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Female Reproductive system
Female Reproductive system
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  1. 1. Anatomy & Physiology of the Male and Female Reproductive System
  2. 2. Male Reproductive Organs
  3. 3. Male Reproductive System External Organs 1) Penis 2) Scrotum Internal Organs 1) Testes 2) Epididymis 3) Vas Deferens 4) Ejaculatory Duct 5) Seminal Vesicle 6) Prostate Glands 7) Cowper’s Gland
  4. 4. External Organs 1.) PENIS - male organ of copulation and urination Parts: A) shaft/ body B) Glans penis – enlarged end; most sensitive C) Prepuce/foreskin – fold of retractable skin covering the glans and is removed during circumcision - if it can not be retracted: phimosis D) urethral meatus – slit like opening located at the tip of the penis; passageway for both semen and urine
  5. 5. Penile Opening Abnormalities EPISPADIAS – a rare type of malformation of the penis in which the urethra ends in an opening on the upper aspect (dorsum) of the penis HYPOSPADIAS – penile opening at the anterior aspect of the penis
  6. 6. External Organs 2.) SCROTUM – saclike structure containing the testes darker coloration than the rest of the body covered with sparse hair and wrinkled environmental temperature affects the scrotum: too hot---the dartos muscle relaxes and the testes hangs or descend away from the body too cold ----- the testes contracts and pull closer to the body spermatogenesis is affected by extremes of temperature testosterone production is not affected
  7. 7. Internal Organs 1.) TESTES – oval shaped glandular organ lying within the abdominal cavity in early fetal life and descend in the scrotum after 28 weeks gestation undescended testes /cryptorchidism functions: 1.Hormone production – testosterone that stimulates spermatogenesis and responsible for the secondary males characteristics 2.Spematogenesis – production and maturation of sperm cells; begins in puberty
  8. 8. 1) Testes parts of the testes: 1)seminiferous tubules – long coiled tubes where spermatogenesis takes place 2) Leydig/interstitial cells – produce testosterone 3)Sertoli cells – supporting cells which play a role in sperm transport
  9. 9. 2) Epididymis long coiled tube approximately 20 feet long; where sperm travels for 12- 20 days takes 64 days for the sperm cells to mature; rationale why therapy for azoospermia and oligospermia becomes effective only after 2 months epididymitis – inflammation of the epididymis
  10. 10. 3) Vas Deferens passageway of the sperm cells from the epididymis; contractile power of this area propels the spermatozoa to the urethra during ejaculation cut during vasectomy
  11. 11. 4) Ejaculatory Duct passageway for the semen
  12. 12. 5) Seminal Vesicle a pouch like organ lying behind the bladder and in front of the rectum
  13. 13. 6) Prostate Gland walnut shaped body lying below the bladder Surrounds the urethra and the 2 ejaculatory ducts
  14. 14. 7) Cowper’s Gland located behind the prostate gland secretes an alkaline secretions that helps to neutralize the acidic nature of the urethra and provides lubrication during intercourse Bulbourethral Glands
  15. 15. SEMEN seminal fluid an organic fluid that may contain spermatozoa it contains fructose and other elements of seminal fluids that promote survival of the spermatozoa and provide a medium through which spermatozoa can move or swim
  16. 16. Seminal Fluid a mixture of secretions from: 1. Ejaculatory ducts 2. Seminal Vesicles 3. Prostate glands 4. Cowpers Gland Semen Color: Translucent with white, grey or yellowish tint; if reddish: hematospermia
  17. 17. Seminal Fluid Semen Quality: measured by its ability to accomplished fertilization Normal volume : 2-5ml/ejaculation 100 million sperm cells/ml a sperm count of below 20 million is associated with infertility and sterility
  18. 18. Spermatozoa
  19. 19. Sperm Motility Grading 4: progressive motility 3: non linear motility; moves forward but in crooked motion 2: more on tails 1: immotile
  20. 20. Terms Emission – is the discharged of semen from the urethra Ejaculation – forceful expulsion of the semen from the urethra caused by contraction of muscles in the penis (male orgasm)
  22. 22. Vulva structures that form the entire female external reproductive genitalia from the latin word meaning for covering
  23. 23. ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY Divided into: 1) External 2) Internal
  24. 24. External Reproductive Organs 1) Mons Veneris/ Mons 7) Urethral Opening Pubis 8) Hymen 2) Labia Majora 9) Skene’s Glands 3) Labia Minora 10) Bartholin’s Glands 4) Clitoris 11) Fourchette 5) Vestibule 6) Vaginal Opening
  25. 25. Mons Pubis pad of adipose tissue located over the symphysis pubis (pubic bone joint) -function: protect the junction of pubic bone from trauma - richly supplied with sebaceous glands - Childhood: hairless and smooth - Puberty: covered by a triangular coarse of curly hairs (escutheon) - Pattern of hair growth: Female: Triangular; Male:Diamond- shaped - Growth of pubic hair is stimulated by Testosterone while the pattern of hair growth is governed by estrogen
  26. 26. Labia Majora Two thick folds of adipose tissues originating from the mons pubis and terminating in the perineum - It unites anteriorly to form the anterior commissure and posteriorly to form the posterior commissure -Its outer surface is thick and covered by hair; inner surface is smooth and moist -Main function: provide covering and protection to the external organs located under it - Nulliparous women: in close apposition to each other; but tends to gape wider after birth
  27. 27. Labia Minora Two thin folds of connective tissue that joins anteriorly to form the prepuce and posteriorly to form the fourchette It is most highly vascular, sensitive and richly supplied with sebaceous glands Nulliparous women: covers the vaginal introitus, vestibule and urethra Obliterated during vagina
  28. 28. Clitoris highly sensitive and erectile tissue situated under the prepuce of the labia minora Known as the “seat of woman’s sexual arousal and orgasm” being the most sensitive part of the female external genitalia Covered by a fold of skin called prepuce; Sensitive to both touch and temperature
  29. 29. Vestibule Triangular space between the labia minora where the six (6) openings are located: 1) Urethral Opening 2) Vaginal Opening 3) Opening of Bartholin’s Glands 4) Opening of Skene’s Glands
  30. 30. Vaginal Opening the external opening of the vagina located just below the urethral meatus Grafenberg or G spot is a very sensitive area located at the inner anterior surface of the vagina
  31. 31. Urethral Opening external opening of the female urethra located in the midline of the vestibule just below the clitoris shortness of the female urethra makes women more susceptible to UTI than men
  32. 32. Hymen thin but tough and elastic semicircular membrane that covers the opening of the vagina; often torn during the first sexual contact women may be born without a hymen; can be torn by active sports and tampon insertion Imperforate Hymen – a hymen that completely covers the vaginal opening preventing coitus and passage of menstrual discharge - Hymenotomy/Hymenectomy – is the surgical incision of an imperforate hymen
  33. 33. Skene’s Glands paraurethral glands; minor vestibular glands A pair of glands situated on each side of the urethral meatus Its secretion help to lubricate the external genitalia during coitus
  34. 34. Bartholin’s Glands vulvovaginal glands; major vestibular glands; paravaginal glands Situated on each inner side of the vagina Lubricates the external vulva during coitus with an alkaline secretions that enhances sperm survival
  35. 35. Fourchette the ridge of tissue formed by the posterior joining of the two labia minora and majora; sometimes cut during episiotmomy Episiotomy – perineotomy; surgically planned incision on the perineum and the posterior vaginal wall during the second stage of labor
  36. 36. Internal Reproductive Organs 1) Vagina 2) Uterus 3)Fallopian Tubes/Oviducts 4) Ovaries
  37. 37. Vagina a tubular musculomembranous structure about 8-12 cm long that extends from the vulva to the uterus Functions: a)excretory canal of the uterus through which uterine secretions and menstrual flow escape b) Female organ of copulation c)Forms part of the birth canal
  38. 38. Vagina Rugae – transverse folds of skin in the - vaginal wall absent in childhood - appear at puberty - disappear at menopause - function: allow the vaginal canal to stretch and enlarge during deliver
  39. 39. UTERUS a hollow muscular canal resembling an inverted pear that is situated in the true pelvis
  40. 40. Uterus Functions: a)Organ of reproduction (main) – serves for reception, implantation, retention and nutrition of the fetus b) Organ of menstruation c)Uterine contraction for the expulsion of the fetus during delivery and to seal torn blood vessels after placental deliver
  41. 41. UTERUS Intrinsic motility – capable of contraction even if the nerves that supply them is being cut Parts of the uterus 1) Fundus – 2) Cornua 3) Corpus 4) Isthmus 5) Cervix
  42. 42. Uterus 1…FUNDUS - uppermost convex triangular portion between the points of insertion of the fallopian tubes Most muscular part Ideal site: Zygote implantation Obstetrical landmark: A)palpation of fundic height to assess fetal growth B)assess uterine contractions and progress of labor C) assess uterine
  43. 43. UTERUS 2…CORNUA – area where the fallopian tubes are attached 3…CORPUS – body of the uterus; houses the fetus 4…ISTHMUS - becomes only prominent near the end of pregnancy and during labor to form the LOWER UTERINE SEGMENT together with the cervix
  44. 44. UTERUS 5…CERVIX - neck of the uterus chiefly composed of elastic and collagenous tissues and only 10 % muscle tissues parts: a) Internal cervical os – opens into the corpus b) Cervical Canal – Continuation of the uterine cavity c) external Cervical os – opens into the vagina
  45. 45. Layers of the Uterus 1)Perimetrium – outermost serosal layer attached to the broad ligament 2) Myometrium – Middle muscular layer - responsible for uterine contractions and thickest at the fundal area 3)Endometrium – innermost ciliated mucosal layer - contains numerous glands that secretes thin alkaline fluid that keep the uterine cavity moist - undergoes changes in response to
  46. 46. Layers of the Uterus
  47. 47. Fallopian Tubes pair of tube like structures originating from the cornua of the uterus with distal ends located near the ovaries Parts: 1) INTERSTITIAL/INTRAMURAL 2)ISTHMUS – narrowest portion; site for tubal ligation 3) AMPULLA – middle, widest part; site for fertilization 4)INFUNDIBULUM – has fimbrae (funnel shaped opening at the distal end)
  48. 48. OVARIES almond shaped glandular organs located on each side of the uterus; movable on palpation Functions: 1) OOGENESIS – growth, development and maturation of the egg cell 2) OVULATION – release of the mature egg cell 3)HORMONE PRODUCTION – synthesis and secretion of steroid hormones
  49. 49. OVARIES
  50. 50. Different Stages of Follicles
  51. 51. Layers of the Ovary 1)Tunica Albuginea - outermost protective layer 2)Medulla – contains blood vessels, nerves and lymphatics 3)Cortex - functional layer; site for ovum formation and maturation - becomes thinner in advancing age and the follicles decreases in number
  52. 52. Layers of the Ovary
  53. 53. Summary
  54. 54. Summary