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Solar cell

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It's all about Solar Cell.

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Solar cell

  1. 1. University of Development Alternative Department of Computer Science and Engineering Dhaka, Bangladesh Topic : Solar Cell
  2. 2. Presenter  Ananna Rashid Orchi - 011131033  Mohammad Ali Khan - 011131035  Kazi Muktadirul Haque - 011131034
  3. 3. Presentation Outline  Solar Cell  PV Technology  PV System Applications  Components of solar system  Solar cell materials
  4. 4. It is a electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. It is a form of photoelectric cell, defined as a device whose electrical characteristics, such as current, voltage, or resistance, vary when exposed to light. SOLAR CELL
  5. 5. Solar is a Photovolatic Cell
  6. 6. A solar cell is a solid-state electrical device (p-n junction) that converts the energy of light directly into electricity (DC) using the photovoltaic effect. Two differently contaminated semiconductor layers are combined, then a so-called p-n-junction results on the boundary of the layers. N-type P-type Solar Cell is a solid-state electrical Device n-type semiconductor p- type semiconductor p-n junction layer
  7. 7. Solar intertie photovoltaic (PV) systems are not particularly complex. First there are panels, which collect the sunlight and turn it into electricity. The DC signals are fed into an inverter, which converts the DC into grid-compatible AC power. Various switch boxes are included for safety reasons, and the whole thing is connected via wires and conduit.
  8. 8. Solar modules use light energy (photons) from the sun to generate electricity through the photovoltaic effect. The majority of modules use wafer-based crystalline silicon cells or thin-film cells based on cadmium telluride or silicon. The structural (load carrying) member of a module can either be the top layer or the back layer. Most solar modules are rigid, but semi-flexible ones are available, based on thin-film cells.
  9. 9. PV Technology Two primary types of PV technologies available commercially are crystalline silicon and thin film. In crystalline-silicon technologies, individual PV cells are cut from large single crystals or from ingots of crystalline silicon. In thin-film PV technologies, the PV material is deposited on glass or thin metal that mechanically supports the cell or module.
  10. 10. PV System Applications ◦ Water pumping ◦ for small-scale remote irrigation, stock watering, residential uses, remote villages, and marine sump pumps; ◦ Lighting ◦ for residential needs, bill-boards, security, highway signs, streets and parking lots, pathways, recreational vehicles, remote villages and schools, and marine navigational buoys; ◦ Communications
  11. 11. ◦ by remote relay stations, emergency radios, orbiting satellites, and cellular telephones; ◦ Refrigeration for medical and recreational uses; ◦ Corrosion protection for pipelines and docks, petroleum and water wells, and underground tanks; ◦ Utility grids that produce utility or commercial-scale electricity; and
  12. 12. ◦ Household appliances such as ventilation fans, swamp coolers, televisions, blenders, stereos, and other appliances.
  13. 13. Components of solar system The components of the Solar System are the Sun, Jupiter, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, moons, and space rocks.
  14. 14. Solar cell materials ◦ Industrial cells are made of ◦ monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, copper indium selenide/sulfide or GaAs-based multijunction.
  15. 15. ◦ Monocrystalline silicon (c-Si) ◦ —often made using the Czochralski process. Single-crystal wafer cells tend to be expensive, and because they are cut from cylindrical ingots, do not completely cover a square solar cell module without a substantial waste of refined silicon. ◦ Polycrystalline silicon, or multicrystalline silicon, ◦ —made from cast square ingots—large blocks of molten silicon carefully cooled and solidified. Poly-Si cells are less expensive and less efficient than single monos.
  16. 16. ◦Ribbon silicon ◦ is a type of polycrystalline silicon—it is formed by drawing flat thin films from molten silicon and results in a polycrystalline structure. These cells have lower efficiencies and costs than poly-Si due to a great reduction in silicon waste ◦ Mono-like-multi silicon (MLM) —This form was developed in the 2000s and introduced commercially
  17. 17. Multijunction cells ◦ Multijunction cells were originally developed for special applications such as satellites and spac ◦ Multijunction cells consist of multiple thin films, each essentially a solar cell in its own right ◦ A triple-junction cell, for example, may consist of the semiconductors: GaAs, Ge, and GaInP ◦ GaAs based multijunction devices are the most efficient solar cells to date. In 15 October 2012, triple junction metamorphic cell reached a record high of 44%.
  18. 18. ◦ Tandem solar cells based on monolithic, series connected, gallium indium phosphide (GaInP), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and germanium (Ge) p–n junctions, are increasing sales, despite cost pressures. ◦ Those materials include gallium (4N, 6N and 7N Ga), arsenic (4N, 6N and 7N) and germanium, pyrolitic boron nitride (pBN) crucibles for growing crystals, and boron oxide, these products are critical to the entire substrate manufacturing industry. ◦ Triple-junction GaAs solar cells were used as the power source of the Dutch four-time World Solar Challenge winners