Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.
Formalization of collective rights of
native communities in Peru
:
The perspective of the officials implementing it
Iliana...
GLOBAL COMPARATIVE STUDY ON FOREST
TENURE REFORMS
TENURE REFORMS MODIFYING COLLECTIVE TENURE RIGHTS TO LAND AND FORESTS
LEGAL REFORM
• Historical Analysis: Social actors
(Supporting / Opposing)
• Legal Analysis: Regulatory Framework
REFORM IM...
FORMALIZATION OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLES RIGHTS IN
PERU: TITLING OF NATIVE COMMUNITIES
• First Regulation on Native Communities...
Perspectives of agents of implementation: What are the constraints/obstacles?
Challenges to implement existing procedures?...
1. Indigenous communities are the most important target beneficiaries (76%), 14% report
women and 10% youth or elder as ta...
2. Activities and constraints: perpectives on existing
goals and effectiveness
1. At the national level: The goal is to se...
Stage Number of steps
(Law)
Number of
government
agencies involved
(Law)
Number of steps
(Practice)
Number of
government
a...
4. Incongruencias, desacuerdos y desafíos en la
implementación de regulaciones
ARE THERE CURRENTLY CONFLICTS OR DISAGREEME...
5. Social factors facilitating/limiting implementation capacity
Community organizations
Awareness of indigenous
peoples ri...
5. Political factors facilitating/limiting implementation
capacity
Other
Political will
Lacking policies to ensure
coordin...
5. Economic factors facilitating/limiting implementation
capacity
Community economy
Other
International market of
commodit...
1. Overall 60% of the government officials involved in reform implementation work at the subnational level
 Existing chal...
1. Issues related to ethnic affiliations and customary/traditional practices are
mentioned as the most important social fa...
https://www.cifor.org/gcs-tenure/
cifor.org
blog.cifor.org
THANK YOU!!
Formalization of collective rights of native communities in Peru, the perspective of the officials implementing it
Nächste SlideShare
Wird geladen in …5
×

Formalization of collective rights of native communities in Peru, the perspective of the officials implementing it

200 Aufrufe

Veröffentlicht am

Presenter, Organization: Iliana Monterroso and Anne Larson
Date of presentation: March 27th, 2019

Veröffentlicht in: Umweltschutz
  • DOWNLOAD FULL. BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y8nn3gmc } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Antworten 
    Sind Sie sicher, dass Sie …  Ja  Nein
    Ihre Nachricht erscheint hier
  • Gehören Sie zu den Ersten, denen das gefällt!

Formalization of collective rights of native communities in Peru, the perspective of the officials implementing it

  1. 1. Formalization of collective rights of native communities in Peru : The perspective of the officials implementing it Iliana Monterroso and Anne M. Larson 20th World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty Washington D.C., March 25-29, 2019
  2. 2. GLOBAL COMPARATIVE STUDY ON FOREST TENURE REFORMS TENURE REFORMS MODIFYING COLLECTIVE TENURE RIGHTS TO LAND AND FORESTS
  3. 3. LEGAL REFORM • Historical Analysis: Social actors (Supporting / Opposing) • Legal Analysis: Regulatory Framework REFORM IMPLEMENTATION •Analysis of government institutions in charge of reform implementation (Surveys and Interviews) •Institutional framework •Procedures and requirements (Legal Steps) OUTCOMES • # of titles, # hectáres formalized, permits, authoritzations, contracts completed and registered • Scenarios of tenure security at the regional level IMPACT • Analysis at the village/Household level •Land/Forest tenure conditions •Tenure security •External threats •Forest conditions REFORM PROCESS GLOBAL COMPARATIVE STUDY ON TENURE REFORM (2): CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
  4. 4. FORMALIZATION OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLES RIGHTS IN PERU: TITLING OF NATIVE COMMUNITIES • First Regulation on Native Communities Titling (1974) • First Regulation of Forest and Wildlife (Forest declared of Public Interest) • First Reform to the Native Communities titling (1978) • Decentralization process (Transference of the responsibility to title native communities to Subnational Governments) – 2000 • Third Reform to the Forest and Wildlife Law (2015)
  5. 5. Perspectives of agents of implementation: What are the constraints/obstacles? Challenges to implement existing procedures? 1. Mapping of the procedures and steps towards implementation of existing reforms? Laws, technical and legal documents, operational manuals 2. Government institutions with mandate/responsibility to implement existing proceduresn 3. Data collected: 4. Review of 25 titling files 5. Validation interviews (8 in San Martín, 2 in Loreto y 4 in Lima) 6. Characteristics of the people interviewed/surveyed Surveys (N=32) Interviews (N=23) Government Officers NGOs, Indigenous, Internal Cooperation Orgs. Lima (13) Madre de Dios (7) Loreto (12) Lima (8) Loreto (6) Madre de Dios (9) Men (72%) Women (28%) Men (66%) Women (34%) Working at the subnational level (64%) Working at the national level (36%) Working at the subnational level (66%) Working at the national level (34%) • Expertise (average 10 years) • Education 29 of 32 with university education
  6. 6. 1. Indigenous communities are the most important target beneficiaries (76%), 14% report women and 10% youth or elder as target beneficiaries. 2. Out of 32 government officers surveyed at the national and subnational level mention 46% mention the recognition of rights as the most important thematic area of work 1. Perspectives of agents of implementation: Target groups, issues and type of measures promoted Table 1. Tenure-linked problems faced by native communities Classificatio n Principal obstacles Score 1 Many boundary conflicts between communities 1.63 2 Illegal lumber extraction 1.25 3 Overlapping extraction righrts 0.97 4 Inefficient resource management 0.84 Classification done in the Borda ranking system Other Coordinate with other sectors to minimize threats Work with customary/traditional leaders in management of forest /land tenure Educate/informe other communities about formal channesl to present their claims Educate/inform communities about their rights Conflict resolution Clarify boundaries through demarcation and mapping Percentage Figure 1. Measures implemented by government officials to guarantee rights of native communities
  7. 7. 2. Activities and constraints: perpectives on existing goals and effectiveness 1. At the national level: The goal is to secure tenure rigths (titling) for communities and forests. 2. At the subnational level: The goal is to promote Access to land and forests for communities, to improve forest and management use Perspectives on the effectiveness of implementation : 1. Effective (46%) 2. More or less effective (38%) to guarangee rights of communities Level of implementation 1. Reforms have been implemented partially (75%) EFFECTIVENESS OF IMPLEMENTATION OVERALL ASSESSMENT OF GOALS OF IMPLEMENTATION Table 2. Main constraints to implementation of reforms in Peru Classificati on Principal Limitations Score 1 Inadequate budgets 2.21 2 Inefficient planning/ communication 0.72 3 Political interference 0.62 4 Onerous processes that take yesrs 0.59
  8. 8. Stage Number of steps (Law) Number of government agencies involved (Law) Number of steps (Practice) Number of government agencies involved (Practice) Legal recognition 8 4 11 7 Demarcation and Titlinng 11 7 +22 +12 Usufruct contract 1 2 5 5 TOTAL 20 +7 38 +12 Source: Notess et al., 2018; Monterroso y Larson, 2018 3. Institutions and procedures for implementation, mechanisms for coordinating 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 si no no sabe Is there a formal agreement to coordinate with other government institutions involved in imnplemenntation of reform process? yes no Doesn’t know Statistical difference between the perspective of government officers that consider effective implementation and those that report formal agreements for coordinationg and those officers that report no coordination/communication across sectors. WHY INTERSECTORIAL COORDINATION/COMMUNICATION IS IMPORTANT? • Ensures meeting outcomes (36%), • Allows meeting goals (22%), • Is part of the institutional mandate (19%).
  9. 9. 4. Incongruencias, desacuerdos y desafíos en la implementación de regulaciones ARE THERE CURRENTLY CONFLICTS OR DISAGREEMENTS BETWEEN YOUR OFFICE/ ORGANIZATION POLICIES AND WHAT FOREST COMMUNITIES WOULD LIKE/EXPECT IN TERMS OF FOREST TENURE RIGHTS? YES: 72%- SURVEYS Y 78% SURVEYS +INTERVIEWS Other Difficulty to organize joint meetings Type of communication: language barriers, lacking adequate forms of communication It requires too much time The nature of the conflict is linked to different values which makes difficult to find consensus solutions No consensus from some of the members in groups involved in conflict Need to find a neutral platform for holding In-person meetings Takes time gaining trust from all actors involved in the conflict Percentage Figure 2. What are the four most important challenges you faced to resolve existing disagreements and incongruences?
  10. 10. 5. Social factors facilitating/limiting implementation capacity Community organizations Awareness of indigenous peoples rights Little awareness of situation of indigenous peoples Existing representation of indigenous organizations Social status Ethnic affiliations Cultural customary norms/practices and authorities Gender norms and practices Religious practices and beliefs Government officials NGO officers Percentage Figure 3. Social factors that facilitate or limit the implementation capacity
  11. 11. 5. Political factors facilitating/limiting implementation capacity Other Political will Lacking policies to ensure coordination across sectors Lack of clear guidelines Unstable working conditions Coordination across governance levels International agreements, programs and priorities Alignment or conflict with other existing policies Decentralization process Divergent priorities at national and subnational level Changes in government Political activity including political party politics PercentageNGO OfficerGov. Officer Figure 4. Political factors that facilitate or limit the implementation capacity
  12. 12. 5. Economic factors facilitating/limiting implementation capacity Community economy Other International market of commodities Extractive activities (mining, petroleum, timber) Poverty Migration Distribution of national/regional budget Economic priorities at the national level Gov. Officers NGO Officers Percentage Figure 5. Economic factors that facilitate or limit the implementation capacity
  13. 13. 1. Overall 60% of the government officials involved in reform implementation work at the subnational level  Existing challenges require special abilities (and training) to work under intercultural environment (indigenous peoples) and deal with conflict situations.  Overall, implementers should support inclusion of diverse and sometimes contradictory perspectives (around indigenous peoples, youth, gender, forests, land, conservation issues) that go beyond usual land administration problems including conflicts over boundaries, illegal extraction of resources, and overlap in rights. 2. Main challenges to implementation  Inadequate budgets (Mechanisms to ensure sustained public finance beyond funds from cooperation projects)  Inefficient communication across government institutions involved and  Cumbersome procedures. 3. Collaboration and coordination are two important factors influencing “effectiveness of implementation”.  At least 12 different government institutions are involved in practice in the implementation of existing procedures: this requires budgets, and clarifying specific activities and mandates in institutional operational plans.  Measures to facilitate exchange and access to key information among existing government (regional governments, sectorial offices, ministries) to promote communication and increased coordination across institutions involved in implementation would be a cost-effective measure to advance in reform implementation. Implications of results
  14. 14. 1. Issues related to ethnic affiliations and customary/traditional practices are mentioned as the most important social factors at play  Officers require tools and skills to work with indigenous peoples (Interculturality approach) 2. Results highlight discrepancies in how government officers perceive as the goal of reforms in regulations.  Require conflict resolution mechanisms 3. Existing incongruences in how regulations are perceived as well as lack of coordination and communication between the different governance levels (Access to resources vs. national level: Titling)  Require a coordinated response Implications of results
  15. 15. https://www.cifor.org/gcs-tenure/
  16. 16. cifor.org blog.cifor.org THANK YOU!!

×