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Prosodic phonology ms ferrer

Syllable structure, word stress, sentence and phrase stress, intonation

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Prosodic phonology ms ferrer

  1. 1. PROSODIC PHONOLOGY BY: MS. LAURENCE F. FERRER SYLLABLE STRUCTURE WORD STRESS SENTENCE AND PHRASE STRESS INTONATION
  2. 2. WHAT IS PROSODY? This refers to the study of the tune and rhythm of speech and how these features contribute to meaning. It is also consists of distinctive variations of stress, tone, and timing in spoken language.
  3. 3. PROSODIC PHONOLOGY It is a theory of the way in which the flow of speech is organized into a finite set of phonological units. It is also, however, a theory of interactions between phonology and the components of the grammar.
  4. 4. PROSODIC PHONOLOGY 4 PROSODIC FEATURES: 1. SYLLABLE STRUCTURE 2. WORD STRESS 3. SENTENCE AND PHRASE STRESS 4. INTONATION
  5. 5. 1. SYLLABIC STRUCTURE
  6. 6. WHAT IS A SYLLABLE? It is commonly known to be a speech unit that is larger than a segment. TWO TYPES OF SYLLABLE 1. OPEN SYLLABLE – usually ends in a vowel 2. CLOSED SYLLABLE – usually ends in one or more consonants For example, the English words…  go, we, are all made up of single open syllables,  eat, ball, mould, and rest are all made of single closed syllables.
  7. 7. CLASSIFICATION (according to NUMBER of syllables) 1. MONOSYLLABIC – one syllable 2. DISYLLABIC – two syllables 3. POLYSYLLABLIC – two or more syllables HOW DO WE DESCRIBE SYLLABIC STRUCTURES? CANONICAL SYLLABLE STRUCTURE – It is the schema that accounts for all the syllables in language, in terms of possible consonant and vowels sequences permitted, written in terms of the generic symbols C (for consonant) and V (for vowel). a. Go – CV b. high – CV c. eat – VC d. ball - CVC
  8. 8. A syllable has a TRIPARTITE STRUCTURE The syllable consists of an obligatory constituent, NUCLEUS, which is a Vowel or a syllabic consonant, and two optional constituents – ONSET and CODA, both of which are consonants. WORD SYLLABLE STRUCTURE A N GO O + N BAG O + N + C ON N + C PRODUCT O + N + C
  9. 9. STRUCTURE A PRO – DUCT Syllable Syllable PR O D U CT DISYLLABI C ONSET NUCLEU S ONSET NUCLEU S CODA O + N + O + N + C This has a FLAT STRUCTURE that was first proposed by PIKE (1947). PRODUCT
  10. 10. BAG STRUCTURE B BB AB GB ONSET RIME NUCLEU S CODA C V C œ gb MONOSYLLABI C SEGMENTS IPA Pike and Pike (1947) thus proposed a binary structure of the syllable as constituted by two constituents Onset and Rhyme. Rhyme in turn was seen as constituted of the Nucleus Canonical
  11. 11. SITTING STRUCTURE C Syllable Syllable (sit) O + N + C O + N + C (ting) AMBISYLLABIC CONSONANT AMBISYLLABIC CONSONANT – refers to overlapping of the articulation of consonant sounds (Hocket, 1955)
  12. 12. 2. WORD STRESS
  13. 13. WHAT IS STRESS? It is the rhythm of a language. In pronunciation, stress can refer to words, part of a word, or even one word in a group of words that receives the most emphasis. Stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or certain. Stressed syllables are louder than non- stressed syllables, also, they are longer and have a higher pitch. It also helps us distinguish words from noun to verb.
  14. 14. ACTIVITY: 1) Holiday 2) Alone 3) Admiration 4) Confidentia l 5) Degree 6) Weaker 7) Nervous 8) Parents 1) HOliday 2) aLONE 3) ADmiRAtio n 4) CONfiDENti al 5) DEgree 6) WEAKer 7) NERvous
  15. 15. PROject proJECT OBject obJECT CONvict conVICT PREsent preSENT SUSpect susPECT REcord reCORD CONtrast conTRAST INsult inSULT CONflict conFLICT NOUN S VERB S
  16. 16. THREE BASIC PATTERNS OF STRESS IN SYLLABLES: MONOSYLLABIC BYSYLLABIC MULTISYLLABIC
  17. 17. FOUR GENERAL RULES ABOUT WORDS STRESS 1. STRESS THE FIRST SYLLABLE OF: Most two-syllable nouns: CLImate, KNOWledge Most two-syllable adjectives: FLIPpant, SPAcious 2. STRESS THE LAST SYLLABLE OF: Most two-syllable verbs: reQUIRE, deCIDE
  18. 18. FOUR GENERAL RULES ABOUT WORDS STRESS 3. STRESS THE SECOND-TO-LAST SYLLABLE OF: Words that end in –ic: ecSTATic, geoGRAPHic Words ending in –sion, -tion: exTENsion, retriBUtion 4. STRESS THE THIRD-FROM-LAST SYLLABLE OF: Words that end in –cy, -ty, -phy and –gy : deMOCracy, unCERtainty, geOGraphy,
  19. 19. 3. SENTENCE AND PHRASE STRESS
  20. 20. WHAT IS SENTENCE AND PHRASE STRESS? Sentence stress is the music of spoken English. Sentence stress is what gives English its rhythm or "beat". When words are combined into phrases and sentences, one syllable receives more stress than the others.
  21. 21. Phrasal stress can distinguish a compound noun from an adjective + noun combination. COMPOUND NOUN ADJECTIVE + NOUN Hotdog (a type of food) Hot dog (an overheated dog) Redcoat (a British soldier) Red coat (a coat that is red)
  22. 22. MOST SENTENCES HAVE TWO BASIC TYPES OF WORD: 1. CONTENT WORDS Content words are the key words of a sentence. They are the important words that carry the meaning or sense—the real content. 2. STRUCTURE WORDS They are small, simple words that make the sentence correct grammatically. They give the sentence its correct form—its structure.
  23. 23. BASIC RULES OF SENTENCE AND PHRASE STRESS 1. Content words are stressed. 2. Structure words are unstressed. 3. The time between stressed words is always the same.
  24. 24. SELL CAR GO FRANCE SELL my CAR I’ll GO to FRANC E CONTENT WORDS SELL my CAR I’ll GO to FRANC E STRUCTURE WORDS WILL YOU SELL MY CAR BECAUSE I’LL GO TO FRANCE.
  25. 25. CONTENT WORDS - STRESSED WORDS CARRYING THE MEANING EXAMPLE MAIN VERBS Sell, Give, Employ NOUNS Car, Music, Mary ADJECTIVES Red, Big, Interesting ADVERBS Quickly, Loudly, Never NEGATIVE AUXILLARIES Don’t, Aren’t, Can’t
  26. 26. CONTENT WORDS - UNSTRESSED WORDS for CORRECT GRAMMAR EXAMPLE PRONOUNS He, We, They PREPOSITIONS On, At, Into ARTICLES A, An, The CONJUNCTIONS And, But, Because AUXILLARY VERBS Do, Be, Have, Can, Must
  27. 27. LET’S TRY! I am a proFESsional phoTOgrapher whose MAIN Intrest is to TAKE SPEcial, BLACK and WHITE PHOtographs that exHIBit Abstract MEANings in their photoGRAPHic STRUCture.
  28. 28. 4. INTONATION
  29. 29. ACTIVITY: SAY “HELLO” TO… A friend you meet regularly A friend you haven’t seen for a long time A neighbour you don’t like A 6 month old baby Someone doing what he shoudn’t To know if someone is litening The same but on the phone
  30. 30. WHAT IS INTONATION? In phonetics, the melodic pattern of an utterance. Intonation helps to recognize the language that you hear in the same way as the melody of a song helps you recognize the song that you are listening. It also conveys differences of expressive meaning (e.g., surprise, anger, happiness). According to David Crystal, intonation is not a single system of contours and levels, but the product of the interaction of features from
  31. 31. TWO TYPES OF INTONATION “Your name is John?” (rising intonation) it can express a number of various emotions, such as non-finality, surprise, doubt, interest, politeness, lack of confidence “Your name is John.” (falling intonation) Used for asking and giving information in normal, quiet, unemphatic style. Other main types of intonation include: High fall, low fall, fall-rise, high rise, midlevel rise, low rise
  32. 32. KEY COMPONENTS OF INTONATION PITCH – degree of height of our voice in speech SENTENCE STRESS – makes the utterance understandable to the listener by making the important words in the sentence stressed, clear, and higher in pitch, and by the shortening and obscuring the unstressed words. RHYTHM – sense of movement in speech, marked by stress, timing, quantity of syllables
  33. 33. FUNCTION OF INTONATION Attitudinal Functions Accentual Functions Grammatical Functions Discourse Function
  34. 34. ATTITUDINAL FUNCTIONS Allows us to express emotions such as confidence, interest, doubt, joy, pain, irony. ACCENTUAL FUNCTIONS Implies the placement of stress is determined by intonation. GRAMMATICAL FUNCTIONS The listener is better able to recognize the grammar and syntax structure of what is being said by using information contained in the intonation such as: A. The placement of boundaries between phrases, clauses and sentences. B. The difference between questions and statements.
  35. 35. DISCOURSE INTONATION It can indicate when the speaker is indicating some sort of contrast or link with material in another tone unit. In conversation it can convey to the listener what kind of response is being expected from him.
  36. 36. 7 CASES WHERE INTONATION MATTERS 1.Asking questions 2.Making statements 3.Listing things 4.Expressing feelings 5.Stressing the importance of something 6.Contrasting between things 7.Using tag questions
  37. 37. REFERENC ES:www.toeflogoanywhere.org www.slideshare.net www.englishclub.com www.britannica.com www.fluentu.com www.PHONOLOGY/07-Guangzhou-2017 www.ProsodicPhonology.mini.pdf www.HandbookDevLing_prosody.pdf www.phon.ox.ac.uk www.learning-english-online.net www.scholar.google.com.ph
  38. 38. Thank You!

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