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Mangrove ecosystem services in the Mekong Delta: drivers and a rapid assessment

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Presented by Dr. Le Thanh Loan, University of Economics Ho Chi Minh City, on 10 November 2020 at "International workshop: Enhancing wetland management and sustainable development"

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Mangrove ecosystem services in the Mekong Delta: drivers and a rapid assessment

  1. 1. Mangrove ecosystem services in the Mekong Delta: drivers and a rapid assessment Pham Khanh Nam Le Thanh Loan Tran Phu Hoa EfD Vietnam, University of Economics, HCM City Vo Quoc Tuan Can Tho University Camille Bann Lothar Linde International consultants
  2. 2. Objectives (1) Identify key socio-economic drivers of change in the mangrove ecosystem; (2) Study geographic distribution, quality, and trends of mangrove ecosystems; (3) Estimate the economic values of mangrove ecosystem services and discuss their geographic distribution and trends; and (4) Recommend policy approaches for the integration of ecosystem values into planning and development processes.
  3. 3. Study scope • 6 province with largest mangrove area • Time: 1997 and 2017
  4. 4. Drivers ESV Incorporate ESV in a national database and policy Interviews/work shop SESV Method Timber Fire-wood Inshore fish catch Aquaculture Soil and Coastal protection Carbon sequestration Tourisim
  5. 5. Result 1. Change in mangrove cover 1997-2017, in hectares 1997 2017 Decrease 13.6% mangrove area
  6. 6. (a): heavily degraded or regrowth b): lightly degraded or maturing (c): dense/mature Result 1. Change in mangrove quality 1997-2017, in hectares
  7. 7. oUrban and social drivers oAquaculture oInstitution and policies oAgricultural pollution oHydropower development: coastal erosion and saltwater intrusion Result 2 : Key drivers impacting mangrove ecosystem in the Mekong Delta
  8. 8. Result 3: Mangrove ecosystem service values Timber 1% Fire-wood 9% Inshore fish Catch 4% Aquaculture 15% Soil and coastal protection 55% Carbon sequestration 14% Tourism 2% Share of annual values of ecosystem services in Mekong Delta region (in 2017)
  9. 9. -20,000 -15,000 -10,000 -5,000 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 Binh Dai Ba Tri Thanh Phu Chau Thanh Cau Ngang Duyen Hai Tra Cu Cu Lao Dung Long Phu Vinh Chau Bac Lieu Town Hoa Binh Dong Hai Dam Doi Nam Can Ngoc Hien Phu Tan Tran Van Thoi U Minh An Bien An Minh Rach Gia Hon Dat Kien Luong Ha Tien Town Total Change in Mangrove ecosystem service values in 2017 – 1997 (Unit: thousand USD/year) Result 3: Mangrove ecosystem service values
  10. 10. Result 3: Mangrove ecosystem service values Change in Mangrove ecosystem service values per ha in 2017 – 1997 (Unit: thousand USD/year) -5,500 -4,500 -3,500 -2,500 -1,500 -500 500 1,500 2,500 3,500 Binh Dai Ba Tri Thanh Phu Chau Thanh Cau Ngang Duyen Hai Tra Cu Cu Lao Dung Long Phu Vinh Chau Bac Lieu Town Hoa Binh Dong Hai Dam Doi Nam Can Ngoc Hien Phu Tan Tran Van Thoi U Minh An Bien An Minh Rach Gia Hon Dat Kien Luong Ha Tien Town Total
  11. 11. • Resolution 120/NQ-CP on sustainable development in MKD with climate change adaption (1) The development models for the Mekong Delta will be ecosystem-based; (2) The Mekong Delta will shift from the old model of “living with floods” to a new model of “living with floods, brackish water and saltwater”; (3) The Delta will develop an infrastructure system that is resilient to climate change and natural disasters; (4) In the next 30 years, ecological and high-quality practices will cover 80 percent of the agriculture sector of the Delta and the forest canopy cover will be double by 2050. Integrating ecosystem services in regional policy and development strategy • Integrating ecosystem services in Resolution 120/NQ-CP o Mangrove ecology system: important input for economic development o model of “living with floods, brackish water and saltwater”: mangrove services to be utilised o Coastal infrastructure solutions: combining sea dykes and mangrove o Ecological agriculture: organic aquaculture model from mangrove forests
  12. 12. Conclusions • Important role of mangrove for economic development identified in Resolution 120/NQ-CP o Essential bridge between the freshwater economy and the marine economy o An important input in an ecosystem-based development model o Adaptation to climate change o Organic agriculture • The key drivers of mangrove deforestation over the period of 1997 – 2017 are mismanaged aquaculture farms and development projects. Devolution of land use right to individuals combined with weak monitoring and contract enforcement have led to the overexpansion of shrimp ponds at the expense of mangroves.
  13. 13. Conclusions • Mangrove ecosystem service values: oTotal value: 126.7 triệu USD/năm oValue per ha: 862 USD/năm oSoil and coastal protection: 55% total value oCarbon sequestration and aquaculture: 29% total value oMost of the gains of ecosystem service benefit occurred in Ca mau province where mangrove areas have expanded • SESV method is effective for rapid assessment of mangrove ecosystem service values
  14. 14. Recommendation • Development plan to incorporate ESV in a national database to ensure planning institutions and processes use the same, frequently updated and government approved ESV coefficients for their impact and cost-benefits analysis • Using economic instruments in mangrove management in the Mekong delta • To effectively and efficiently use the results of the SESV approach for their planning purposes

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