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Zooplankton distribution and seasonal succession
By
Dr. Mohammad Belal Hossain
FIMS, NSTU
Session Overview
1. Session Review: Benthos distribution
2. Session Overview
3. Introduction
4. Distribution of Zooplankton
5. Horizontal distribution
6. Vertical migration
7. Seasonal succession
8. Summary
9. Recommended Books/ Papers
Introduction
Simply the animal planktons are
zooplankton.
On the basis of quality of life-
Holoplankton: Permanent plankton ex.
Mysid, lucifer
Meroplankton: Temporary plankton ex. fish
larvae, crab larvae
oevidenced that zooplankton abundant area
are rich in fishery, that’s why we need to
know their distribution mainly.
Distribution of Zooplankton
Almost all zooplankton are herbivorous, feed
on phytoplankton, so their distribution are also
confined to the upper layer of the water body
(pond, lake, estuary, oceans).
a)Horizontal
b)Vertical
c) Diurnal
d) seasonal
Polar vs. Temperate vs. Tropical
Horizontal :
Distribution of Zooplankton in the Meghna river estuary:
Chandpur Hatiya Swandwip
49%
28%
13%
5% 5%
Crab larvae
Fish larvae
Shrimp larvae
Cyclopoid copepods
Insect larvae
Zooplankton at Chandpur
8% 5%
27%
34%
21%
2% 3% Mysid
Sagitta
Crab larvae
Fish larvae
Shrimp larvae
Coleoptera
Insect larvae
Zooplankton at Hatiya
11%
8%
7%
21%
10%
20%
16%
2% 4% 1%
Mysid
Lucifer
Acetes
Sagitta
Crab larvae
Fish larvae
Shrimp larvae
Calanus copepods
Cyclopoid copepods
Daphnia
Zooplankton at Swandwip
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Ind/m2
Swandwip Hatiya chndpur
Horizontal distribution in the Meghna estuary
Zooplankton at different stations
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
ind./m2
Premonsoon Monsoon Post monsoon
Zooplankton in different seasons in estuary
Seasonal Succession
There is a marked change in species composition, this
change in the dominant species from season to season is
called seasonal succession. In this succession, one or more
species of plankton dominate for shorter or longer period of
time and then replaced by another set of species. This pattern
repeats yearly.
Changes in species composition at Swandwip in different
seasons
Swandwip Premonsoon
Zooplankton Number
Mysid 12
Lucifer 8
Acetes 7
Sagitta 22
Calanus copepods 2
Swandwip monsoon
ZooplanktonNumber
Crab larvae 14
Fish larvae 11
Shrimp larvae 5
Swandwip post monsoon
Mysid 11
Lucifer 6
Cyclopoid copepods 4
Daphnia 1
Fish larvae 5
Factors responsible for variation in distribution
Physical factors:
Light:
light
e.g. nco2 + nH2O (CH2O)n + nO2
photosynthesis
- Primary Production restricted to lighted zone/ upper zone
-Zooplankton mostly herbivorous
Temperature:
-respiration
- metabolism and reproduction increase with temp.
Physical factors:
Current:
influence all life of the ocean
-carries DO
-disperse eggs, spores and adult to suitable area, also play
negative role.
wave:
-increase the uptake of O2
-also destructive effects like carries to the upper part of shore
and die.
Tide: can supply DO
-again a lot can trap during low tide
Upwelling: brings nutrients from deep water to the surface
water- so directly affect the growth
Turbulence : Vertical circulation
-Can mix water between layers, carries nutrients.
Chemical factors:
BOD: Negative
H2S: Negative
Biological factors:
Food: Positive
Predation: Negative
Parasitism: Negative
Competition: Negative
Vertical Migration/distribution
Periodical movement of an organism from one place to
another in a particular season or time for various purpose
such as feeding, breeding or avoiding adverse situation but
shall come back to their natural habitat at the end of
purpose is served.
Diurnal vertical Migration:
-many plankters in both fresh and marine situations, make
more or less diurnal vertical migration, such migration may
be downwards into depths during day time and towards
the surface at night or in opposite direction
-can be determined by day and night sampling
Vertical Migration/distribution
From challenger expedition, some zooplankton can
migrate upto 200 m depth from surface.
Species : Rotifera, copepoda, cladocera, crustacean
larvae
Example: Calanus finmarclicus, undergoes a
considerable diurnal vertical migration, appearing at
the surface in large numbers during the night, but
migrating downwards until it has a midday max.
conc. at 70 m.
Speed of Migration: Difficult to determine
May vary from 29 to 125 m/hr
Daphnia- 10m/hr, Centropages- 82 m/hr
Causes:
-Phototropism: optimum level of illumination cond.
-Phototropism-geotropism interaction: swim away from the bottom but
repelled by the light
-Temperature change: depends on sunlight, migrates cooler to warmer
layers (upward) and vice versa
-Hunger for food
-Physiological rhythm: innate P.R drive them to migrate
Factors effects on migration:
Age: young migrates less than adult
Sex: male and female exhibit different patterns, female more.
Environment: Same species may show different patterns in another
locality.
Summary
zooplankton abundant area are rich in fishery, that’s
why we need to know their distribution mainly
Distribution of Zooplankton:Horizontal distribution,
Vertical migration,Seasonal succession,
some physical,chemical and biological factors like-Light,
temp., Current, wave, tide, upwelling, predation,
competition etc control the distribution
Recommended Books/ Papers
11. Marine Biology- James W. Nybakken. Marine Biology- James W. Nybakken
2. Davis, CC 1955.The marine and freshwater2. Davis, CC 1955.The marine and freshwater
plankton.plankton.
3. Marine Biology- Levinton3. Marine Biology- Levinton
4. Newell and Newell, 1977. Marine Plankton.4. Newell and Newell, 1977. Marine Plankton.
5. Introductory Oceanography- Thurman5. Introductory Oceanography- Thurman
6. Oceanography- Grant Gross6. Oceanography- Grant Gross
7. Introduction to Marine Plankton-Abhijit Mitra et al7. Introduction to Marine Plankton-Abhijit Mitra et al
8. The Oceans- Sverdrup8. The Oceans- Sverdrup et alet al
9.9. Welch, PS 1952. Limnology. Mc Graw-Hill BookWelch, PS 1952. Limnology. Mc Graw-Hill Book
Company, NewYork.Company, NewYork.
Zooplankton distribution and seasonal succession

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Zooplankton distribution and seasonal succession

  • 1. Zooplankton distribution and seasonal succession By Dr. Mohammad Belal Hossain FIMS, NSTU
  • 2. Session Overview 1. Session Review: Benthos distribution 2. Session Overview 3. Introduction 4. Distribution of Zooplankton 5. Horizontal distribution 6. Vertical migration 7. Seasonal succession 8. Summary 9. Recommended Books/ Papers
  • 3. Introduction Simply the animal planktons are zooplankton. On the basis of quality of life- Holoplankton: Permanent plankton ex. Mysid, lucifer Meroplankton: Temporary plankton ex. fish larvae, crab larvae oevidenced that zooplankton abundant area are rich in fishery, that’s why we need to know their distribution mainly.
  • 4. Distribution of Zooplankton Almost all zooplankton are herbivorous, feed on phytoplankton, so their distribution are also confined to the upper layer of the water body (pond, lake, estuary, oceans). a)Horizontal b)Vertical c) Diurnal d) seasonal
  • 5. Polar vs. Temperate vs. Tropical
  • 6. Horizontal : Distribution of Zooplankton in the Meghna river estuary: Chandpur Hatiya Swandwip
  • 7. 49% 28% 13% 5% 5% Crab larvae Fish larvae Shrimp larvae Cyclopoid copepods Insect larvae Zooplankton at Chandpur
  • 8. 8% 5% 27% 34% 21% 2% 3% Mysid Sagitta Crab larvae Fish larvae Shrimp larvae Coleoptera Insect larvae Zooplankton at Hatiya
  • 9. 11% 8% 7% 21% 10% 20% 16% 2% 4% 1% Mysid Lucifer Acetes Sagitta Crab larvae Fish larvae Shrimp larvae Calanus copepods Cyclopoid copepods Daphnia Zooplankton at Swandwip
  • 10. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Ind/m2 Swandwip Hatiya chndpur Horizontal distribution in the Meghna estuary Zooplankton at different stations
  • 11. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 ind./m2 Premonsoon Monsoon Post monsoon Zooplankton in different seasons in estuary
  • 12. Seasonal Succession There is a marked change in species composition, this change in the dominant species from season to season is called seasonal succession. In this succession, one or more species of plankton dominate for shorter or longer period of time and then replaced by another set of species. This pattern repeats yearly. Changes in species composition at Swandwip in different seasons Swandwip Premonsoon Zooplankton Number Mysid 12 Lucifer 8 Acetes 7 Sagitta 22 Calanus copepods 2 Swandwip monsoon ZooplanktonNumber Crab larvae 14 Fish larvae 11 Shrimp larvae 5 Swandwip post monsoon Mysid 11 Lucifer 6 Cyclopoid copepods 4 Daphnia 1 Fish larvae 5
  • 13. Factors responsible for variation in distribution Physical factors: Light: light e.g. nco2 + nH2O (CH2O)n + nO2 photosynthesis - Primary Production restricted to lighted zone/ upper zone -Zooplankton mostly herbivorous Temperature: -respiration - metabolism and reproduction increase with temp.
  • 14. Physical factors: Current: influence all life of the ocean -carries DO -disperse eggs, spores and adult to suitable area, also play negative role. wave: -increase the uptake of O2 -also destructive effects like carries to the upper part of shore and die. Tide: can supply DO -again a lot can trap during low tide Upwelling: brings nutrients from deep water to the surface water- so directly affect the growth Turbulence : Vertical circulation -Can mix water between layers, carries nutrients.
  • 15. Chemical factors: BOD: Negative H2S: Negative Biological factors: Food: Positive Predation: Negative Parasitism: Negative Competition: Negative
  • 16. Vertical Migration/distribution Periodical movement of an organism from one place to another in a particular season or time for various purpose such as feeding, breeding or avoiding adverse situation but shall come back to their natural habitat at the end of purpose is served. Diurnal vertical Migration: -many plankters in both fresh and marine situations, make more or less diurnal vertical migration, such migration may be downwards into depths during day time and towards the surface at night or in opposite direction -can be determined by day and night sampling
  • 17. Vertical Migration/distribution From challenger expedition, some zooplankton can migrate upto 200 m depth from surface. Species : Rotifera, copepoda, cladocera, crustacean larvae Example: Calanus finmarclicus, undergoes a considerable diurnal vertical migration, appearing at the surface in large numbers during the night, but migrating downwards until it has a midday max. conc. at 70 m. Speed of Migration: Difficult to determine May vary from 29 to 125 m/hr Daphnia- 10m/hr, Centropages- 82 m/hr
  • 18. Causes: -Phototropism: optimum level of illumination cond. -Phototropism-geotropism interaction: swim away from the bottom but repelled by the light -Temperature change: depends on sunlight, migrates cooler to warmer layers (upward) and vice versa -Hunger for food -Physiological rhythm: innate P.R drive them to migrate Factors effects on migration: Age: young migrates less than adult Sex: male and female exhibit different patterns, female more. Environment: Same species may show different patterns in another locality.
  • 19. Summary zooplankton abundant area are rich in fishery, that’s why we need to know their distribution mainly Distribution of Zooplankton:Horizontal distribution, Vertical migration,Seasonal succession, some physical,chemical and biological factors like-Light, temp., Current, wave, tide, upwelling, predation, competition etc control the distribution
  • 20. Recommended Books/ Papers 11. Marine Biology- James W. Nybakken. Marine Biology- James W. Nybakken 2. Davis, CC 1955.The marine and freshwater2. Davis, CC 1955.The marine and freshwater plankton.plankton. 3. Marine Biology- Levinton3. Marine Biology- Levinton 4. Newell and Newell, 1977. Marine Plankton.4. Newell and Newell, 1977. Marine Plankton. 5. Introductory Oceanography- Thurman5. Introductory Oceanography- Thurman 6. Oceanography- Grant Gross6. Oceanography- Grant Gross 7. Introduction to Marine Plankton-Abhijit Mitra et al7. Introduction to Marine Plankton-Abhijit Mitra et al 8. The Oceans- Sverdrup8. The Oceans- Sverdrup et alet al 9.9. Welch, PS 1952. Limnology. Mc Graw-Hill BookWelch, PS 1952. Limnology. Mc Graw-Hill Book Company, NewYork.Company, NewYork.