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EXPLORING PARTICIPATORY PROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS: A
COLLABORATIVE, SCENARIO-BASED APPROACH FOR ANALYZING
AND ANTICIPATING THE ...
OUTLINE
• Introduction
• Key Issues
• Objectives
• Research Sites
• Output PPA (Process, Implementation,
Action Plan)
• Re...
INTRODUCTION
 50-70 million indigenous population in large part of Indonesia
 Large part under concession  Conflict bet...
INTRODUCTION
COLLABORATION
 Collaboration, dialog and consensus building among stakeholders is important
in addressing co...
KEY ISSUES ON REFORM IMPLEMENTATION
• Long customary system practices
• Limited coordination and participation among stake...
OBJECTIVES
• Identify the drivers of tenure security and options for
securing tenure rights
• Future scenarios in securing...
RESEARCH SITES
Tenure system Province District Reform Type Villages
State land designated to /
Use by communities Lampung
...
PROCESS PPA
Identification
Stakeholders & SC
Experts meeting
Public
consultation
 Desirable scenario
 Action plan
Agreed...
IMPLEMENTATION PPA
What output
and What next?
Who are the
stakeholders?
What topic and
Where?
 Maluku: PPA 1 (Nov’15), PP...
DRIVERS TENURE SECURITY
Similarities:
 policy/government:
regional governance and local regulations are important in Malu...
COLLABORATION -
DESIRED
EMPOWERED
WOMEN
GOVERNMENT
AUTHORITY
COMMUNITY
DEPENDENCY
COMPANY
AUTHORITY
Scenario 2: The desira...
FROM SCENARIO TO ACTION
Agreed vision
• Preferred scenario
• Proposed action plan
• Strategy Implementation
 Sub-national...
SUB-NATIONAL ACTION PLAN
Governance and SF policy:
• Establishing FMU, Develop WG, Raising awareness on existing SF
regula...
NATIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS – ADDRESSING ACTION PLAN
Governance and policy related to SF:
• Improve coordination, partnership...
Thank You …
http://www.cifor.org/gcs-tenure/
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Exploring Participatory Prospective Analysis: A collaborative, scenario-based approach for analyzing and anticipating the consequences of tenure reform implementation

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Presented by Nining Liswanti, Esther Mwangi, Tuti Herawati and Mani Ram Banjade on 21 March 2017 at the World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty in Washington, DC.

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Exploring Participatory Prospective Analysis: A collaborative, scenario-based approach for analyzing and anticipating the consequences of tenure reform implementation

  1. 1. EXPLORING PARTICIPATORY PROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS: A COLLABORATIVE, SCENARIO-BASED APPROACH FOR ANALYZING AND ANTICIPATING THE CONSEQUENCES OF TENURE REFORM IMPLEMENTATION Author: Nining Liswanti, Esther Mwangi, Tuti Herawati, Mani Ram Banjade Session: 04-02: Approaches to Securing Common Land in Different Regions 21/Mar/2017, 4:00pm - 5:30pm in room: MC 13-121
  2. 2. OUTLINE • Introduction • Key Issues • Objectives • Research Sites • Output PPA (Process, Implementation, Action Plan) • Reccomendations
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  50-70 million indigenous population in large part of Indonesia  Large part under concession  Conflict between communities and private companies and government  In 2014, new government allocating 12.7 million hectares of state-owned forestry land under community management
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION COLLABORATION  Collaboration, dialog and consensus building among stakeholders is important in addressing complex issues on public policy  The collaborative approaches to public decision making is increased in Indonesia  Visible at national level but less visible at sub-national and community levels CUSTOMARY vs FORMAL SYSTEM  Constitutional Court Ruling decision in 2012 (MK’35) but not fully recognized in forestry Law in1999, e.g. customary forest rights can be obtained through MoEF decree  The Law 1999 introduced Social Forestry scheme providing community access rights to utilize the forest through HKm, HD, HTR, and Partnership
  5. 5. KEY ISSUES ON REFORM IMPLEMENTATION • Long customary system practices • Limited coordination and participation among stakeholders • Lack of involvement and the role of various agencies at local, provincial and national levels • Overlapping claims between communities, companies and government that create negative implications on how rights can be exercised and affect to tenure security of communities Participatory Prospective Analysis (PPA), a foresight approach used as an entry point for engaging stakeholders to ensure local voices are accommodated and to learn how various stakeholders perceived community rights and tenure security over land and forestry.
  6. 6. OBJECTIVES • Identify the drivers of tenure security and options for securing tenure rights • Future scenarios in securing forest and land tenure including threats to tenure security • Develop an action plan for obtaining tenure security through reform implementation, levels at which such actions can be taken, actors responsible for actions and sequencing of those actions in the tenure reform implementation
  7. 7. RESEARCH SITES Tenure system Province District Reform Type Villages State land designated to / Use by communities Lampung Lampung Barat HKM Tribudi Sukur, Sukapura, Puramekar Pesisir Barat HTR Gunung Kemala KDTI Pahmongan State land used by private companies Way Kanan Partnership Karya Agung, Bandar Dalam Unrecognized customary lands - respected Maluku West Seram Customary Kamariang, Hunitetu, Mornaten, Uwen, Lokki Tenure system and reform type on two sites of PPA study in Indonesia
  8. 8. PROCESS PPA Identification Stakeholders & SC Experts meeting Public consultation  Desirable scenario  Action plan Agreed vision Implementation Participatory monitoring and evaluation Source: COLUPSIA 2013 Literature study (biophysics, socio economy, governance, etc.) Training PPA District workshop Province workshop
  9. 9. IMPLEMENTATION PPA What output and What next? Who are the stakeholders? What topic and Where?  Maluku: PPA 1 (Nov’15), PPA 2 (Des’15), PPA 3 (Jan’16)  Lampung: PPA 1 (Nov’15), PPA 2 (Feb’16)  Key forces of change: 8 in Maluku and 6 in Lampung  Scenarios: 5 in Maluku and Lampung  Public consultation PPA at sub-national and national level  Scenario agreement on future tenure security  Integrated action plan to sub-national and national program When and How? What will be the future of forest tenure security in Maluku in 2029? How will be the future of Forest Tenure Reform in Lampung in 2025? Maluku (19): Communities/farmer group (1), Local government (12), University (2), NGO 2, Private company (1) Lampung (19): Farmer group (1), Local government (12), University (1), NG) (1), Forum HKm (1), State Owned Enterprise (1), Practitioner (2)
  10. 10. DRIVERS TENURE SECURITY Similarities:  policy/government: regional governance and local regulations are important in Maluku and regulations on SF schemes is important in Lampung  regional budget and financial resources  community/customary tenure rights: customary system used for long time in managing the customary forest. In formal system, the community rights is important for securing their forest.  Economic options: created by communities and/or by other actors (e.g. tourism potential) Differences:  Maluku: 1) Strengthening the rights and voice of indigenous women; 2) Land conversion and spatial planning; 3) Knowledge and awareness and community empowerment.  Lampung: 1) Human resources capacities of implementing agents; 2) The clarity of stakeholder roles including community awareness.
  11. 11. COLLABORATION - DESIRED EMPOWERED WOMEN GOVERNMENT AUTHORITY COMMUNITY DEPENDENCY COMPANY AUTHORITY Scenario 2: The desirable forest tenure security. Revolves around good land and resource governance issues, such as transparency, accountability, cooperation and coordination. It is also emphasizing the recognition of customary rights, and acknowledges the importance of allocating funds for forest tenure reform implementation. Scenario 1: Empowered Indigenous women. The empowerment and promotion of indigenous communities, focusing on women, by recognizing their customary tenure system and strengthening and supporting it to perform its tenure functions of resource allocation and guaranteeing rights in a fair, inclusive and effective way. Scenario 4: Gloomy sun shine at noon. Revolves around a powerful government that does not prioritize reform implementation, does not allocate budgets for reform implementation, has no clear spatial planning and land allocation, ignores the customary community, has full, exclusive control over forests and is generally ineffective in implementing reforms. Scenario 5: Lost sovereignty. The community dependency to the government, the community lose the opportunity for managing the forest due to change of policy and nomenclature; insufficient budget allocation; government control the forests including customary territory; applied government policy for community empowerment; complex policy and regulation. Scenario 3: The storm that never ended This scenario involves the empowerment of the private sector to lead reform implementation. Forests are controlled by the state but used for business. Indigenous groups (including women) are not recognized and there is need to establish local regulations for the certain groups. COLLABORATION CONFLICT COMMUNITY AUTHORITY FMU - DESIRED FMU AUTHORITY Scenario 1: Striving to Tenure Security for better hope. focused on implementing the SF program by involving all relevant stakeholders. The key themes include policy stability, continued rights to forest communities, multiple actors support implementation, adequate budget allocation, improved capacities of implementers and support for community-based enterprises Scenario 3: No Access for Community. focuses on restricted rights to communities, conflict escalation, economic interests being more important than environmental concerns, increasing conversion of forests to agriculture and low capacity in government for tenure reform implementation. Scenario 5: Uncontrolled Forest Tenure Reform. based on full ownership right to communities who have total authority and decision making over forests. The main themes include full community control over forest resources, increased pressure on forest resources, inadequate budgets and poor human resource capacities, lack of resource sustainability and sectoral silos. Scenario 2: FMU facing globalization. Focuses on the FMU as the main locus for implementing SF programs. Key themes include: budgetary support, community empowerment and stakeholder commitment. Scenario 4: FMU take over community right. Focuses on a strong, functional FMU. The key themes are the termination of community rights, adequate budgets allocated to KPH, full authority of the FUM over forest management and conflict. MALUKULAMPUNG SCENARIOS: SIMILARITY AND DIFFERENCES
  12. 12. FROM SCENARIO TO ACTION Agreed vision • Preferred scenario • Proposed action plan • Strategy Implementation  Sub-national public consultation involving 17 communities, government, NGO, University, private sectors, farmer group, practitioners (83 people; 24 women and 59 men)  Feedback from SC (forestry agencies)  National public consultation involving MoEF, NGO, University, practitioner (27 people = 12 women and 15 men) to Recommendations • Priority action plan from national and sub-national • Key issues addressing constraints reforms implementation
  13. 13. SUB-NATIONAL ACTION PLAN Governance and SF policy: • Establishing FMU, Develop WG, Raising awareness on existing SF regulation, Avocation at province level • Improve community forestry policy, Organizing face-to-face deliberation with MoEF, Integration of development program with other sectors Regional budgetary support: • Integrating SF at regional level, Maintaining eagle wood for communities, Open easier access to the forest with village funds • Supporting Governor Regulation for conservation, Propose adequate budget for forest development program Community/customary inst. and rights: • Establish local regulations, village regulations, Increased capacity for village officer • Enhance community rights by disseminating SF law and program, Increase coordination among various sectors Revise land allocation and district spatial planning Enhance FMU by establishing FMU with independent financial organization and capacity building for FMU’s staff Knowledge, awareness, and community empowerment: • Create a champion of forest extension personnel to develop management and working plan • Awareness SF and regulation at the community level; Capacity building for businesses or entrepreneurship Strengthening indigenous women: Involving of indigenous women in forest reform implementation and strengthening program for women Enhancing local economy • Economy creative created by community group • Potential for tourist attraction by integrated with SF, collaboration with related agency and providing infrastructure Establish Local regulation Similarities: Differences: Maluku Lampung
  14. 14. NATIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS – ADDRESSING ACTION PLAN Governance and policy related to SF: • Improve coordination, partnership and permit process for SF • Develop FMU and SF policy Customary institution and rights: • Establishing local regulation for community and used as an initial basis for the recognition of customary communities and for proposing customary forests Regional budgetary support: • Mapping partner to support the implementation of SF • Depend on leadership and local politic Community empowerment: • The central government is supporting the community assistance • Improve community development program
  15. 15. Thank You … http://www.cifor.org/gcs-tenure/

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