13. Nov 2015

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  2. INTRODUCTION  Environment is sum total of water, air and land, inter-relationships among themselves and also with the human beings, other living organisms and property.  Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the environment that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or that damage the environment which can come in the form of chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat or light.
  3. CAUSES OF POLLUTION  The ultimate cause of pollution is human activity itself. Science has evolved technologies and technologies have helped the human welfare. In the process, the pollution has been a part of technology and therefore a part of human miseries.
  4. Human activities mainly include: 1. Industries - directly and indirectly. 2. Agriculture for food production and industrial needs 3. Health care-Biomedical wastes 4. Transportation 5. Urbanization
  5. CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM  The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one of the flexibility mechanisms defined in the Kyoto Protocol (IPCC, 2007) that provides for emissions reduction projects which generate Certified Emission Reduction units which may be traded in emissions trading schemes.
  6. Objectives (1) To assist countries without emissions targets (i.e. developing countries) in achieving sustainable development. (2) To help those countries with emission reduction targets under Kyoto (i.e. developed countries) in achieving compliance by allowing them to purchase offsets created by CDM projects.
  7. PURPOSE  The purpose of the CDM is to promote clean development in developing countries. The CDM is one of the Protocol's "project-based" mechanisms, in that the CDM is designed to promote projects that reduce emissions. The CDM is based on the idea of emission reduction "production" . These reductions are "produced" and then subtracted against a hypothetical "baseline" of emissions. The emissions baseline are the emissions that are predicted to occur in the absence of a particular CDM project.
  8.  The economic basis for including developing countries in efforts to reduce emissions is that emission cuts are thought to be less expensive in developing countries than developed countries. For e.g, in developing countries, environmental regulation is generally weaker than it is in developed countries. Thus, it is widely thought that there is greater potential for developing countries to reduce their emissions than developed countries.
  11. Project participants complete a Project Design Document(PDD) Design National Authority(DNA) issues confirmation Designed Operational Entity(DOE) reviews:- •Parties have established a DNA for the CDM • Non Annex- I Countries participating are parties to the Kyoto Protocol •Environmental impacts have been analysed •Project activity confers to all other requirements for CDM projects Approval Validates Project Activity Registration by executive Board(10 members) Monitoring Project Participants Verification & certification by DOE Issuance of CERs
  12. INDIAN CONTEXT  Although the developed countries try to play big brother roles many a time on any given global problems and needs, they are also responsible for the GHG emissions, the Kyoto Protocol introduced the concept of “Common, but differentiated in reducing emissions”.
  13. Where as developing nation like India are not given emission targets, as it produces less emission. At the same time India accounts for a larger amount of mismanaged solid waste and disposal arrangements.
  14.  The Indian government has a bilateral agreement with the Danish government for setting up CDM project and honouring Kyoto Protocol.  It facilitates sustainable development in India through CDM project development , by ensuring that the transacted projects meet the existing sustainability criteria set forth in India for such purposes.
  15.  India holds around 24% of the global CDM market, according to UNFCCC data.  The Indian government has also proposed the creation of an International Methodology Development Fund, which will scrap charges for first-time project developers, to keep foreign investment flows liquid. Among other reforms, the Indian delegation says that removing the burden of costs will allow Indian CDM to past Phase III (2012–2020).
  16. India, and the largest CDM project developer, China, has come under heavy criticism for failing to sign up to a legal binding agreement to reduce emissions.
  17. The following aspects should be considered while designing CDM project activities: 1. Social well-being: a) lead to alleviation of poverty by generating additional employment, b) removal of social disparities and contributing to provision of basic amenities to people. 2. Economic well-being: The CDM project activity should bring in additional investment consistent with the needs of the people.
  18.  3. Environmental well-being: This should include a discussion of the impact of the project activity on resource sustainability and resource degradation, if any, due to the proposed activity, biodiversity- friendliness, impact on human health; reduction of levels of pollution in general.
  19.  4. Technological well-being: The CDM project activity should lead to transfer of environmentally safe and sound technologies with a priority to the renewable sectors or energy efficiency projects that are comparable to best practices in order to assist in up gradation of the technological base.
  20. Industrial CDM projects, ODISHA GHG emission reduction through technology rennovation: TATA Refractories Ltd Belpahar, Jharsuguda district : PDD says:- The project participant, Tata Refractories Ltd (TRL), is a part of the Tata Group of Companies that operates in diverse business segments across India. TRL established its refractory facility in 1958 at Belpahar in Odisha and is presently the leading producer of refractories in the country.
  21. The project involves:-  Replacement of the three units of gas ring kilns (GRKs) with a single unit of tunnel kiln of design capacity 2100 tonnes/month.  The tunnel kiln, which will also operate on the same fuel, that is, producer gas, requires lower cycle time (7.5 days/cycle)  The implementation of project activity would thus reduce producer gas consumption, which, in turn , would lead to lower coal consumption for firing silica
  22. Sustainable Development  Socio-economic well-being: a) indirect employment generation b) creates business opportunity for local stakeholders  Environmental well-being: a) direct reduction in emissions of GHGs b) conservation of non-renewable resources (such as coal). c) reduction in solid-waste generation  Technological well-being: a) The replacement of GRKs with tunnel kiln will lead to implementation of cleaner technology for silica brick- firing.
  23. Report from the field  The village Jamkani near Belpahar, the site of the Tata group’s 50-year old plant. Not impressed or overpowered by the show, the villagers here seemed to be terribly angry. Beyond the village limits rose the high wall of the plant, and stacks of chimneys.  Effluents from the plant are discharged through a drain passing through the wall, and directly into the villagers’ fields. ‘It is so toxic that it ruined their only pond,’
  24.  It was seen that the people bathing in the stinking black water. It is known that bathing in the pond means skin ailments and other diseases.  According to the villagers, they do not have any safe drinking water because of the company. The soil is full of fluoride, and there are many victims of fluorosis at Jamkani.
  25.  Just as the company doesn’t know anything about what happens beyond its tall walls, the local people have no idea about what is being manufactured behind the walls and nor any knowledge about CDM. The situation even gets surreal: the temple of the village deity is now almost buried in the muck coming from a mine nearby. The mine feeds the Tata refractory
  26. CONCLUSION  The CDM project aims at reduction of GHGs but it doesn’t take into account the biogenic emissions which has maximum contribution towards GHGs emissions in India. As most of the people dwell in the rural area and depends on biogenic sources of fuel CDM fails to a certain extent to reduce emission. Even though CDM promises a sustainable development but the local people are subsequently neglected and faces the worst outcome of it.