that is larger
than a segment.
TWO TYPES OF SYLLABLE
1. OPEN SYLLABLE – usually ends in a vowel
2. CLOSED SYLLABLE – usually ends in one or more
For example, the English words…
go, we, are all made up of single open syllables,
eat, ball, mould, and rest are all made of single closed
CLASSIFICATION (according to NUMBER of syllables)
1. MONOSYLLABIC – one syllable
2. DISYLLABIC – two syllables
3. POLYSYLLABLIC – two or more syllables
HOW DO WE DESCRIBE SYLLABIC STRUCTURES?
CANONICAL SYLLABLE STRUCTURE – It is the schema that
accounts for all the syllables in language, in terms of
possible consonant and vowels sequences permitted, written
in terms of the generic symbols C (for consonant) and V (for
a. Go – CV b. high – CV c. eat – VC d. ball -
A syllable has a TRIPARTITE STRUCTURE
The syllable consists of an obligatory constituent, NUCLEUS, which is a
Vowel or a syllabic consonant, and two optional constituents – ONSET
and CODA, both of which are consonants.
WORD SYLLABLE STRUCTURE
GO O + N
BAG O + N + C
ON N + C
PRODUCT O + N + C
PRO – DUCT
PR O D U CT
CODA O + N + O + N +
This has a FLAT STRUCTURE that was first proposed by PIKE
C V C
Pike and Pike
structure of the
in turn was
(sit) O + N + C O + N + C
AMBISYLLABIC CONSONANT – refers to
overlapping of the articulation of consonant
sounds (Hocket, 1955)
WHAT IS STRESS?
It is the rhythm of a language.
In pronunciation, stress can refer to words,
part of a word, or even one word in a group of
words that receives the most emphasis.
Stress is the relative emphasis that may be
given to certain syllables in a word, or to
certain words in a phrase or certain.
Stressed syllables are louder than non-
stressed syllables, also, they are longer and
have a higher pitch.
It also helps us distinguish words from noun
THREE BASIC PATTERNS OF
STRESS IN SYLLABLES:
FOUR GENERAL RULES ABOUT
1. STRESS THE FIRST SYLLABLE OF:
Most two-syllable nouns: CLImate,
Most two-syllable adjectives: FLIPpant,
2. STRESS THE LAST SYLLABLE OF:
Most two-syllable verbs: reQUIRE, deCIDE
FOUR GENERAL RULES ABOUT
3. STRESS THE SECOND-TO-LAST SYLLABLE
Words that end in –ic: ecSTATic, geoGRAPHic
Words ending in –sion, -tion: exTENsion,
4. STRESS THE THIRD-FROM-LAST SYLLABLE
Words that end in –cy, -ty, -phy and –gy :
deMOCracy, unCERtainty, geOGraphy,
WHAT IS SENTENCE AND PHRASE
Sentence stress is the music of spoken
Sentence stress is what gives English its
rhythm or "beat".
When words are combined into phrases and
sentences, one syllable receives more stress
than the others.
Phrasal stress can distinguish a compound
noun from an adjective + noun combination.
COMPOUND NOUN ADJECTIVE + NOUN
Hotdog (a type of food) Hot dog (an overheated
Redcoat (a British
Red coat (a coat that is
MOST SENTENCES HAVE TWO
BASIC TYPES OF WORD:
1. CONTENT WORDS
Content words are the key words of a sentence.
They are the important words that carry the
meaning or sense—the real content.
2. STRUCTURE WORDS
They are small, simple words that make the
sentence correct grammatically. They give the
sentence its correct form—its structure.
BASIC RULES OF SENTENCE
AND PHRASE STRESS
1. Content words are stressed.
2. Structure words are unstressed.
3. The time between stressed words
is always the same.
SELL CAR GO FRANCE
SELL my CAR I’ll GO to FRANC
SELL my CAR I’ll GO to FRANC
WILL YOU SELL MY CAR BECAUSE I’LL GO TO
CONTENT WORDS -
WORDS CARRYING THE
MAIN VERBS Sell, Give, Employ
NOUNS Car, Music, Mary
ADJECTIVES Red, Big, Interesting
ADVERBS Quickly, Loudly, Never
NEGATIVE AUXILLARIES Don’t, Aren’t, Can’t
CONTENT WORDS -
WORDS for CORRECT
PRONOUNS He, We, They
PREPOSITIONS On, At, Into
ARTICLES A, An, The
CONJUNCTIONS And, But, Because
AUXILLARY VERBS Do, Be, Have, Can,
I am a proFESsional phoTOgrapher
whose MAIN Intrest is to TAKE SPEcial,
BLACK and WHITE PHOtographs that
exHIBit Abstract MEANings in their
SAY “HELLO” TO…
A friend you meet regularly
A friend you haven’t seen for a long time
A neighbour you don’t like
A 6 month old baby
Someone doing what he shoudn’t
To know if someone is litening
The same but on the phone
WHAT IS INTONATION?
In phonetics, the melodic pattern of an
Intonation helps to recognize the language
that you hear in the same way as the melody of
a song helps you recognize the song that you
It also conveys differences of expressive
meaning (e.g., surprise, anger, happiness).
According to David Crystal, intonation is not a
single system of contours and levels, but the
product of the interaction of features from
TWO TYPES OF INTONATION
“Your name is John?” (rising intonation)
it can express a number of various emotions,
such as non-finality, surprise, doubt, interest,
politeness, lack of confidence
“Your name is John.” (falling intonation)
Used for asking and giving information in
normal, quiet, unemphatic style.
Other main types of intonation include:
High fall, low fall, fall-rise, high rise, midlevel
rise, low rise
KEY COMPONENTS OF
PITCH – degree of height of our voice in
SENTENCE STRESS – makes the utterance
understandable to the listener by making the
important words in the sentence stressed, clear,
and higher in pitch, and by the shortening and
obscuring the unstressed words.
RHYTHM – sense of movement in speech,
marked by stress, timing, quantity of syllables
FUNCTION OF INTONATION
Allows us to express emotions such as confidence, interest,
doubt, joy, pain, irony.
Implies the placement of stress is determined by intonation.
The listener is better able to recognize the grammar and
syntax structure of what is being said by using information
contained in the intonation such as:
A. The placement of boundaries between phrases,
clauses and sentences.
B. The difference between questions and statements.
It can indicate when the speaker is indicating
some sort of contrast or link with material in
another tone unit.
In conversation it can convey to the listener
what kind of response is being expected from
7 CASES WHERE INTONATION
5.Stressing the importance of
6.Contrasting between things
7.Using tag questions