AUTOMATIC ENERGY METER READING SYSTEM FOR BILLING PURPOSE

B
Bitan DasStudent at RAJABAZAR SCIENCE COLLEGE
SUBMITTED BY: MADHURIMA BASU
91/ELE/151016
135-1221-0853-12
DEPARTMENT OFAPPLIED PHYSICS
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
UNIVERSITY OF CALCUTTA
92.APC ROAD KOLKATA-700 009
 INTRODUCTION
Automated Meter reading systems are a invaluable technological advancement that can lead to
a better standard of living, owing to the fact that metering has become a part and parcel of our
mundane lives.
It solves many issues of the traditional meter reading system like need for human resources,
lack of efficiency and accuracy in meter reading, delayed work, unavailability of customer
during metering visit by employee, etc. Moreover it is more economical and helps to save
energy in a more efficient and effective way. Furthermore it has a very notable advantage of
having the ability to predict the energy demands of the future, starting from every household to
the entire planet.
Automated meter reading systems have been implemented using many different technologies
like GSM, ZigBee, PLC, D-SCADA, WiMAX and Hybrid Technologies that comprises of a
mixture of the above.
This seminar paper describes the working models, strengths and weaknesses of each
technology by considering various factors like feasibility, cost, reliability, efficiency, and
maintenance and user experience. This paper not only explains the existing Energy Metering
systems but also provides an abstract view of developing the most optimal Automated Meter
Reading system.
TYPES OF METERS:
Energy meters or watt hour meters are classified in accordance with several factors such as:
1. Type of display like analog or digital electric meter
2. Type of metering point like grid, secondary transmission line, primary and local distribution.
3. End applications like domestic, commercial and industrial.
4. Technical like three phase, single phase, HT & LT and accuracy and class meters.
These may be single or three phase meters depending on the supply utilized by domestic and
commercial installations. For small service measurements like domestic customers, these can
be directly connected between line and load. But for larger loads (more than about 200 ampere
of load) step down current transformer can be placed to isolate energy meters from higher
currents.
TYPES OF METERS CONTINUES:
1.> Electromechanical Induction
Type Energy Meter:
2.> Electronic Energy Meters:
• It consists of rotating aluminum disc mounted on
a spindle between two electromagnets.
• Speed of rotation is proportional to the power and
this power is integrated by the use of counter
mechanism and gear trains.
• It comprises of two silicon steel laminated
electromagnets i.e. series and shunt magnets.
• They are easy to tamper, leading to a requirement
of an electrical energy monitoring system.
• These are very commonly used in domestic and
industrial applications.
 These are of accurate, high precision and reliable
types of measuring instruments as compared to
conventional mechanical meters.
 Consumes less power and starts measuring
instantaneously when connected to the load.
 These meters might be analog or digital.
 In analog meters, power is converted proportional
to frequency or pulse rate and it is integrated by
counters placed inside it.
 In digital electric meters power is directly
measured by high end processors. The power is
integrated by logic circuits to get the energy and
also for testing and calibration purpose. It is then
converted to frequency and pulse rate.
Electromechanical Energy Meter
Analog and Digital electronic meters
TYPES OF METERS CONTINUES:
3.> Automated energy meter: 4.> Smart energy meter:
 Automated energy meter is generally an
electronic energy meter with a
communication module that helps the
meter to communicate directly with the
service provider.
 It has a digital signal processor or high
performance microprocessor.
 It also has voltage and current transducers
connected to a high resolution ADC.
 Real Time Clock (RTC) for real time
energy consumption calculation, maximum
demand calculation and also date and time
stamp for particular parameters.
 LCD module for display purpose.
 It is an advance technology which involves
placing intelligent meters to read, process
and feedback data to customers.
 It measures energy consumptions, remotely
switches the supply to the customers and
remotely controls the maximum electricity
consumptions.
 Smart metering system uses the advance
metering technology for better
performance.
Automated Energy Meter Smart Energy Meter
AUTOMATIC METER READING SYSTEM
 Automatic meter reading (AMR) is the technology
of automatically collecting data from energy
metering devices (water, gas, electricity) and
transferring that data to a central database for
billing and/or analyzing.
 AMR brings significant benefits to the customer
by providing increased meter-reading accuracy,
fewer estimated bills, and rapid response to read
request, automatic leak detection and billing
options and provide detailed usage information
about individual metering-sites, which allows the
company to offer variable rates and encourage
price-responsive behavior among customers.
 AMR improves operational management by
providing just-in-time meter replacement, tamper
detection, remote access, and automatic scheduling
of meter reading.
 In short, AMR will optimize cost savings and
maximize efficiency while providing improved
customer service.
 Hence AMR brings ‘intelligence’ into the revenue
cycle.
DIFFERENT AMR TECHNOLOGIES:
The main modules that make difference in Automated Meter Reading System are the Automated
Meter Reading Module and the Communication Module. Depending upon the communication
modules different AMR technologies are discussed below:
 MODES OF COMMUNICATION IN AMR:
 Touch Based Technology-
 Radio Frequency Network
1. One way or “Bubble Up”
2. Two way or “Wake Up”
3. Hybrid
Example: Hand held and Mobile meter reading
 RF technologies commonly used for AMR are:
1. Narrow Band (single fixed radio frequency)
2. Spread Spectrum (SS)
3. Direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS)
4. Frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS)
5. There are also meters using AMR with RF technologies such as cellular phone data system
(GSM/GPRS), Zigbee, Bluetooth, Wavenies and othe
 Fixed Network Communication
 Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity)
AN OVERVIEW OF THE HARDWARE USED IN
AUTOMATIC METERS:
 The automatic meter architecture is shown in the figure has been split into five sections: signal
acquisition, signal conditioning, Analog to Digital conversion (ADC), computation and communication.
 Signal Acquisition: data obtained from current and voltage sensors.
 Signal conditioning: amplification/attenuation, addition/subtraction of data before feeding to ADC
 Analog to digital conversion: conversion of analog signal to digital by using successive approximation
method or the sigma-delta method.
 Computation: The computation requirements are split into arithmetic operations on input signals, time-
sampling of data, preparation of data for communication with output peripherals, handling of routine
associated with irregular inputs(such as payment, tamper detection), storage of data, system updates and
coordinating different functions.
 Communication: wireless communication mediums are WiFi, ZigBee, GSM/GPRS/CDMA Cellular.
wired options include Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), power line carrier communication,
cable modems and Ethernet.
Signal
Acquisition
Signal
Conditioning
Analog to Digital
Conversion (ADC) Computation Communication
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT MODERN
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS FOR AMR:
 GSM Based AMRS:
 GSM is a second generation cellular slandered developed to crater voice services and data delivery
using digital modulation.
 GSM is a cellular network, which means that cell phones connect to it by searching for cells in the
immediate vicinity.
 GSM networks operate in four different frequency ranges. Most GSM networks operate in the 900
MHz or 1800 MHz bands.
 The GPRS Core Network is an optional part which allows packet based Internet connections in 2.5G
mobile phone systems.
 GSM technology also provides services like SMS (Short Message Service) and GPRS (General
Packet Radio Service) for requesting and retrieving reading from individual houses back to the
energy provider wirelessly.
 Cellular technology also utilizes an encryption technique to prevent an outside source from
receiving the transmitted data.
 The low cost, simple setup, wide operating distance, less human intervention are some of the other
salient features of this GSM based system.
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT MODERN
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS FOR AMR:
 Zigbee Based AMRS:
 ZigBee is a collection of communication
protocols used to build small personal
networks using low power digital radios
and is based on IEEE 802.15.4 standard.
 The range of an average ZigBee based
device is restricted to 10 - 100 meters and
can be further extended using a mesh
network of ZigBee devices.
 ZigBee- low cost, low power consumption,
high data through.
 The rate of ZigBee is definite with 250
kbit/s, best suited for intermittent data
transmissions from a sensor or input
device.
DISADVANTAGES:
1. Useful for short distance communication.
2. Clustered network is needed for long
distance communication
3. They are extremely limited in resources
including processing, memory, and power
consumption.
4. Technology is compariively new
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT MODERN
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS FOR AMR:
 Power Line Communication (PLC) system operates by
impressing a modulated carrier signal on the wiring
system.
 Different types of power line communications use
different frequency bands, depending on the signal
transmission characteristics of the power line used.
 Data rates and distance limits vary widely over many
power line communication standards.
 PLCC uses existing cables-economically viable means of
transferring Meter reading data to the DCU.
 This medium ultimately allows us to both control the
devices remotely and also retrieve data from it in a half
duplex manner.
DISADVANTAGES:
1. Power line is a hostile environment which makes the
propagation of signal very difficult.
2. Wave carrier reading system cannot read meters reliably
if there isn’t any relay or anti-attenuation techniques
3. Cannot consistently read the data from the energy
meters.
4. The long term interference on the electric network also
causes the household appliances to over-heat and can
also reduce the efficiency of the energy meter as well.
ARMS using PLCC
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT MODERN
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS FOR AMR:
AMRS USING WIMAX TECHNOLOGY:
 WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave
Access) is a wireless communications standard
designed to provide 30 to 40 megabit-per-second data
rates.
 WiMAX supports mobile, nomadic and fixed wireless
applications.
 WiMAX brings with it the ability to transmit over far
greater distances and to handle much more data
compared to ZigBee.
 Only connecting the WiMAX module to the energy
meter is enough. In the communication unit WiMAX
transceiver is used for wireless communication between
meter end and the server end because of its wide
coverage area.
 In the data receiving and processing unit, meter
reading is collected from the transceiver which is
controlled by another microcontroller.
DISADVANTAGE:
1. Has vulnerabilities to PHY and MAC layers
2. Affected by weather conditions
COMPARISON AND CONCLUSION
Mixed Type or Hybrid Type:
 Mixed type or hybrid type uses more
than one communication technology to
connect the consumer energy meter to
the utility.
 Hybrid type communication system
depends on both fixed and wireless
communication. Hybrid communication
system infrastructure depends mainly on
the available technology of the metering
site, for example- in rural areas, PLC
based communication is preferred more
over wireless communication whereas in
the heavily populated city areas, a
clustered wireless communication
technology will provide better services.
Salient features of the system:
 The system uses pre-existing electric lines in for
communication making it more economically viable.
 PLCC is best suited for LT 440 V network for detecting
outages, tamper events and performing remote
disconnect.
 Communication on HT side can be implemented via a
choice of GSM, CDMA, RF or PSTN.
 Utilizing an existing cellular network for data
transportation requires no additional equipment or
software, resulting in a significant savings in both time
and capital.
COMPARISON AND CONCLUSION:
Technology
Used Cost Feasibility Reliability Coverage
Communication
Protocol
GSM Low
Most
Feasible High High Stable
ZigBee Medium Small Scale Low Low Least Stable
PLC Low
Least
Feasible Low Very High Very Stable
WiMax Medium Small Scale Medium High Stable
Mixed Varies
Feasible If
GSM is Part
Of It
Varies
High If
GSM Is
Part Of It
Varies
ADVANTAGES OF AUTOMATED METER READING
SYSTEM:
Electrical Company Benefit:
 Smart automated process instead of manual
work
 Accurate information from the network load to
optimize maintenance and investments.
 Customize rates and billing dates
 Streamlined high bill investments.
 Detection of tampering of Meters.
 Accurate measurement of transmission losses.
 Better network performance and cost efficiency.
 Demand and distribution managements.
 More intelligence to business planning
 Better company credibility
CUSTOMER BENEFITS:
 Precise consumption information
 Clear and accurate billing
 Automatic outage information and faster
recovery
 Better and faster customer service
 Notify or alert to potential high consumption
before customer gets the bill.
ADVANCE METERING INFRASTRUCTURE IN AMR:
 Basic Functions of AMI:
AMI system shall support the following
minimum functionalities:
 Remote Meter data reading at
configurable intervals (push/pull)
 Time of day (TOD)/ TOU metering
 Pre paid functionality
 Net Metering/Billing
 Alarm/Event detection, notification and
reporting
 Remote load limiter and
connection/disconnection at defined or on
demand conditions
 Remote firmware upgrade
 Integration with other existing systems
like IVRS, Billing & collection software,
GIS mapping, consumer indexing, new
connection and disconnection, analysis
software, Outage Management System
etc.
 Security features to prevent unauthorized
access to the AMI including Smart meter
& meter data etc. and to ensure
authentication of all AMI elements by a
third party.
• Billing(Prepaid and
Net Billing)
• Metering(TOD/TOU)
• Dispatch and Outage
Management
• Demand
Management
• Customer Service
• Key Accounts
Management and
Firmware Upgrade
• Assets Managements
• Planning,
Engineering and
Operations
• Security for Meter
and Consumer Data
AMI-a metering
system that records
customer
consumption hourly
or more frequently
for that provides for
daily or more
frequent
transmission
measurement over a
communication
network to a central
collection point
• Billing (Monthly-
Prepaid/Postpaid)
• Meter Reading
(Manual/Automatic)
• Manual Reset of Maximum
Demand in Monthly Basis
AMR-system
where an aggregated
kWh usage and in
some cases demand, is
retrieved via an
automatic means
mainly drive-by or
walk-by handheld
system or in some
cases PLC or wireless
communication
system
AMI COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
 Home Area Network:
Communication among devices at close vicinity (HVAC)
 Neighborhood Area Network:
The primary is to transfer consumption data from energy
meters. The communication technology used for NAN is
based on the volume of data transfer-generally used is
ZigBee or Wi-Fi.
 Data Connector:
Data connecter acts as relay between the smart meters and
the gateway. It manages the meters by automatically
detecting them, creates and optimizes repeating chains, co-
ordinates the bi-directional delivery of data, and monitors
the condition of the meters.
 Wide Area Network (WAN):
Wide Area network provides connection between the data
connecter and the gateway to the utility. WAN is generally
made of GSM/GPRS network because of its high
reliability, low cost and pre-installed infrastructure.
 Meter Data Management System;
Meter data management system is a database that typically
provides services such as data accusation, validation,
adjustment, storage and calculation in order to provide
refined information for customer services and system
operations such as billing, demand forecasting and demand
response.
AUTOMATED METER READING SYSTEM BASED ON
AMI (HYBRID SYSTEM):
 Here the Home Area Network is
based on PLC communication.
 Neighborhood Area Network is
constructed by radio frequency
communication technology
based on ZigBee mesh
connection.
 The Wide Area Network and the
connection to the utility is done
by GSM/GPRS communication
technology.
Hybrid Communication System Using AMI
EVOLUTION OF ELECTRICITY METERING
 The most common type of meters used is an
accumulation meter, which records energy
consumption over time. Accumulation meters in
consumer premises are read manually for energy
assessment within a billing period.
 Interval meters records energy used over short
intervals, typically every half hour. These allows
the energy suppliers to design tariffs and charging
structures that reflects whole sale prices and helps
the customers understand and manage their pattern
of electricity demand.
 Smart meters are even more advanced as they have
two-way communications and provide a real time
display of energy use and pricing information,
dynamic tariffs and facilitate the automatic control
of electrical appliances.
METERING TRENDS IN INDIA:
 The Indian electricity meters market is highly dynamic.
 Government initiative like smart grid mission, integrated power development scheme
(IPDS) and smart city mission.
 The products cover in the research service are tariff meters which is further classified into
single phase, three phase, prepaid and smart meters and panel meters trickled down KWH
meters, multifunction meters and Dual source meters.
 The government initiatives to achieve 100% metering and reduce AT&C uses, coupled
with energy efficiency measures facilitated by Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) has
also opened up opportunities in private, commercial and industrial segment.
 A wide product and packages solution portfolio, completive pricing, and extensive market
reach are likely to be the key success factors of the Indian electricity meters market.
Focus on product innovation in smart meters are aligned marketing efforts are expected to
provide a completive advantage to participants.
AUTOMATIC ENERGY METER READING SYSTEM FOR BILLING PURPOSE
1 von 21

Más contenido relacionado

Was ist angesagt?(20)

Power Quality and MonitoringPower Quality and Monitoring
Power Quality and Monitoring
ash080319968.1K views
Interconnection issue in microgridInterconnection issue in microgrid
Interconnection issue in microgrid
Amarjeet S Pandey1.4K views
INTERLINE FLOW CONTROLLERINTERLINE FLOW CONTROLLER
INTERLINE FLOW CONTROLLER
Nitish NIT9.8K views
prepaid energy meterprepaid energy meter
prepaid energy meter
Biswajit Pratihari48.7K views
Demand side managementDemand side management
Demand side management
Shivraj Nalawade10K views
Protection and control of MicrogridProtection and control of Microgrid
Protection and control of Microgrid
Amarjeet S Pandey2.2K views
Smart grid in indiaSmart grid in india
Smart grid in india
Abhishek Kumar Gupta5.1K views
Smart energy meter   pptSmart energy meter   ppt
Smart energy meter ppt
Ritam Giri4.4K views
Smart metersSmart meters
Smart meters
reddy rani713 views
WIDE AREA MONITORING SYSTEMS(WAMS)WIDE AREA MONITORING SYSTEMS(WAMS)
WIDE AREA MONITORING SYSTEMS(WAMS)
Vikram Purohit16.1K views
statcomstatcom
statcom
D Målîk12K views
Smart gridSmart grid
Smart grid
Utsav Yagnik5.8K views
Objectives of shunt compensationObjectives of shunt compensation
Objectives of shunt compensation
Ayyarao T S L V22.6K views
static series synchronus compensatorstatic series synchronus compensator
static series synchronus compensator
bhupendra kumar9.3K views
POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROLPOWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL
POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL
Power System Operation1.6K views
 Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU)
Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU)
Siksha 'O' Anusandhan (Deemed to be University )15.8K views

Similar a AUTOMATIC ENERGY METER READING SYSTEM FOR BILLING PURPOSE(20)

Automatic energy meter readingAutomatic energy meter reading
Automatic energy meter reading
SURYAANDUKURI368 views
Repot on gsm based armRepot on gsm based arm
Repot on gsm based arm
Kishan Bhounsle G3K views
Concepts of smart meterConcepts of smart meter
Concepts of smart meter
Vasanthan Ravichandran4.7K views
GMS PPT.pptxGMS PPT.pptx
GMS PPT.pptx
PRASENJITMORE291 views
Db24664671Db24664671
Db24664671
IJERA Editor317 views
Wireless meter reading systemWireless meter reading system
Wireless meter reading system
mangal das1.5K views
automatic meter readingautomatic meter reading
automatic meter reading
msubashece00115.6K views
273 279273 279
273 279
Editor IJARCET496 views
273 279273 279
273 279
Editor IJARCET205 views
IJSDR1606026IJSDR1606026
IJSDR1606026
Suraj Bangar55 views
Ijariie1172Ijariie1172
Ijariie1172
IJARIIE JOURNAL174 views
Ijariie1194Ijariie1194
Ijariie1194
IJARIIE JOURNAL261 views
Gsm energy meterGsm energy meter
Gsm energy meter
ikm10450K views
54278227-Smart-Grid (1).ppt54278227-Smart-Grid (1).ppt
54278227-Smart-Grid (1).ppt
VaibhavVijaykumarSut6 views

AUTOMATIC ENERGY METER READING SYSTEM FOR BILLING PURPOSE

  • 1. SUBMITTED BY: MADHURIMA BASU 91/ELE/151016 135-1221-0853-12 DEPARTMENT OFAPPLIED PHYSICS UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF CALCUTTA 92.APC ROAD KOLKATA-700 009
  • 2.  INTRODUCTION Automated Meter reading systems are a invaluable technological advancement that can lead to a better standard of living, owing to the fact that metering has become a part and parcel of our mundane lives. It solves many issues of the traditional meter reading system like need for human resources, lack of efficiency and accuracy in meter reading, delayed work, unavailability of customer during metering visit by employee, etc. Moreover it is more economical and helps to save energy in a more efficient and effective way. Furthermore it has a very notable advantage of having the ability to predict the energy demands of the future, starting from every household to the entire planet. Automated meter reading systems have been implemented using many different technologies like GSM, ZigBee, PLC, D-SCADA, WiMAX and Hybrid Technologies that comprises of a mixture of the above. This seminar paper describes the working models, strengths and weaknesses of each technology by considering various factors like feasibility, cost, reliability, efficiency, and maintenance and user experience. This paper not only explains the existing Energy Metering systems but also provides an abstract view of developing the most optimal Automated Meter Reading system.
  • 3. TYPES OF METERS: Energy meters or watt hour meters are classified in accordance with several factors such as: 1. Type of display like analog or digital electric meter 2. Type of metering point like grid, secondary transmission line, primary and local distribution. 3. End applications like domestic, commercial and industrial. 4. Technical like three phase, single phase, HT & LT and accuracy and class meters. These may be single or three phase meters depending on the supply utilized by domestic and commercial installations. For small service measurements like domestic customers, these can be directly connected between line and load. But for larger loads (more than about 200 ampere of load) step down current transformer can be placed to isolate energy meters from higher currents.
  • 4. TYPES OF METERS CONTINUES: 1.> Electromechanical Induction Type Energy Meter: 2.> Electronic Energy Meters: • It consists of rotating aluminum disc mounted on a spindle between two electromagnets. • Speed of rotation is proportional to the power and this power is integrated by the use of counter mechanism and gear trains. • It comprises of two silicon steel laminated electromagnets i.e. series and shunt magnets. • They are easy to tamper, leading to a requirement of an electrical energy monitoring system. • These are very commonly used in domestic and industrial applications.  These are of accurate, high precision and reliable types of measuring instruments as compared to conventional mechanical meters.  Consumes less power and starts measuring instantaneously when connected to the load.  These meters might be analog or digital.  In analog meters, power is converted proportional to frequency or pulse rate and it is integrated by counters placed inside it.  In digital electric meters power is directly measured by high end processors. The power is integrated by logic circuits to get the energy and also for testing and calibration purpose. It is then converted to frequency and pulse rate. Electromechanical Energy Meter Analog and Digital electronic meters
  • 5. TYPES OF METERS CONTINUES: 3.> Automated energy meter: 4.> Smart energy meter:  Automated energy meter is generally an electronic energy meter with a communication module that helps the meter to communicate directly with the service provider.  It has a digital signal processor or high performance microprocessor.  It also has voltage and current transducers connected to a high resolution ADC.  Real Time Clock (RTC) for real time energy consumption calculation, maximum demand calculation and also date and time stamp for particular parameters.  LCD module for display purpose.  It is an advance technology which involves placing intelligent meters to read, process and feedback data to customers.  It measures energy consumptions, remotely switches the supply to the customers and remotely controls the maximum electricity consumptions.  Smart metering system uses the advance metering technology for better performance. Automated Energy Meter Smart Energy Meter
  • 6. AUTOMATIC METER READING SYSTEM  Automatic meter reading (AMR) is the technology of automatically collecting data from energy metering devices (water, gas, electricity) and transferring that data to a central database for billing and/or analyzing.  AMR brings significant benefits to the customer by providing increased meter-reading accuracy, fewer estimated bills, and rapid response to read request, automatic leak detection and billing options and provide detailed usage information about individual metering-sites, which allows the company to offer variable rates and encourage price-responsive behavior among customers.  AMR improves operational management by providing just-in-time meter replacement, tamper detection, remote access, and automatic scheduling of meter reading.  In short, AMR will optimize cost savings and maximize efficiency while providing improved customer service.  Hence AMR brings ‘intelligence’ into the revenue cycle.
  • 7. DIFFERENT AMR TECHNOLOGIES: The main modules that make difference in Automated Meter Reading System are the Automated Meter Reading Module and the Communication Module. Depending upon the communication modules different AMR technologies are discussed below:  MODES OF COMMUNICATION IN AMR:  Touch Based Technology-  Radio Frequency Network 1. One way or “Bubble Up” 2. Two way or “Wake Up” 3. Hybrid Example: Hand held and Mobile meter reading  RF technologies commonly used for AMR are: 1. Narrow Band (single fixed radio frequency) 2. Spread Spectrum (SS) 3. Direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) 4. Frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) 5. There are also meters using AMR with RF technologies such as cellular phone data system (GSM/GPRS), Zigbee, Bluetooth, Wavenies and othe  Fixed Network Communication  Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity)
  • 8. AN OVERVIEW OF THE HARDWARE USED IN AUTOMATIC METERS:  The automatic meter architecture is shown in the figure has been split into five sections: signal acquisition, signal conditioning, Analog to Digital conversion (ADC), computation and communication.  Signal Acquisition: data obtained from current and voltage sensors.  Signal conditioning: amplification/attenuation, addition/subtraction of data before feeding to ADC  Analog to digital conversion: conversion of analog signal to digital by using successive approximation method or the sigma-delta method.  Computation: The computation requirements are split into arithmetic operations on input signals, time- sampling of data, preparation of data for communication with output peripherals, handling of routine associated with irregular inputs(such as payment, tamper detection), storage of data, system updates and coordinating different functions.  Communication: wireless communication mediums are WiFi, ZigBee, GSM/GPRS/CDMA Cellular. wired options include Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), power line carrier communication, cable modems and Ethernet. Signal Acquisition Signal Conditioning Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC) Computation Communication
  • 9. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT MODERN COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS FOR AMR:  GSM Based AMRS:  GSM is a second generation cellular slandered developed to crater voice services and data delivery using digital modulation.  GSM is a cellular network, which means that cell phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity.  GSM networks operate in four different frequency ranges. Most GSM networks operate in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands.  The GPRS Core Network is an optional part which allows packet based Internet connections in 2.5G mobile phone systems.  GSM technology also provides services like SMS (Short Message Service) and GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) for requesting and retrieving reading from individual houses back to the energy provider wirelessly.  Cellular technology also utilizes an encryption technique to prevent an outside source from receiving the transmitted data.  The low cost, simple setup, wide operating distance, less human intervention are some of the other salient features of this GSM based system.
  • 10. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT MODERN COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS FOR AMR:  Zigbee Based AMRS:  ZigBee is a collection of communication protocols used to build small personal networks using low power digital radios and is based on IEEE 802.15.4 standard.  The range of an average ZigBee based device is restricted to 10 - 100 meters and can be further extended using a mesh network of ZigBee devices.  ZigBee- low cost, low power consumption, high data through.  The rate of ZigBee is definite with 250 kbit/s, best suited for intermittent data transmissions from a sensor or input device. DISADVANTAGES: 1. Useful for short distance communication. 2. Clustered network is needed for long distance communication 3. They are extremely limited in resources including processing, memory, and power consumption. 4. Technology is compariively new
  • 11. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT MODERN COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS FOR AMR:  Power Line Communication (PLC) system operates by impressing a modulated carrier signal on the wiring system.  Different types of power line communications use different frequency bands, depending on the signal transmission characteristics of the power line used.  Data rates and distance limits vary widely over many power line communication standards.  PLCC uses existing cables-economically viable means of transferring Meter reading data to the DCU.  This medium ultimately allows us to both control the devices remotely and also retrieve data from it in a half duplex manner. DISADVANTAGES: 1. Power line is a hostile environment which makes the propagation of signal very difficult. 2. Wave carrier reading system cannot read meters reliably if there isn’t any relay or anti-attenuation techniques 3. Cannot consistently read the data from the energy meters. 4. The long term interference on the electric network also causes the household appliances to over-heat and can also reduce the efficiency of the energy meter as well. ARMS using PLCC
  • 12. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT MODERN COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS FOR AMR: AMRS USING WIMAX TECHNOLOGY:  WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a wireless communications standard designed to provide 30 to 40 megabit-per-second data rates.  WiMAX supports mobile, nomadic and fixed wireless applications.  WiMAX brings with it the ability to transmit over far greater distances and to handle much more data compared to ZigBee.  Only connecting the WiMAX module to the energy meter is enough. In the communication unit WiMAX transceiver is used for wireless communication between meter end and the server end because of its wide coverage area.  In the data receiving and processing unit, meter reading is collected from the transceiver which is controlled by another microcontroller. DISADVANTAGE: 1. Has vulnerabilities to PHY and MAC layers 2. Affected by weather conditions
  • 13. COMPARISON AND CONCLUSION Mixed Type or Hybrid Type:  Mixed type or hybrid type uses more than one communication technology to connect the consumer energy meter to the utility.  Hybrid type communication system depends on both fixed and wireless communication. Hybrid communication system infrastructure depends mainly on the available technology of the metering site, for example- in rural areas, PLC based communication is preferred more over wireless communication whereas in the heavily populated city areas, a clustered wireless communication technology will provide better services. Salient features of the system:  The system uses pre-existing electric lines in for communication making it more economically viable.  PLCC is best suited for LT 440 V network for detecting outages, tamper events and performing remote disconnect.  Communication on HT side can be implemented via a choice of GSM, CDMA, RF or PSTN.  Utilizing an existing cellular network for data transportation requires no additional equipment or software, resulting in a significant savings in both time and capital.
  • 14. COMPARISON AND CONCLUSION: Technology Used Cost Feasibility Reliability Coverage Communication Protocol GSM Low Most Feasible High High Stable ZigBee Medium Small Scale Low Low Least Stable PLC Low Least Feasible Low Very High Very Stable WiMax Medium Small Scale Medium High Stable Mixed Varies Feasible If GSM is Part Of It Varies High If GSM Is Part Of It Varies
  • 15. ADVANTAGES OF AUTOMATED METER READING SYSTEM: Electrical Company Benefit:  Smart automated process instead of manual work  Accurate information from the network load to optimize maintenance and investments.  Customize rates and billing dates  Streamlined high bill investments.  Detection of tampering of Meters.  Accurate measurement of transmission losses.  Better network performance and cost efficiency.  Demand and distribution managements.  More intelligence to business planning  Better company credibility CUSTOMER BENEFITS:  Precise consumption information  Clear and accurate billing  Automatic outage information and faster recovery  Better and faster customer service  Notify or alert to potential high consumption before customer gets the bill.
  • 16. ADVANCE METERING INFRASTRUCTURE IN AMR:  Basic Functions of AMI: AMI system shall support the following minimum functionalities:  Remote Meter data reading at configurable intervals (push/pull)  Time of day (TOD)/ TOU metering  Pre paid functionality  Net Metering/Billing  Alarm/Event detection, notification and reporting  Remote load limiter and connection/disconnection at defined or on demand conditions  Remote firmware upgrade  Integration with other existing systems like IVRS, Billing & collection software, GIS mapping, consumer indexing, new connection and disconnection, analysis software, Outage Management System etc.  Security features to prevent unauthorized access to the AMI including Smart meter & meter data etc. and to ensure authentication of all AMI elements by a third party. • Billing(Prepaid and Net Billing) • Metering(TOD/TOU) • Dispatch and Outage Management • Demand Management • Customer Service • Key Accounts Management and Firmware Upgrade • Assets Managements • Planning, Engineering and Operations • Security for Meter and Consumer Data AMI-a metering system that records customer consumption hourly or more frequently for that provides for daily or more frequent transmission measurement over a communication network to a central collection point • Billing (Monthly- Prepaid/Postpaid) • Meter Reading (Manual/Automatic) • Manual Reset of Maximum Demand in Monthly Basis AMR-system where an aggregated kWh usage and in some cases demand, is retrieved via an automatic means mainly drive-by or walk-by handheld system or in some cases PLC or wireless communication system
  • 17. AMI COMMUNICATION SYSTEM  Home Area Network: Communication among devices at close vicinity (HVAC)  Neighborhood Area Network: The primary is to transfer consumption data from energy meters. The communication technology used for NAN is based on the volume of data transfer-generally used is ZigBee or Wi-Fi.  Data Connector: Data connecter acts as relay between the smart meters and the gateway. It manages the meters by automatically detecting them, creates and optimizes repeating chains, co- ordinates the bi-directional delivery of data, and monitors the condition of the meters.  Wide Area Network (WAN): Wide Area network provides connection between the data connecter and the gateway to the utility. WAN is generally made of GSM/GPRS network because of its high reliability, low cost and pre-installed infrastructure.  Meter Data Management System; Meter data management system is a database that typically provides services such as data accusation, validation, adjustment, storage and calculation in order to provide refined information for customer services and system operations such as billing, demand forecasting and demand response.
  • 18. AUTOMATED METER READING SYSTEM BASED ON AMI (HYBRID SYSTEM):  Here the Home Area Network is based on PLC communication.  Neighborhood Area Network is constructed by radio frequency communication technology based on ZigBee mesh connection.  The Wide Area Network and the connection to the utility is done by GSM/GPRS communication technology. Hybrid Communication System Using AMI
  • 19. EVOLUTION OF ELECTRICITY METERING  The most common type of meters used is an accumulation meter, which records energy consumption over time. Accumulation meters in consumer premises are read manually for energy assessment within a billing period.  Interval meters records energy used over short intervals, typically every half hour. These allows the energy suppliers to design tariffs and charging structures that reflects whole sale prices and helps the customers understand and manage their pattern of electricity demand.  Smart meters are even more advanced as they have two-way communications and provide a real time display of energy use and pricing information, dynamic tariffs and facilitate the automatic control of electrical appliances.
  • 20. METERING TRENDS IN INDIA:  The Indian electricity meters market is highly dynamic.  Government initiative like smart grid mission, integrated power development scheme (IPDS) and smart city mission.  The products cover in the research service are tariff meters which is further classified into single phase, three phase, prepaid and smart meters and panel meters trickled down KWH meters, multifunction meters and Dual source meters.  The government initiatives to achieve 100% metering and reduce AT&C uses, coupled with energy efficiency measures facilitated by Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) has also opened up opportunities in private, commercial and industrial segment.  A wide product and packages solution portfolio, completive pricing, and extensive market reach are likely to be the key success factors of the Indian electricity meters market. Focus on product innovation in smart meters are aligned marketing efforts are expected to provide a completive advantage to participants.