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Phonology and pronunciation of morphemes ms. ladjagais

allophones of /t/

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Phonology and pronunciation of morphemes ms. ladjagais

  1. 1. PHONOLOGY: THE SOUND PATTERNS OF LANGUAGE Presented by: Nor-Ann Gemma P. Ladjagais
  2. 2. •Nature of Phonology •Ending sounds of Plurals •Pronunciation of plurals with correct ending sounds What’s there to talk about?
  3. 3. – All the languages in the world sound so different because the way the languages use speech sounds to form patterns differs from language to language.
  4. 4. What is Phonology?  The study of how speech sounds form patterns is phonology.  Phonology tells us what sounds are in a language, how they do and can combine into words, and explains why certain phonetic features are important to identifying a word.
  5. 5. Phonology: The Sound Patterns of Language  Phonology also refers to the sound structure of speech, and to the perception, representation, and production of speech sounds.  Speech sounds can be classified as either consonant or vowels.  Consonants – the air does not flow freely.  Vowels – air flows freely to create different sounds
  6. 6. Let’s try this! Put your fingers in front of your throat:  Say the letters “v” and “f”  What is the difference? How about with these letter combinations? B/P D/T G/K Z/S
  7. 7.  Phonology is concerned with the abstract or mental aspects of sounds in language.  Compare to phonetics? Phonetics is the physical properties of speech sounds, e.g. how the sound is physically produced.  Phonology serves as the underlying design for all the variations in different physical articulations of a sound type in different contexts.
  8. 8.  We think of the [t] sound in the following words to be the same: - tar - star - writer - eighth  What we mean is that in the phonology of English, they are all represented in the same way, but physically, they are all different.
  9. 9. The Pronunciation of Morphemes: Plurals  Sometimes certain morphemes are pronounced differently depending on their context.  For example, the English plural morpheme has three different pronunciations depending on what noun you attach it to: It gets pronounced as a [z] for words like cab, bag, and bar It gets pronounced as [s] for words like cap, back, and faith It gets pronounced as [əz] for words like bus, garage, and match
  10. 10. The Pronunciation of Morphemes: Plurals  To determine a rule for when each variant of the plural morpheme, or allomorph, is used, it is useful to create a chart to examine the phonological environments in which each allomorph occurs:
  11. 11. The Pronunciation of Morphemes: Plurals  To help distinguish the phonological environment of the words that take the [-s], [-z], and [-ez] allomorphs, minimal pairs can be used.  A minimal pair is two words with different meanings that are identical except for one sound that occurs in the same place in each word.  Minimal pairs whose members take different forms of the plural allomorph are particularly helpful for our purposes.
  12. 12. For example: cab [kæb] and cap [kæp] differ only by their final sound, so since each word take a different allomorph, we can assume that the allomorph is selected based on the final sound of the noun. Therefore: cab – /kæbz/ cap – / kæps/ More examples: bead [bid] and beat [bit] …. /bidz/ and /bits/ laugh [læf] and love [lʌv] …. /læfs/ and /lʌvz/
  13. 13. List of Minimal Pairs: [s] and [z] sound 1. Log and lock --- log[z] and lock[s] 2. Wig and wick --- wig[z] and wick[s] 3. Snag and snack --- snag[z] and snack[s] 4. Girl and curl --- girl[z] and curl[s] 5. Stag and stack --- stag[z] and stack[s] 6. Guard and card --- guard[z] and card[s]
  14. 14. Plural nouns: Ending in es / [ez]  mass - mass + es = mass[ez]  blouse - blouse + es = blous[ez]  match - match + es= match[ez]  sash - sash + es = sach[ez]  lash - lash + es = lash[ez]
  15. 15. The Pronunciation of Morphemes: Plurals  Since we are looking only at the final sound of each noun, we can make our chart a little sunccinct: Allomorph Environment [z] After [b], [d], [g], [v], [ð], [m], [n], [ŋ], [l], [r], [a], [ɔɪ] [s] After [p], [t], [k], [f], [ɵ] [ǝᴢ] After [s], [∫], [z], [Ʒ], [tʃ], [dƷ]
  16. 16. The Pronunciation of Morphemes: Plurals  Then we can make generalizations about the environment in which each allomorph occurs based on knowledge of natural classes. - [z] occurs after voiced nonsibilant segments - [s] occurs after voiceless nonsibilant segments - [ǝᴢ] occurs after sibilant segments such as s, z, ʃ, Ʒ, tʃ, dƷ
  17. 17. The Pronunciation of Morphemes: Plurals  We can simplify this even more by creating a rule that assumes /z/ is the basic or underlying form of the plural, then we have two rules to explain why the other allomorphs occur: 1. Insert a [ǝ] before the plural morpheme /z/ when a regular noun ends in a sibilant, giving [ǝᴢ] 2. Change the plural morpheme /z/ to a voiceless [s] when preceded by a voiceless sound * We can write this in rule format: /z/ -> [s] / [-voice]
  18. 18. This chart illustrates how the plurals of bus, butt, and bug are formed by applying these two rules: bus + pl. butt + pl. bug + pl. Basic representation /bʌs + z//bʌt + z/ /bʌg + z/ Apply rule (1) ǝ NA* NA Apply rule (2) NA s NA Phonetic representation [bʌsǝz] [bʌts] [bʌgz] *NA means not applicable.
  19. 19. Cont.,  These rules must be ordered so that rule applies before rule 2 otherwise we would derive an incorrect phonetic form. Such as… Basic representation /bʌs + z/ Apply rule (2) s Apply rule (1) ǝ Phonetic representation [bʌsǝs]  The particular phonological rules that determine the phonetic form of morphemes are morphophonemic rules.
  20. 20. Additional Examples of Allomorphs  The English possessive morphemes and the third person singular morphemes have allomorphs that take on the same phonetic form as the plural morpheme and are governed by the same rules: Possessive: Add [z] to woman to get woman ‘ s Add [s] to ship to get ship ‘ s Add [ǝz] to judge to get judge ‘ s Third person singular: Add [z] to need to get needs Add [s] to eat to get eats Add [ǝz] to rush to get rushes
  22. 22. Instructions: The teacher describes objects in the class (quantity, location, physical description) while you try to guess what they are. For example: Teacher: There are three of these in the classroom. Student: Windows!
  23. 23. But, the fun part does not begin there yet…  We take the basic idea of the previous exercise but this time, it is YOUR turn to play the role of the teacher.  Instructions: Find a representative who has the ability to take the role of the teacher. The representative will have to throw questions at the other group who will give their guesses on the objects being described. The group who gets the highest points wins the challenge and the losers will have to take the punishment!
  24. 24. Conclusion:  Phonology has been one of the important things that an ESL teacher must be familiar with. The mastery of this kind plays an important role since it helps teachers be eloquent with their speaking skills especially when delivering their lessons to their learners. It is when learners fully understand and use English fluently and articulately from teachers who also have the mastery and broader background of the study of sounds. Thus, phonology.
  25. 25. References:  Introduction to Linguistic Theory, Adam Szczegielniak  The Sound Patterns of Language: Phonology, Ms. Abras A. Mujaddi  Phonemic Awareness, www.ed.gov/teachers/how/tools/initiative/summerworksho p/valdes/valdes.ppt
  26. 26. Thank you for listening! 