2. Project Quality & Risk Management: Quality planning and standards, Quality assurance and
control, Process improvement and Six Sigma concept, Risk Management-Risk identification
and assessment, Risk response planning, Risk monitoring and control
“Quality means making sure that you build what you said you
would and that you do it as efficiently as you can.”
“Incorporating the company’s quality policy regarding the
planning, managing and controlling project and quality
requirements, in order to meet the stakeholders’ expectations.”
“Quality is the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics
of an object fulfill requirements.”
5. Quality Planning
“Setting quality objectives and specifying necessary
operational processes, and related resources to achieve
the quality objectives”
“Creates confidence that the quality plan and controls
are working properly”
6. Quality Control
“Steps taken to monitor results to see if they conform to
“Structured review of specific quality management activities
that help identify lessons learned and that could improve
performance on current or future projects”
“Focused on increasing the ability to fulfil quality
requirements” or on improving process.
7. Quality & Quality management
Quality is not about ensuring your project gets done on time and within budget. It's about
ensuring you create the right product.
When it comes to quality, it means doing what you promised to do and doing it on time.
Making sure you avoid making too many mistakes and keeping your project on track means
making sure you are always creating the correct result.
What Is Quality Planning?
Planning is the key to success. Planning helps you decide what’s most important to your
project and is one of the most critical aspects of quality management.
8. How to conduct quality planning
Quality Planning Steps
● Identify customers, both external and internal
● Determine customer needs
● Develop service/product features that respond to customer
● Establish quality goals that meet the needs of customers and
suppliers alike, and do so at a minimum combined cost
● Develop a process that can produce the needed
● Prove process capability—prove that the process can meet
the quality goals under operating conditions
10. Perform Quality Assurance
The perform quality assurance is an executing process and it is
primarily concerned with overall process improvements to ensure
that each time a deliverable is produced it is error-free. If the quality
of the processes and activities is improved, then the quality of the
product should also improve along with an overall reduction of
11. Perform Quality Control
The perform quality control is a monitoring and controlling
process and it looks at specific results to determine if they
conform to the quality standards. This process involves
both, the project and product deliverables and it is done
throughout the project life cycle.
Let us assume that we are manufacturing laptops. In Quality
Assurance we need to put all the processes in place to ensure that
each laptop is manufactured defect free. This would include the
types of manufacturing equipment used, training people, and
documenting all production processes. Quality Control comes into
play after the fact by testing the finished product. For instance, we
can do a sample testing to see if a randomly picked laptop from our
production line passes or fails the quality standards.
13. What is quality assurance in project management?
Quality assurance in project management is a series of actions
designed to ensure the final outcomes of a project meet the expected
requirements. It focuses on the processes teams use to maintain
standards and produce quality deliverables. For example, QA in project
management may involve requiring each team member to submit
progress reports for review each week. Many project managers use QA
processes in various industries, including IT, manufacturing and
construction. By implementing quality assurance throughout a project,
teams adapt to a set of requirements to achieve quality outcomes.
14. Any benefits of QA in project management?
● Increase efficiency: Many project managers choose to implement QA standards
throughout a project, which can help teams increase efficiency because they
understand the requirements to produce quality deliverables.
● Ensure customer satisfaction: By using QA processes, project teams focus on
delivering project outcomes without errors or defects, which can ensure customer
satisfaction when the product or service reaches the market.
● Boost team morale: When team members understand the QA standards for
each phase of a project, they feel motivated to achieve the expected outcomes,
which can increase their confidence and boost team morale.
● Make continuous improvements: QA methods help project managers focus on
making continuous improvements to their processes to ensure quality standards.
16. Process improvement and Six Sigma concept
What is process improvement?
Business process improvements are methodologies in which a
team evaluates their current processes and adapts them with the
intent to increase productivity, streamline workflows, adapt to
changing business needs, or increase profitability.
17. What Is Six Sigma?
Six Sigma is a methodology for process improvement
developed by a scientist at Motorola in the 1980s. Six Sigma
practitioners use statistics, financial analysis, and project
management to achieve improved business functionality and
better quality control by identifying and then correcting
mistakes or defects in existing processes.
One sigma represents one standard deviation, the amount of variance from a
calculated mean. Six Sigma is a statistics term
18. The goal of Six Sigma is to refine processes until they produce
stable, predictable results. This means limiting defects in
processes to six sigmas — three above and three below the
mean — which captures approximately 99.7 percent of a given
data set. Any variance outside this range requires
For example, consider a company reviewing its delivery time.
On average, the company takes 25 days to deliver its products
but may deliver in as little as 20 days or as many as 30 days.
Considering only whole days, Six Sigma dictates that all
deliveries should take between 24 and 26 days — a much more
19. Six Sigma has two methodologies:
● DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, and
control) is primarily for improving existing
● DMADV (define, measure, analyze, design, and
verify) is mainly for creating new business
processes, products, and services.
20. 1. Define
“You must first define the problem before trying to improve it,”
says Wils. This includes developing a problem statement, goal
statement, stakeholder chart, and set of process maps. It also
means identifying the customer and their requirements. “These
tasks will help provide a strong foundation on which to proceed
through subsequent phases,” Wils explains.
21. 2. Measure
Next up is quantifying and measuring the problem, which gives you a
baseline as you seek improvement. However, Wils notes that if an
event only happened once, it’s not necessarily a problem worth
addressing. “It might just be a coincidence. But if it’s frequent and/or
consistent, there may be waste in your process that you should
investigate and eliminate.”
22. 3. Analyze
“This is the most important phase because you’re focusing on
figuring out the root cause of the problem,” Wils explains.
“You’ll be asking a lot of questions. Try to let go of whatever
assumptions you have about the process so you can
approach the activity from an unbiased standpoint.”
23. 4. Improve
Once you’ve identified the root cause, it’s time to brainstorm
potential solutions. Wils says it can be helpful to look at
successful processes within your organization for inspiration.
Shortlist the most promising solutions and game them out before
24. 5. Control
“If you’ve proven the process is optimized, be sure everyone fully
understands the changes you’ve made,” Wils explains. “Then,
institute controls that keep the process consistent, namely
documentation, KPIs, and reporting. The latter two elements can
help you identify unwanted deviations and alert you when
intervention is needed.”