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Reconstruction

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Reconstruction

  1. 1. Bell Ringer- Copy the question and correct answer on the top of your notes handout
  2. 2. Reconstruction (1865- 1877) EQ: What are the lasting consequences of Reconstruction?
  3. 3. Reconstruction Amendments 13th Amendment • Abolished slavery and involuntary servitude except for in punishment of a crime • Many slaves were already set free by the Emancipation Proclamation • This amendment OFFICIALLY makes slavery unconstitutional
  4. 4. Reconstruction Amendments 14th Amendment • Anyone born in the United States was considered a citizen of the U.S. • This protected the citizenship from being taken away by future laws • The state could NOT take a person’s life, liberty, or property “without due process of law” • Every person was entitled to “equal protection of the laws”
  5. 5. Reconstruction Amendments 15th Amendment • State and federal governments cannot deny any male the right to vote based on “race, color, or previous condition of servitude” • In other words, this amendment gives all African-American men the right to vote
  6. 6. Lincoln’s 10 Percent Plan vs Wade-Davis Bill (Radical Republicans) • Lincoln’s 10 Percent Plan • Southern voters in each state had to take an oath of loyalty to the Union • When 10% of voters had taken the oath, the state could form a new state government • New state governments had to write a new constitution that outlawed slavery • Lincoln offered amnesty to all Southerners except Confederate leaders • Radical Republicans (Wade-Davis Bill) • Radicals believed Lincoln was being too easy on the South • A majority of state’s white male adults had to pledge loyalty to the Union • Only the white males who swore they had not fought against the Union could vote for delegates to a state constitutional convention • All new state constitutions had to ban slavery • Former Confederates could not hold office
  7. 7. Andrew Johnson • Becomes president after Abraham Lincoln was assassinated • Southerner (TN) who supported the Union during the war
  8. 8. Johnson’s Plan for Reconstruction • Give amnesty to most Southerners who swore loyalty to the Union • High-ranking Confederate officers could receive pardons by appealing to the president (meant to humiliate the leaders) • Southern states had to outlaw slavery before they could re-enter the Union but he believed African- Americans should not have equal rights (“White men alone must manage the South”) • All states would have to ratify the 13th Amendment
  9. 9. Johnson vs. The Radical Republicans • Radical Republicans believed Johnson was being too easy on the South • Pushed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 to combat the black codes (gave the federal government the power to protect African Americans from unfair state governments) • Johnson vetoed both bills, but Radical Republicans were able to override the vetoes • Radical Republicans began building their own plan for Reconstruction
  10. 10. Black Codes • Southern states were passing laws designed to control newly freed African Americans • African Americans could not own or rent farms • African Americans could be fined for not having a job • African Americans were forced to use separate facilities, etc. (segregation) • Life under the black codes was only slightly better than slavery
  11. 11. Freedman’s Bureau • Founded by Lincoln and others • Helped freed slaves adjust to life after slavery • Provided food, clothing, medicine, etc. • Set up schools • Fought for fair pay • Set up special courts to try those who violated African American rights
  12. 12. Johnson vs. The Radical Republicans • In the election of 1866, Johnson campaigned against the 14th Amendment • Radical Republicans won an overwhelming majority in Congress • Radical Republicans passed the Reconstruction Acts
  13. 13. Johnson’s Impeachment • Because Johnson strongly opposes the Reconstruction Acts, Congress passes laws to limit his power • The Tenure of Office Act stated that the president could not remove government officials, even those in his own cabinet • Johnson deliberately violated the Tenure of Office Act by firing Secretary of War Edwin Stanton • The House of Representatives voted to impeach the president • Johnson’s defenders argued that Congress was impeaching for political reasons • Some moderate Republicans supported Johnson in the trial and the Senate failed to get the 2/3 majority needed to remove the president
  14. 14. The Ku Klux Klan • Many whites were fearing an African American revolt • The KKK was a vigilante group formed to “keep order” (in reality, it was cruel violence and intimidation) • The KKK was formed in Pulaski, TN by six former Confederate soldiers • After African-American freedmen received the right to vote, the KKK turned into a terrorist organization that spread into other parts of the South
  15. 15. Carpetbaggers and Scalawags • Southern whites who supported the Republican party were called “scalawags” (“scoundrel” or “worthless rascal”) • Carpetbaggers- Northern whites who moved to the South after the war • White southerners were suspicious • Some were dishonest people looking to take advantage of the South • Most were honest people
  16. 16. Jim Crow Laws • A continuation of the black codes, but not as severe • Voting Restrictions • Poll Taxes- Many African Americans couldn’t afford to pay • Literacy Tests- Voters had to read and explain difficult parts of the state constitution • Grandfather Clauses- Allowed poor uneducated whites to be excluded from poll taxes and literacy tests if their fathers or grandfathers had voted before Reconstruction
  17. 17. Jim Crow Laws • Segregation- separation of races • Plessy vs Ferguson (1896)- Supreme Court case that segregation was legal as long as the separate facilities were equal to those designated for whites (“separate but equal”)
  18. 18. Election of 1876 • Republicans were wanting to keep control of the White House and chose Ruthorford B. Hayes as their nominee • Hayes was a moderate who appealed to voters in both the North and the South • Democrats nominated Samuel Tilden • Neither received a majority of electoral votes because of confusing election returns • Republicans claimed that votes in Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana had not been counted • Congress named a commission to decide who should get the disputed votes. All votes went to Hayes • Hayes won by one electoral vote
  19. 19. Election of 1876
  20. 20. Exodusters • Former slaves began leaving the South • Migrated to agricultural communities in Kansas, Missouri, Indiana, and Illinois • They get their name from the biblical book of Exodus where the Israelites escaped slavery in Egypt • During the 1870’s, more than 20,000 African Americans migrated to Kansas • Benjamin “Pap” Singleton from Tennessee led thousands of Exodusters to Kansas • Part of Topeka, KS was known as “Tennessee Town” because so many former slaves migrated from TN
  21. 21. Buffalo Soldiers • Other African Americans served in integrated army units and fought in western Indian Wars • They were called “buffalo soldiers” by the Apache and Cheyenne tribes • These soldiers also served in Cuba, the Philippines, Hawaii, and Mexico • George Jordan, from TN, received the Congressional Medal of Honor for his service
  22. 22. Urban Migration • By 1890, most Southern African Americans were moving North • They were looking for factory jobs • Settled in major cities like Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, Philadelphia, and New York • “Push-Pull” effect: • African Americans were deciding to leave to escape mistreatment in the South (push) • African Americans were deciding to leave because work in the North was something they desired (pull)
  23. 23. Reconstruction in TN • Tennessee accepted the 14th Amendment early • Fourteen African Americans were elected to the Tennessee legislature during the late 1800’s • Sampson W. Keeble from Davidson Co.
  24. 24. Reconstruction in TN • State Constitutional Convention of 1870 • Outlawed slavery in Tennessee • Introduced a poll tax
  25. 25. Reconstruction in TN • 1878 Yellow Fever Epidemic • Yellow fever spread from the Gulf of Mexico to Memphis along the Mississippi River • By the end of the year, 5,000 people in Memphis died from the disease • Throughout the South, 20,000 people died from the disease and 80,000 survived the infection
  26. 26. Acrostic • Create an acrostic using the term, “reconstruction” that describes the time period. • R • E • C • O • N • S • T • R • U • C • T • I • O • N
  27. 27. Review Option- Class 4B Only • Create a 10 question quiz (multiple choice) using your notes over Reconstruction • If you complete this, you will be able to use these questions to help you with your quiz tomorrow!
  28. 28. Reconstruction Partner Activity • Paper Slide Video- With your assigned partner, you will perform research on a Reconstruction topic of your choice. You will create a paper slide video detailing what you have learned. • You will submit the following: a digital copy of the paper slide video (we will discuss options for this) • A copy of the script for your video
  29. 29. Reconstruction Partner Activity • You may choose one of the following as a topic: • The impact of the Reconstruction Amendments • The conflict between Andrew Johnson and the Radical Republicans • Comparing Lincoln’s 10 Percent Plan to the Radical Republican Plan for Reconstruction • The Freedmen’s Bureau and the impact of Jim Crow laws. • Carpetbaggers and Scalawags • The controversy of the 1876 Election

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