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Minimal pairs and phonotactic constraints ms lizardo

phones, phonemes, and allophones

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Minimal pairs and phonotactic constraints ms lizardo

  3. 3. What is minimal pairs?  In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language, which differ in only one phonological element, such as a phone, phoneme, and have distinct meanings.
  4. 4. A pair of words that differ by such one phoneme in the same position and have different meaning.
  5. 5. PHONEMES is a basic unit of a language which is combined with other phonemes to form meaningful unit such as word. PHONES from the view point of segmental phonology are the physical realization of phonemes.
  6. 6. Examples: wet vs yet bet vs bit tip vs dip pat vs pot might vs sight lock vs luck
  7. 7. Two words that differ in meaning through a contrast of a single phoneme are called MINIMAL PAIRS.
  8. 8. What is minimal sets? • A minimal set is used to demonstrate that the phonological element under consideration is phonemic—that is, that it has contrastive function in determining meaning.
  9. 9. PHONOTACTICS --------------------------------------------------- Study of the sound and phoneme combinations allowed in a given language.
  10. 10. Phonotactic Constraints  the rules that characterize permissible syllable structures in a language. Define as what sound sequences are possible and what other sound sequences are not possible in a given language.
  11. 11.  Another important point about phonotactic constraints is that they vary from language to language.
  12. 12. Syllable A phonological unit that is composed of one or more phonemes.
  13. 13. The Syllable Structure  The structure of English spoken syllable can be summarized as follows:  Minimally , a syllable consists of a vowel , or a vowel like sound which acts as a nucleus ,center or pick of the syllable.  Many syllables have one or more consonants preceding the nucleus. These make up the syllable onset :me ,so, play. Traditionally they are known as open syllables.  Many syllables have one or more consonants following the nucleus. These make up syllables coda :am, ants, eel. They are traditionally known as closed syllables.  Man syllables have both an onset and a coda :cat, jump.
  14. 14. Syllable structure
  15. 15. Examples of Phonotactic Constraints 1) After Consonants like /b/, /g/, /k/, or /p/  another stop is not permitted 2) If a word begins with /l/ or /r/  Every speaker knows the next letter will be a vowel 3) No more than three consonants Allowed  Even this restricted to the following sequence:  /s/ + /p, t, k/ + /r, l, w, y/
  16. 16. Phonotactic Constraints in English  VC : on, at, out  VCC : ant, oust  CV : to, shoe  CCV : spy, snow  CVC : tin, chap  CVCC : part, tenth  CCVC : spin, cloud, pride  CCCVC : splash, spread, split  CCCVCCC : scripts, sprints
  17. 17. In analyzing syllable structure its important to look for the pronunciation behind a word spelling. although ooze ends in a written vowel , it ends in a spoken consonant and its structure is VC. Similarly all is VC not VCC, jumped is CVCCC not CVCCVC and fox is CVCC not CVC.
  18. 18. The importance of Phonotactic constraints in segmenting sound sequence in a syllable is that, the sequential arrangement is itself a cue to the number of syllables in a word. And it also limits on the talker’s ability to pronounce sequences of sounds as one syllable and the listener perception of how many syllables he or she hears from a given sequence of phonemes.
  19. 19. Syllable clusters A syllable has a vowel. It might also have one or more consonants before the vowel or one more consonants after it. In CCV syllables there is a sequence of two consonant without an intervening vowel. Sequence such as this are called CLUSTER. (sometimes known as blends).
  20. 20. Consonant clusters When two or more consonants occur together, they are called a consonant cluster. (“Cluster” means “group.”)
  21. 21. There are 26 two-consonant cluster in English: /sm/, /sw/, /st/, /sw/, /sk/, /sl/, /sp/, /sf/, /ow/, /dw/, /tw/, /or/, /dr/, /tr/, /kw/, /kr/, /kl/, /pr/, /fr/, /br/, /gr/, /pl/, /fl/, /bl/, /gl/, /fr/
  22. 22. Some example of syllable-initial combinations in actual words Cluster word transcription /sm/ small /smol/ /sp/ spin /spin/ /fr/ free /fri/ /bl/ blue /blu/ /gr/ green /grin/
  23. 23. Complimentary Distribution Complementary distribution is commonly applied to phonology, where similar phones in complementary distribution are usually allophones of the same phoneme.
  24. 24. For instance, in English, [p] and [pʰ] are allophones of the phoneme /p/ because they occur in complementary distribution. [pʰ] always occurs when it is the syllable onset and followed by a stressed vowel (as in the word pin). [p] occurs in all other situations (as in the word spin).
  25. 25. COMPLIMENTARY DISTRIBUTION. When two or more sounds occur in the same phonemic context or environment, they are said to be in
  26. 26. QUIZ
  27. 27. REFERENCES: •http://seas3.elte.hu/phono/notes/141-phonotactics.html ‘ •http://clas.mq.edu.au/speech/phonetics/phonology/syllable/sy ll_phonotactic.html •David Crystal,2003,The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language,2nd ed. •Cruttenden, Alan, 2008, Gimson's Pronunciation of English, 7th ed., London. •Victoria Fromkin, Robert Rodman,2003,An Introduction to Language,7th ed. •https://www.sltinfo.com/syllables-and-clusters/