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Brain nutrition

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Brain nutrition

  1. 1. Brain development:<br />Nutrition<br />By: Brittany Clark<br />
  2. 2. What is nutrition?<br />Nutrition: “a process in animals and plants involving the intake of nutrient materials and their subsequent assimilation into the tissues” (World English Dictonary)<br />Throughout life nutrition is important to sustaining a healthy brain<br />Brain development is most sensitive to nutrition between mid-gestation and 2 years<br />*(Benton 2008)<br />
  3. 3. Brain Development<br />The brain starts developing around one month after conception and continues until mid-twenties<br />Environment, experiences, and balanced diet will help the brain continue to develop after birth<br />(Zerotothree.com)<br />
  4. 4. Importance of Diet<br />During infancy and childhood the brain is rapidly developing, relying on diet to provide proper nourishment <br />Infants brains experience windows of opportunities: a time in which a new skill is more easily learnt <br />Malnutrition can prevent ideal metabolic functioning during these sensitive periods <br />Creating short and long term behavioral and cognitive problems<br />*(Benton 2008) *(Rubin 2008 p.10-15)<br />
  5. 5. Baby Brains<br />By birth the brain will be ¼ the size of an adult brain<br />Weight of a newborns brain is 10% of body weight<br />An adults brain accounts for only 2%<br />The spinal cord and brain stem are well developed<br />The limbic system and cerebral cortex are not <br />*(Benton 2008) (Zerotothree.com)<br />
  6. 6. Baby Brain Cont’d<br />Babies are born with approximately 100 billion brain cells<br />Proper nutrition will help these cells make connections and neural pathways needed throughout life<br />(Allaboutbabies.com)<br />
  7. 7. myelination<br />Myelin: a fatty layer that coats the axons in mature neurons<br />Creating protection and increasing the speed of neurotransmission<br />Babies are born with very little myelin<br />Only reflexes needed for survival are fully myelinated (e.g. suckling and breathing)<br />Myelination is most rapid during the first year and continues until 5 years old<br />It occurs throughout life but at a much slower rate<br />Click here to view a short video on myelination <br />*(Benton 2008) <br />
  8. 8. Breastfeeding<br />Myelin is made up of 30% protein and 70% fat<br />Most common fat is oleic acid<br />Oleic acid is most ample fatty acid in human breast milk<br />Breast milk will change to accommodate infants nutritional need <br />Colostrum: (days 1-5) high in antibodies and prepares the immune system <br />Transitional milk- (6 days – 2 weeks) more sugar water and calories<br />Mature milk (after 2 weeks) has more calories and carbohydrates<br />*(Benton 2008) *(Rubin 2008 p.10-15)<br />
  9. 9. Breastfeeding cont.<br />Nutritional value of breast milk cannot be duplicated<br />Evidence shows children who were breast fed have high IQ’s<br />Also breast fed children tend to have stronger immune systems<br />Click hereto watch short video on benefits of breastfeeding <br />*(Benton 2008) *(Rubin 2008 p.10-15)<br />
  10. 10. Essential brain nutrition <br />There are several components needed to create a balanced diet <br />The amounts and concentration will vary depending on age; but components will stay the same<br />
  11. 11. Protein<br />Basic component is amino acid<br />Some amino acids have the role as neurotransmitter<br />Needed to myelinate<br />Foods that are high in protein:<br />Fish<br />Milk<br />eggs<br />*(Rubin 2008 p.26) (Fi.edu) *(Rosales et al. 2009) <br />
  12. 12. Zinc<br />Zinc plays important role in baby’s brain development and behavior<br />Lack of zinc could develop several development problems<br />deficit of activities, attention, emotional, motor skills, concentration and memory<br />Food that contains Zinc:<br />Whole grains, lentils, eggs, seeds<br />(Rubin 2008 p.35) (Fi.edu)<br />
  13. 13. Essential Fatty Acid<br />To build brain cells you need fatty acids<br />Your body needs two forms of fat (EFA) in its diet because you cannot produce them<br />First: Alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA) <br />Foundation of the Omega- 3 fatty acid<br />Foods that contain ALA:<br />Green vegetables, Flax seeds, Walnuts<br />Second: Linoleic acid (LA)<br />Foundation of the Omega- 6 fatty acids<br />Food that contain AL:<br />Seasame oils, corn, safflower<br />*(Rosales et al. 2009) *(Rubin 2008 p.127) (Fi.edu)<br />
  14. 14. Iron<br />Most essential nutrient in baby’s cognitive development<br />Functions as a cofactor which helps enzyme in the metabolism process of the body<br />The iron deficiency <br />Disrupts baby’s mental and psychomotor development<br />Food that contains high amounts of iron:<br />Spinach, beans, beef<br />Vitamin C is needed in order to absorb iron<br />P. 32 (Fi.edu) *(Rosales et al. 2009) <br />
  15. 15. Carbohydrates<br />Main source of energy for the brain and body<br />Two types<br />Complex: Good carbs<br />It takes the body longer for it to digest and provide constant source of energy needed for developing brain<br />Food containing high amount of complex carb:<br />Whole grain, fruit, vegetables<br />Simple: Bad Carbs<br />Digest quickly and cause sugar high and lows<br />Food containing high amount of simple carb:<br />Refined table sugar, refined grain products, corn syrup<br />*(Rubin 2008 p.127) (Fi.edu)<br />
  16. 16. Vitamin B complex<br />There are several types of vitamin B needed in brain development<br />vitamin B1, vitamin B6, and also Folic Acid (vitamin B9)<br />Helps in the production of neurotransmitters<br />Vitamin B deficiency will result in developmental problems in brain and nerve system<br />Foods containing Vitamin B:<br />Meat, beans, wholegrain <br />*(Rubin 2008 p.32) (Fi.edu)<br />
  17. 17. Brain Blockers: Trans Fat<br />Modern food processing techniques has altered fatty acids<br />Trans fat gets incorporated into brain cell membranes and replaces natural DHA<br />This effects the electrical activity in neurons<br />This type of fat disrupts communication in your brain and prepares the brain for degeneration<br />It alters the brain’s architecture making it more vulnerable to stress<br />Foods containing trans fat:<br />Anything with partially hydrogenated oil<br />(fi.edu)<br />
  18. 18. Diseases and disorders<br />Disorders such as ADHD and Autism have been linked to poor nutrition<br />In some studies the change of diet dramatically reduces symptoms <br />Diseases such as Alzheimer's and Heart disease are also linked to poor nutrition <br />Don’t forget: from conception to old age it is important to feed our bodies with nutritious foods. Nutritious is delicious! <br />Thank you and go feed your brain!<br />(fi.edu)<br />
  19. 19. Bibliography<br />Benton, David. "The Influence of Children’s Diet on Their Cognition and Behavior." European Journal of Nutrition 47.3 (2008): 25-37. Ebsco. Web. 1 Aug. 2001. This article supplied me with studies done correlating childhood nutrition and cognitive development. This article explained the importance of including fatty acids into an infants diet.<br />"Brain Nutrition for Baby." All About Babies. Web. 02 Aug. 2011. <http://babytipz.com/babys-brain/brain-nutrition-for-baby>. This article provided great information on the essentials of brain nutrition. It also was useful in explaining how important nutrition is and it explained in detail why.<br />"How Does Nutrition Affect the Developing Brain?" ZERO TO THREE: Homepage. Web. 01 Aug. 2011. <http://www.zerotothree.org>. This article gave me information on critical time periods in the developing brain as well as when the brain is fully developed. It also gave me information on breast feeding and myelination.<br />"The Human Brain - Fats." The Franklin Institute. Web. 02 Aug. 2011. <http://www.fi.edu/learn/brain/fats.html>. This website was wonderful for learning the different components needed for the brain. It broke down all the fats and explained why our brain needed them and what their function was. It also was useful in noting what is harmful to our brains.<br />
  20. 20. Bibliography Cont.<br />Rosales, Francisco J., Steven J. Reznick, and Steven H. Zeisel. "Understanding the Role of Nutrition in the Brain and Behavioral Development of Toddlers and Preschool Children: Identifying and Addressing Methodological Barriers." Nutritional Neuroscience 12.5 (2009): 190-202. Ebsco. Taylor and Francis. Web. 2 Aug. 2011. This article explained the dramatic postnatal development of an infants brain. It also examined the role of nutrition in brain development.<br />Rubin, Jacqueline. Naturally Healthy First Foods for Baby: the Best Nutrition for the First Year and beyond. Naperville, IL: Source, 2008. Print. This book provided me with basic nutritional needs of an infant through his first year. It explained the importance of a balanced diet to create a healthy brain.<br />