II have created the following analysis and presentation to demonstrate a
comprehensive approach I have used in the past to monitor and analyze
business performance. In general, a processing plant’s business performance
The external environment/ market conditions in which it operates;
Its internal efficiencies, such as the availability of its processing units;
The sales of its products or services.
In this presentation I demonstrate one way of analyzing a business`
performance that can serve as a basis for management discussions, be used
to manage business operations and planning business activities and aim for
I have used this analysis in downstream oil & gas, however, as we shall see it
can be applied in a wide range of process oriented industries.
3. FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE
I have used a publicly available income statement of Chevron
Corporation to demonstrate a technique using which an income
statement can be analyzed. I have created a common-sized
income statement in column C and column E by dividing every
revenue item and every expense item by the total revenue. I`ve
added a horizontal analysis in column F.
Please see the next slide
4. FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE
Annual Financials for Chevron Corp.
Row# A B C D E (Item / Revenue) F (D/B)
1 Fiscal year is January-December. All values USD (rounded to million). 2014 2014 Common-sized 2015 2015 Common-sized Horizontal Analysis (D/B)
2 Sales/Revenue 199,940,000,000 100% 129,650,000,000 100% -35%
3 Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) incl. D&A 16,372,000,000 8% 11,697,000,000 9% -29%
4 COGS excluding D&A 14,605,000,000 7% 9,363,000,000 7% -36%
5 Depreciation & Amortization Expense 1,767,000,000 1% 2,335,000,000 2% 32%
6 Depreciation 1,767,000,000 1% 2,335,000,000 2% 32%
7 Amortization of Intangibles - -
8 Gross Income 183,568,000,000 92% 117,953,000,000 91% -36%
9 2014 2015 2015/2014
10 SG&A Expense 4,490,000,000 2% 4,310,000,000 3% -4%
11 Research & Development 707,000,000 0% 601,000,000 0% -15%
12 Other SG&A 3,790,000,000 2% 3,710,000,000 3% -2%
13 Other Operating Expense 12,540,000,000 6% 12,030,000,000 9% -4%
14 Unusual Expense -504,000,000 0% 49,000,000 0%
15 EBIT after Unusual Expense -504,000,000 0% 49,000,000 0%
16 Non Operating Income/Expense 4,270,000,000 2% 3,750,000,000 3% -12%
17 Non-Operating Interest Income 145,000,000 0% 119,000,000 0% -18%
18 Equity in Affiliates (Pretax) 7,100,000,000 4% 4,680,000,000 4% -34%
19 Interest Expense - -
20 Gross Interest Expense 358,000,000 0% 495,000,000 0% 38%
21 Interest Capitalized 358,000,000 0% 495,000,000 0% 38%
22 Pretax Income 31,200,000,000 16% 4,840,000,000 4% -84%
23 Income Tax 11,890,000,000 6% 132,000,000 0% -99%
24 Income Tax - Current Domestic 1,080,000,000 1% 1,000,000,000 1% -7%
25 Income Tax - Current Foreign 9,240,000,000 5% 3,000,000,000 2% -68%
26 Income Tax - Deferred Domestic 1,370,000,000 1% -689,000,000 -1% -150%
27 Income Tax - Deferred Foreign 207,000,000 0% 1,170,000,000 1% 465%
28 Income Tax Credits - -
29 Equity in Affiliates - -
30 Other After Tax Income (Expense) - -
31 Consolidated Net Income 19,310,000,000 10% 4,710,000,000 4% -76%
32 Minority Interest Expense 69,000,000 0% 123,000,000 0% 78%
33 Net Income 19,240,000,000 10% 4,590,000,000 4% -76%
34 Extraordinaries & Discontinued Operations -
35 Extra Items & Gain/Loss Sale Of Assets -
36 Cumulative Effect - Accounting Chg -
37 Discontinued Operations -
38 Net Income After Extraordinaries 19,240,000,000 10% 4,590,000,000 4% -76%
39 Preferred Dividends -
40 Net Income Available to Common 19,240,000,000 10% 4,590,000,000 4% -76%
41 EPS (Basic) 10 0% 2 0% -76%
42 Basic Shares Outstanding 1,880,000,000 1% 1,870,000,000 1% -1%
43 EPS (Diluted) 10 0% 2 0% -76%
44 Diluted Shares Outstanding 1,900,000,000 1% 1,880,000,000 1% -1%
45 EBITDA 36,860,000,000 18% 19,680,000,000 15% -47%
If we look at row 45, we see that the total EBITDA fell 47% (2015/2014), however, in terms of
profitability 18% of the revenue found its way into EBITDA in 2014 and 15% in 2015 (see row 45).
5. Market Analysis
Fuel oil margin (-)
Gasoline margin (+)
FCC gasoline production unit
margin (Gasoline – Fuel oil)
The graphs above help illustrate how forces in the market impact profitability. The graph on the left shows the
gasoline gross margins (spread) based exclusively on the market environment (trading quotations are available
on Platt’s or, in this case, the CME Group’s website). The graph on the right shows that the margin / value added
of a processing unit increases as the (market) value gap between its output and inputs increases. This explains
why internal operations should be aligned with current market conditions.
6. Gross Production Margin (per unit
The gross refining or production margin is the difference between the market prices of
finished products and market prices of feedstock needed to produce them. When the
process yields more than one finished product, production yields of individual products
based on total throughput have to be considered. Own consumption and losses must
also be deducted from the margin. Quotations, not market prices, must be used to
isolate commercial contribution and analyze only production.
Please see an example of gross refining or production margin for a plant that produces
products A, B, C and D on the next slide.
7. Gross Production Margin (per unit
Goss Production Margin
Product Amount produced Yields to total processing
A 652 29%
B 550 25%
C 450 20%
D 360 16%
Total Production 2,012 91%
Own consumption & Loss 200 9%
Total Throughput 2,212 100%
FOB (Benchmark) Prices (per unit of measure)
Product A B C D Raw Mat. Price
Jan. 4 3 2.5 2 1
Feb. 4.4 3.1 2.3 2.1 1.1
Mar. 4.2 3.2 2.7 1.9 0.8
Apl. 3.8 3.4 2.6 2 1.2
Gross margin = ((product A
yield * product A
Price)+(product B yield *
product B price) + … + (%
own consumption & loss *
0)) – raw material price
8. Internal Operational Performance
Plant operating capacity and availability has a major impact on the overall business performance.
We can determine the percentage of time a unit was on-stream (running as opposed to being
shutdown). This is called the on-stream factor. The on-stream factor can be used to explain output.
Every unit can be either on-stream, shutdown (according to plan), shutdown (unplanned, due to
mechanical failure), Shutdown (unplanned, due to problems with a related unit that either feeds
into or out of it). Obviously, unplanned shutdowns have a negative impact on performance.
Managers may ask why were there unplanned shutdowns in Septembers when there was a
turnaround (planned shutdown for maintenance) only a month earlier, the answer to this is that
the unplanned shutdown in September occurred due to start-up problems (not uncommon).
9. Internal Operational Performance
We can explain the reasons for a low on-stream factor , which is a result of operating at a less than
full capacity, by graphically displaying the operational mode and adding explanations for
shutdowns or slowdowns, as in the graph above. The graph above is a monthly graph but we may
create a daily graph. Occasionally, processing may appear to be below minimum or above
maximum capacity, this is because minimum and maximum capacities aren`t always definite
because they also depend on changes in feedstock, densities, temperatures etc.
Pump failure, May 13
10. Commercial (Sales) Performance
The most straight-forward way of measuring sales performance is comparing actual sales with the
plan and with previous periods (ex. January 2016 with January 2015). A graph such as the one
above, allows us to quickly see how well or company`s sales are doing in each of the provinces.
For example, note that sales in Alberta were around m$45, which is 10% less than planned.
11. Commercial (Sales) Performance
Regardless of how much we sold in a given period, we may be interested in how well we did in comparison to our
peers/competitors. If sales were higher than usual (or expected) in a given month, how much can we thank our
awesome sales people for this and to what extend we just happened to have joined the ride in a good market?
The analysis above can help answer this question. In March (see graph) sales dropped but it was a bad market and
we held on to our market share, so we did O.K. In April and May we were awesome and in September we messed up
because our sales dropped more than the sales of our rivals, which is why we lost market share. In December we did
a great job because we increased our sales more than our competitors.
12. Commercial (Sales) Performance
We should be measuring our own sales performance against market performance. A sales spread is a gross sales
margin (our selling price – FOB market price). Multiply the sales spread by the quantity sold to get the sales spread
revenue or the total sales margin (in $$). In March, we sold 137 units of stuff at a price of $19 when the market price
was $20, thereby losing $1 per unit sold relative to the market price (sales spread = -$1). We sold 137 units at this
price and in total lost $137 (sales spread revenue = -$137)
Sales Margin & Sales Margin Revenues
A B C D (B-A) E (CxD)
FOB (Benchmak Price) Selling Price Quantity Sold Sales Spread (Margin) Sales Spread Revenue
Jan $10.00 $12.00 130 $2.00 $260
Feb $15.00 $17.00 125 $2.00 $250
Mar $20.00 $19.00 137 -$1.00 -$137
13. Production, Sales & Inventory
Inventory management has a very big impact on business performance. We all know that inventory levels should be
kept low to decrease carrying costs yet high enough to sustain discontinuous business operations even in case of
unexpected events. The graph above explains how inventory management can be illustrated graphically and
analyzed. In the example illustrated above, the company was increase production in June and July to build up
sufficient inventory to last during the scheduled maintenance in August.
Unplanned shutdown on unit A due to
electrical circuit failure
production hike to
14. Still here?
Thank you for your interest.
Please feel free to contact me if you have any further questions about what I do as an analyst or how I can help
you analyze your business performance.