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Smart Textile Final R. (320023) PPT.pdf

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Smart Textile Final R. (320023) PPT.pdf

  1. 1. DONGHUA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF TEXTILE SCIENCE COURSE FINAL REPORT Report Title: High Performance fiber Name: Ga liming (葛利明) Student ID: 320023 Course: Smart Textile Textile Engineering 1
  2. 2. Outline of Presentation • Introduction • Classification of High performance fiber • Aromatic Fibers • Carbon fiber • Gel-spun polyethylene fibers • Glass Fiber • Application of High Performance Fiber • Conclusion 2
  3. 3. Introduction High-performance fibers are distinguished from typical textile fibers by their superior properties. High-modulus fibers provide a high strength-to-weight ratio, as well as chemical and temperature resistance. High-performance fibers have long been a crucial component in a variety of industrial applications. They were created with the intention of having a wide range of applications. 3
  4. 4. Classification of High performance fiber High performance fiber can be classified according to their chemical structure as follow: • Aromatic Fibers, this group of fiber are including: a. Aromatic Polyamides or Aramids: Nomex, Kevlar developed by DuPont b. Aromatic Polyesters: Vectran an aromatic polyester fiber by Celanese Corp c. Aromatic Polyimides: Polyimide 2080 by Dow Chemical Co. d. Aromatic Heterocyclic Polymers: Polybenzimidazole (PBI) by Celanese Corp., Polybenzobisthiazole (PBT) by Celanese and DuPont, while Polybenzobisoxazole (PBO) by Toyobo Co. Ltd 4
  5. 5.  Polyolefin Fibers: Gel spun polyethylene ‘Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene’ which has to brands, Spectra by Honeywell and Dyneema by DSM and Toyobo.  Carbon Fibers: Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) carbon fiber or pitch-based carbon fiber from BASF, Amoco, Ashland and other companies  Inorganic Fibers: this group are including different kind of fibers such as ceramic fibers, boron fibers, silicon carbide fiber, and glass fibers. 5
  6. 6. Aromatic Fibers Aromatic polyamides became breakthrough materials in commercial applications as early as the 1960s, with the market launch of the metal aramid fiber Nomex (Nomex is a DuPont Registered Trademark), which opened up new horizons in the field of thermal and electrical insulation. Polymer preparation a) Basic synthesis ‘a manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is a long chain synthetic polyamide in which at least 85% of the amide (—CO—NH—) linkages are attached directly to two aromatic rings’. 6
  7. 7. • Aramids are prepared by the generic reaction between an amine group and a carboxylic acid halide group. Simple AB homopolymers may be synthesized according to the scheme below b) The aromatic polyamide polymerization process Kwolek's key work contains numerous examples of low-temperature polymerization for aromatic polyamides and co-polyamides. 7
  8. 8. Morgan mentioned a few important parameters that influence polymer properties in low-temperature poly-condensation reactions. The following are the most crucial:  The solubility–concentration–temperature relationships, which make the choice of solvent critical, and  The salt concentration at constant polymer concentration, which partly governs the degree of polymerization and polymer inherent viscosity. c) Copolyamides The search for aramid copolymers was largely driven by scientific observations made early on by Ozawa and Matsuda. 8
  9. 9. Spinning Solution properties Rigid chain macromolecules such as the aromatic poly-aramids exhibit low solubility in many common solvent systems utilized in polymer technology. This is due to the fact that the entropy term in the Gibbs energy of solvation makes a very small contribution because of the rigidity. Extruded polymer spinning solutions are stretched across a tiny air gap after being extruded via spinning holes, as shown in Figure. The rotating holes serve a vital purpose. Crystal domains become extended and oriented in the direction of deformation as a result of shear. 9
  10. 10. • Elongation stretching occurs once in the air gap. This is effected by making the velocity of the fiber as it leaves the coagulating bath higher than the velocity of the polymer as it emerges from the spinning. Figure 1 schematically representation of the extrusion of the liquid crystalline solution in the dry-jet wet- spinning process. 10
  11. 11. Fibers can exhibit three possible lateral or transverse crystalline arrangements and these are illustrated in Figure. (a) Represents a fiber with random crystal orientation. (b) Radial crystal orientation and (c) Tangential crystal orientation. Interestingly, the radial crystalline orientation can only be brought about using the dry-jet wet-spinning process used for para-aramid fibers. 11
  12. 12. Carbon fiber For the past 50 years, carbon fibers have been under constant development. Starting with rayon and progressing through poly-acrylonitrile (PAN) isotropic and mesosphere pitches hydrocarbon gases ablated graphite, and finally carbon containing gases, there has been a progression of feedstocks. Rayon-based carbon fibers are no longer in production, and so are of historical interest only; they will not be discussed in this part. PAN-based fiber technologies are well developed and currently account for most commercial production of carbon fibers. 12
  13. 13. Gel-spun polyethylene fibers The technology of gel-spinning semi-dilute ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene solutions to obtain ultra-high strength polyethylene fibers is well-known. Better characteristics can be obtained because to the lower number of entanglements compared to more concentrated systems (e.g. melt- spinning or hydrostatic extrusion). Gel-spinning process Gel spinning, also known as semi-melt spinning, is a method that prepares high-strength and high-elastic modules fiber in the gel state. 13
  14. 14. After the extrusion of the polymer solution or plasticized gel from the spinnerets, it is cooled in solvent or water before being stretched into gel fiber by ultra-high extension. 14
  15. 15. The main steps in the process are:  The continuous extrusion of a solution of ultra-high-molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE).  Spinning of the solution, gelation and crystallization of the UHMW-PE. This can be done either by cooling and extraction or by evaporation of the solvent.  Super drawing and removal of the remaining solvent gives the fiber its final properties but the other steps are essential in the production of a fiber with good characteristics. 15
  16. 16. Glass Fiber Glass fiber is a very versatile industrial material being used today. It can be easily produced using raw materials, available in unlimited quantities. Glass fiber refers to a yarn or fiber, which is manufactured from molten glass having a particular composition. A majority of the glass fibers are made using silica (SiO2). Some other ingredients like (calcium, aluminum, sodium, boron, magnesium and iron oxide) are added to the base silica for decreasing the working temperature and imparting properties, which could be helpful in some particular applications. 16
  17. 17. Glass Fiber Types and Its Characterization Depending on the final use of the products, several types of glass fibers are produced. Out of these glass fibers, more than 90% are E-glass fibers, which are inexpensive and used for many general applications. The remaining 10% of the glass fibers are premium and used for specific applications. Similar to the E-glass fibers, some of these premium glass fibers have letter designations that indicate their special properties. A few also have trade names, however not all the glass fibers are subjected to the standard ASTM specifications D 578-98. 17
  18. 18. Conti. The glass fibers differ depending on their chemical composition, sizing processes, and their mechanical, physical and thermal properties. For example, E-Glass is designated by the letter ‘E’, which represents the glass fiber family that is used for general and electrical applications and is characterized by its low electrical conductivity. 18
  19. 19. Application of High Performance Fiber 1. Application of Aramid Fiber • Aramid fibers are a class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers. They are used in Aerospace and military applications, for ballistic-rated body armor fabric and ballistic composites, in marine cordage, marine hull reinforcement, and as an asbestos substitute. 19
  20. 20. 2. Application of Carbon fiber 20 Characteristics Application 1. Physical strength, specific toughness, light weight Aerospace, road and marine transport, sporting goods 2. High dimensional stability, low coefficient of thermal expansion, and low abrasion Missiles, aircraft brakes, aerospace antenna and support structure, large telescopes, optical benches, waveguides for stable high-frequency (GHz) precision measurement frames 3. Good vibration damping, strength, and toughness Audio equipment, loudspeakers for Hi-fi equipment, pickup arms, robot arms 4. Electrical conductivity Automobile hoods, novel tooling, casings and bases for electronic equipment’s, EMI and RF shielding, brushes 5. Biological inertness and x-ray permeability Medical applications in prostheses, surgery and x-ray equipment, implants, tendon/ligament repair 6. Fatigue resistance, self-lubrication, high damping Textile machinery, genera engineering 7. Chemical inertness, high corrosion resistance Chemical industry; nuclear field; valves, seals, and pump components in process plants 8. Electromagnetic properties Large generator retaining rings, radiological equipment
  21. 21. 3. Application of Gel-spun polyethylene fibers In the years after the introduction of commercially produced fibers, gel-spun polyethylene fibers have been used, or suggested for use, in widely different applications. 21 Ropes and Cables Ballistic protection Miscellaneous Towing lines Bullet proof vests Sails Mooring/anchor lines Inserts for vests Motor helmets Yacht ropes Helmets Cut resistant gloves Long lines Car amour panels Radomes Trawl nets Spall liners Dental floss Fish farms Ballistic blankets Speaker cones Para pent lines Containment shields Cryogenic composites
  22. 22. 4. Application of Glass fiber For industrial gaskets, materials with high-temperature insulation provide an effective thermal barrier. Fiberglass is one of the most extensively used materials in industrial gaskets because it is long-lasting, safe, and provides excellent thermal insulation.  Chemical industry: In this industry, the fiberglass grating is used for anti-slip safety feature of the embedded grit surface and the chemically resistant feature of different resin compounds. The chemicals being used are matched with the resins.  Cooling towers: Since cooling towers are always wet, they have to be protected from rust, corrosion, and other safety issues. Due to the excellent properties of fiberglass, it is used in these towers as screening to keep people and animals away from the danger zones. Docks and marinas: The docks get corroded, rusted and damaged by the salty sea water. So, fiberglass is used here for protection. 22
  23. 23. Conclusion High-performance fibers have long been a critical element in a variety of industrial applications. They were formed with the intention of having a wide range of applications. In addition to high-performance polymeric fibers, inorganic chemical substances such as carbon, silicon, boron, and others are used to make high-performance inorganic fibers, which are frequently treated at high temperatures. 23
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