AUTOMATIC ENERGY METER READING SYSTEM FOR BILLING PURPOSE
1. SUBMITTED BY: MADHURIMA BASU
DEPARTMENT OFAPPLIED PHYSICS
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
UNIVERSITY OF CALCUTTA
92.APC ROAD KOLKATA-700 009
Automated Meter reading systems are a invaluable technological advancement that can lead to
a better standard of living, owing to the fact that metering has become a part and parcel of our
It solves many issues of the traditional meter reading system like need for human resources,
lack of efficiency and accuracy in meter reading, delayed work, unavailability of customer
during metering visit by employee, etc. Moreover it is more economical and helps to save
energy in a more efficient and effective way. Furthermore it has a very notable advantage of
having the ability to predict the energy demands of the future, starting from every household to
the entire planet.
Automated meter reading systems have been implemented using many different technologies
like GSM, ZigBee, PLC, D-SCADA, WiMAX and Hybrid Technologies that comprises of a
mixture of the above.
This seminar paper describes the working models, strengths and weaknesses of each
technology by considering various factors like feasibility, cost, reliability, efficiency, and
maintenance and user experience. This paper not only explains the existing Energy Metering
systems but also provides an abstract view of developing the most optimal Automated Meter
3. TYPES OF METERS:
Energy meters or watt hour meters are classified in accordance with several factors such as:
1. Type of display like analog or digital electric meter
2. Type of metering point like grid, secondary transmission line, primary and local distribution.
3. End applications like domestic, commercial and industrial.
4. Technical like three phase, single phase, HT & LT and accuracy and class meters.
These may be single or three phase meters depending on the supply utilized by domestic and
commercial installations. For small service measurements like domestic customers, these can
be directly connected between line and load. But for larger loads (more than about 200 ampere
of load) step down current transformer can be placed to isolate energy meters from higher
4. TYPES OF METERS CONTINUES:
1.> Electromechanical Induction
Type Energy Meter:
2.> Electronic Energy Meters:
• It consists of rotating aluminum disc mounted on
a spindle between two electromagnets.
• Speed of rotation is proportional to the power and
this power is integrated by the use of counter
mechanism and gear trains.
• It comprises of two silicon steel laminated
electromagnets i.e. series and shunt magnets.
• They are easy to tamper, leading to a requirement
of an electrical energy monitoring system.
• These are very commonly used in domestic and
These are of accurate, high precision and reliable
types of measuring instruments as compared to
conventional mechanical meters.
Consumes less power and starts measuring
instantaneously when connected to the load.
These meters might be analog or digital.
In analog meters, power is converted proportional
to frequency or pulse rate and it is integrated by
counters placed inside it.
In digital electric meters power is directly
measured by high end processors. The power is
integrated by logic circuits to get the energy and
also for testing and calibration purpose. It is then
converted to frequency and pulse rate.
Electromechanical Energy Meter
Analog and Digital electronic meters
5. TYPES OF METERS CONTINUES:
3.> Automated energy meter: 4.> Smart energy meter:
Automated energy meter is generally an
electronic energy meter with a
communication module that helps the
meter to communicate directly with the
It has a digital signal processor or high
It also has voltage and current transducers
connected to a high resolution ADC.
Real Time Clock (RTC) for real time
energy consumption calculation, maximum
demand calculation and also date and time
stamp for particular parameters.
LCD module for display purpose.
It is an advance technology which involves
placing intelligent meters to read, process
and feedback data to customers.
It measures energy consumptions, remotely
switches the supply to the customers and
remotely controls the maximum electricity
Smart metering system uses the advance
metering technology for better
Automated Energy Meter Smart Energy Meter
6. AUTOMATIC METER READING SYSTEM
Automatic meter reading (AMR) is the technology
of automatically collecting data from energy
metering devices (water, gas, electricity) and
transferring that data to a central database for
billing and/or analyzing.
AMR brings significant benefits to the customer
by providing increased meter-reading accuracy,
fewer estimated bills, and rapid response to read
request, automatic leak detection and billing
options and provide detailed usage information
about individual metering-sites, which allows the
company to offer variable rates and encourage
price-responsive behavior among customers.
AMR improves operational management by
providing just-in-time meter replacement, tamper
detection, remote access, and automatic scheduling
of meter reading.
In short, AMR will optimize cost savings and
maximize efficiency while providing improved
Hence AMR brings ‘intelligence’ into the revenue
7. DIFFERENT AMR TECHNOLOGIES:
The main modules that make difference in Automated Meter Reading System are the Automated
Meter Reading Module and the Communication Module. Depending upon the communication
modules different AMR technologies are discussed below:
MODES OF COMMUNICATION IN AMR:
Touch Based Technology-
Radio Frequency Network
1. One way or “Bubble Up”
2. Two way or “Wake Up”
Example: Hand held and Mobile meter reading
RF technologies commonly used for AMR are:
1. Narrow Band (single fixed radio frequency)
2. Spread Spectrum (SS)
3. Direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS)
4. Frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS)
5. There are also meters using AMR with RF technologies such as cellular phone data system
(GSM/GPRS), Zigbee, Bluetooth, Wavenies and othe
Fixed Network Communication
Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity)
8. AN OVERVIEW OF THE HARDWARE USED IN
The automatic meter architecture is shown in the figure has been split into five sections: signal
acquisition, signal conditioning, Analog to Digital conversion (ADC), computation and communication.
Signal Acquisition: data obtained from current and voltage sensors.
Signal conditioning: amplification/attenuation, addition/subtraction of data before feeding to ADC
Analog to digital conversion: conversion of analog signal to digital by using successive approximation
method or the sigma-delta method.
Computation: The computation requirements are split into arithmetic operations on input signals, time-
sampling of data, preparation of data for communication with output peripherals, handling of routine
associated with irregular inputs(such as payment, tamper detection), storage of data, system updates and
coordinating different functions.
Communication: wireless communication mediums are WiFi, ZigBee, GSM/GPRS/CDMA Cellular.
wired options include Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), power line carrier communication,
cable modems and Ethernet.
Analog to Digital
Conversion (ADC) Computation Communication
9. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT MODERN
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS FOR AMR:
GSM Based AMRS:
GSM is a second generation cellular slandered developed to crater voice services and data delivery
using digital modulation.
GSM is a cellular network, which means that cell phones connect to it by searching for cells in the
GSM networks operate in four different frequency ranges. Most GSM networks operate in the 900
MHz or 1800 MHz bands.
The GPRS Core Network is an optional part which allows packet based Internet connections in 2.5G
mobile phone systems.
GSM technology also provides services like SMS (Short Message Service) and GPRS (General
Packet Radio Service) for requesting and retrieving reading from individual houses back to the
energy provider wirelessly.
Cellular technology also utilizes an encryption technique to prevent an outside source from
receiving the transmitted data.
The low cost, simple setup, wide operating distance, less human intervention are some of the other
salient features of this GSM based system.
10. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT MODERN
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS FOR AMR:
Zigbee Based AMRS:
ZigBee is a collection of communication
protocols used to build small personal
networks using low power digital radios
and is based on IEEE 802.15.4 standard.
The range of an average ZigBee based
device is restricted to 10 - 100 meters and
can be further extended using a mesh
network of ZigBee devices.
ZigBee- low cost, low power consumption,
high data through.
The rate of ZigBee is definite with 250
kbit/s, best suited for intermittent data
transmissions from a sensor or input
1. Useful for short distance communication.
2. Clustered network is needed for long
3. They are extremely limited in resources
including processing, memory, and power
4. Technology is compariively new
11. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT MODERN
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS FOR AMR:
Power Line Communication (PLC) system operates by
impressing a modulated carrier signal on the wiring
Different types of power line communications use
different frequency bands, depending on the signal
transmission characteristics of the power line used.
Data rates and distance limits vary widely over many
power line communication standards.
PLCC uses existing cables-economically viable means of
transferring Meter reading data to the DCU.
This medium ultimately allows us to both control the
devices remotely and also retrieve data from it in a half
1. Power line is a hostile environment which makes the
propagation of signal very difficult.
2. Wave carrier reading system cannot read meters reliably
if there isn’t any relay or anti-attenuation techniques
3. Cannot consistently read the data from the energy
4. The long term interference on the electric network also
causes the household appliances to over-heat and can
also reduce the efficiency of the energy meter as well.
ARMS using PLCC
12. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT MODERN
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS FOR AMR:
AMRS USING WIMAX TECHNOLOGY:
WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave
Access) is a wireless communications standard
designed to provide 30 to 40 megabit-per-second data
WiMAX supports mobile, nomadic and fixed wireless
WiMAX brings with it the ability to transmit over far
greater distances and to handle much more data
compared to ZigBee.
Only connecting the WiMAX module to the energy
meter is enough. In the communication unit WiMAX
transceiver is used for wireless communication between
meter end and the server end because of its wide
In the data receiving and processing unit, meter
reading is collected from the transceiver which is
controlled by another microcontroller.
1. Has vulnerabilities to PHY and MAC layers
2. Affected by weather conditions
13. COMPARISON AND CONCLUSION
Mixed Type or Hybrid Type:
Mixed type or hybrid type uses more
than one communication technology to
connect the consumer energy meter to
Hybrid type communication system
depends on both fixed and wireless
communication. Hybrid communication
system infrastructure depends mainly on
the available technology of the metering
site, for example- in rural areas, PLC
based communication is preferred more
over wireless communication whereas in
the heavily populated city areas, a
clustered wireless communication
technology will provide better services.
Salient features of the system:
The system uses pre-existing electric lines in for
communication making it more economically viable.
PLCC is best suited for LT 440 V network for detecting
outages, tamper events and performing remote
Communication on HT side can be implemented via a
choice of GSM, CDMA, RF or PSTN.
Utilizing an existing cellular network for data
transportation requires no additional equipment or
software, resulting in a significant savings in both time
14. COMPARISON AND CONCLUSION:
Used Cost Feasibility Reliability Coverage
Feasible High High Stable
ZigBee Medium Small Scale Low Low Least Stable
Feasible Low Very High Very Stable
WiMax Medium Small Scale Medium High Stable
GSM is Part
Part Of It
15. ADVANTAGES OF AUTOMATED METER READING
Electrical Company Benefit:
Smart automated process instead of manual
Accurate information from the network load to
optimize maintenance and investments.
Customize rates and billing dates
Streamlined high bill investments.
Detection of tampering of Meters.
Accurate measurement of transmission losses.
Better network performance and cost efficiency.
Demand and distribution managements.
More intelligence to business planning
Better company credibility
Precise consumption information
Clear and accurate billing
Automatic outage information and faster
Better and faster customer service
Notify or alert to potential high consumption
before customer gets the bill.
16. ADVANCE METERING INFRASTRUCTURE IN AMR:
Basic Functions of AMI:
AMI system shall support the following
Remote Meter data reading at
configurable intervals (push/pull)
Time of day (TOD)/ TOU metering
Pre paid functionality
Alarm/Event detection, notification and
Remote load limiter and
connection/disconnection at defined or on
Remote firmware upgrade
Integration with other existing systems
like IVRS, Billing & collection software,
GIS mapping, consumer indexing, new
connection and disconnection, analysis
software, Outage Management System
Security features to prevent unauthorized
access to the AMI including Smart meter
& meter data etc. and to ensure
authentication of all AMI elements by a
• Billing(Prepaid and
• Dispatch and Outage
• Customer Service
• Key Accounts
• Assets Managements
• Security for Meter
and Consumer Data
system that records
or more frequently
for that provides for
daily or more
measurement over a
network to a central
• Billing (Monthly-
• Meter Reading
• Manual Reset of Maximum
Demand in Monthly Basis
where an aggregated
kWh usage and in
some cases demand, is
retrieved via an
mainly drive-by or
system or in some
cases PLC or wireless
17. AMI COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
Home Area Network:
Communication among devices at close vicinity (HVAC)
Neighborhood Area Network:
The primary is to transfer consumption data from energy
meters. The communication technology used for NAN is
based on the volume of data transfer-generally used is
ZigBee or Wi-Fi.
Data connecter acts as relay between the smart meters and
the gateway. It manages the meters by automatically
detecting them, creates and optimizes repeating chains, co-
ordinates the bi-directional delivery of data, and monitors
the condition of the meters.
Wide Area Network (WAN):
Wide Area network provides connection between the data
connecter and the gateway to the utility. WAN is generally
made of GSM/GPRS network because of its high
reliability, low cost and pre-installed infrastructure.
Meter Data Management System;
Meter data management system is a database that typically
provides services such as data accusation, validation,
adjustment, storage and calculation in order to provide
refined information for customer services and system
operations such as billing, demand forecasting and demand
18. AUTOMATED METER READING SYSTEM BASED ON
AMI (HYBRID SYSTEM):
Here the Home Area Network is
based on PLC communication.
Neighborhood Area Network is
constructed by radio frequency
based on ZigBee mesh
The Wide Area Network and the
connection to the utility is done
by GSM/GPRS communication
Hybrid Communication System Using AMI
19. EVOLUTION OF ELECTRICITY METERING
The most common type of meters used is an
accumulation meter, which records energy
consumption over time. Accumulation meters in
consumer premises are read manually for energy
assessment within a billing period.
Interval meters records energy used over short
intervals, typically every half hour. These allows
the energy suppliers to design tariffs and charging
structures that reflects whole sale prices and helps
the customers understand and manage their pattern
of electricity demand.
Smart meters are even more advanced as they have
two-way communications and provide a real time
display of energy use and pricing information,
dynamic tariffs and facilitate the automatic control
of electrical appliances.
20. METERING TRENDS IN INDIA:
The Indian electricity meters market is highly dynamic.
Government initiative like smart grid mission, integrated power development scheme
(IPDS) and smart city mission.
The products cover in the research service are tariff meters which is further classified into
single phase, three phase, prepaid and smart meters and panel meters trickled down KWH
meters, multifunction meters and Dual source meters.
The government initiatives to achieve 100% metering and reduce AT&C uses, coupled
with energy efficiency measures facilitated by Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) has
also opened up opportunities in private, commercial and industrial segment.
A wide product and packages solution portfolio, completive pricing, and extensive market
reach are likely to be the key success factors of the Indian electricity meters market.
Focus on product innovation in smart meters are aligned marketing efforts are expected to
provide a completive advantage to participants.