What is a logo?
A logo is a graphic representation or symbol of a company/business,
organization, institution, person, special event, product or service
• It is uniquely designed for easy recognition.
• It should be a powerful persuasive ambassador for a business,
organization, institution or individual.
The logo is part of the branding process.
Why need a logo?
2. For Promotion
1. For Identification
• A logo is needed to identify the business, organization, institution.
• It says who you are.
• A logo is needed to say what industry you are in, what type of service you offer.
The overall vibe of the business or organization.
• Needed for differentiation from similar products.
A good logo is peculiar, practical and simple in design and is effective in
conveying the intended message.
What makes a good Logo?
• It must be bold and simple yet striking in appearance.
The qualities of a good logo are:
The qualities of a good logo
• A simple logo design is recognized easily and is easily remembered.
• The design is simple and unique.
• A good logo design must be eye catching and visually
appealing to the viewer thus making it easy to remember.
• Also to be memorable it must be simple and appropriate.
• A good logo should be timeless meaning that it will transcend
through many years. It should be still effective in 10, 20, 50
An example is the Coca-Cola logo which has barely changed since
1885 and has remained effective through time.
• Must be able to work in both horizontal and vertical formats.
• A good logo must be able to work in different mediums, format and applications
e.g in vector format, pdf, png and jpeg.
• Must be able to be worked in black and white as well as in colour. It should be able to
be printed in one colour and printed in reverse (i.e. a light logo on a dark
• Must be able to work at different sizes e.g. be shrunk to pocket size and enlarged to
• A logo should be designed for its intended purpose. The choice of
lettering and image used must be appropriate for the intended
This logo is for an animal park where persons can swim and interact with friendly
stingrays in reef setting. The illustration shows a friendly caricature of a stingray
splashing in the water. The lettering style used is also ‘free-spirited’ .
Types of Logos
• There are 3 main categories of logos. From these several types of logo
designs are created.
• Also called ‘letter mark logos’, these logos are made using lettering only.
1. LETTERFORM LOGOS
Types of Logos
• They are designed using either:
a. Acronyms – an abbreviation that forms a new word using the first
letter of each word in the phrase e.g. NASA (National Aeronautics
and Space Administration).
b. Monograms – a designed created using two or more letters combined
like a person’s initials or the first letters of each word of the business
c. Word Mark – which is a logo designed using a word with a specific font
style that suits.
A pictorial logo is one that uses a graphic image or symbol that has
been simplified or stylized.
2. PICTORIAL LOGOS
• The image is either an abstract or Iconic (literal representation) of the
organization, company or product.
• Referred to as Iconic/symbolic logos.
Iconic logos Abstract logo
Logos created using both text and images which represent the
company, organization, institution, product etc, in the same design.
#3. COMBINATION LOGOS
• In a combination logo design, the text/words and image are integrated
OR the text/words and image are separate or place next to each other.
• These logos are the oldest type of logos.
• The design includes text, a symbol or image inside a geometric shape or border.
• The designs are usually more detailed than other types of logos.
• Crests, schools and educational institution logos are emblem logos.
3. COMBINATION LOGOS - EMBLEM LOGOS
University of Nottingham University of the West Indies
Jennings Secondary School
3. COMINATION LOGOS - EVENT LOGOS
• Logos of this type advertise an event and are usually made up of words and
images. However what distinguishes them from other logos is that the date of the
event is a part of the design and therefore makes it unique .
3. COMBINATION LOGOS - MASCOT LOGOS
• The design must be legible, simplified and unique
• It must be fun, playful and friendly and engaging.
• The name of the business or the team may be included in the
Mascot logos use an illustrated character or caricature (cartoon) chosen by
the organization, business or team that acts as an ambassador.
• Cass, Jacob. (2009). Vital tips for effective logo design.
• Kate. (2022). Different types of logos: which one is right for your business.
• Light, Brian. 1989. Starting design and communication. Essex: Longman Group UK Limited
• Place, Jennifer. 1995. Creating logos and letterheads. Ohio: North Light Books