DONGHUA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF
COURSE FINAL REPORT
Report Title: High Performance fiber
Name: Ga liming (葛利明)
Student ID: 320023
Course: Smart Textile
Outline of Presentation
• Classification of High performance fiber
• Aromatic Fibers
• Carbon fiber
• Gel-spun polyethylene fibers
• Glass Fiber
• Application of High Performance Fiber
High-performance fibers are distinguished from typical textile
fibers by their superior properties. High-modulus fibers provide a
high strength-to-weight ratio, as well as chemical and temperature
High-performance fibers have long been a crucial component in a
variety of industrial applications. They were created with the
intention of having a wide range of applications.
Classification of High performance fiber
High performance fiber can be classified according to their chemical
structure as follow:
• Aromatic Fibers, this group of fiber are including:
a. Aromatic Polyamides or Aramids: Nomex, Kevlar developed by DuPont
b. Aromatic Polyesters: Vectran an aromatic polyester fiber by Celanese Corp
c. Aromatic Polyimides: Polyimide 2080 by Dow Chemical Co.
d. Aromatic Heterocyclic Polymers: Polybenzimidazole (PBI) by Celanese Corp.,
Polybenzobisthiazole (PBT) by Celanese and DuPont, while Polybenzobisoxazole (PBO) by
Toyobo Co. Ltd
Polyolefin Fibers: Gel spun polyethylene ‘Ultra High Molecular Weight
Polyethylene’ which has to brands, Spectra by Honeywell and Dyneema by
DSM and Toyobo.
Carbon Fibers: Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) carbon fiber or pitch-based
carbon fiber from BASF, Amoco, Ashland and other companies
Inorganic Fibers: this group are including different kind of fibers such as
ceramic fibers, boron fibers, silicon carbide fiber, and glass fibers.
Aromatic polyamides became breakthrough materials in commercial applications as
early as the 1960s, with the market launch of the metal aramid fiber Nomex (Nomex
is a DuPont Registered Trademark), which opened up new horizons in the field of
thermal and electrical insulation.
a) Basic synthesis
‘a manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is a long chain synthetic
polyamide in which at least 85% of the amide (—CO—NH—) linkages are attached
directly to two aromatic rings’.
• Aramids are prepared by the generic reaction between an amine group and
a carboxylic acid halide group. Simple AB homopolymers may be synthesized
according to the scheme below
b) The aromatic polyamide polymerization process
Kwolek's key work contains numerous examples of low-temperature polymerization for
aromatic polyamides and co-polyamides.
Morgan mentioned a few important parameters that influence polymer
properties in low-temperature poly-condensation reactions. The following are
the most crucial:
The solubility–concentration–temperature relationships, which make the
choice of solvent critical, and
The salt concentration at constant polymer concentration, which partly
governs the degree of polymerization and polymer inherent viscosity.
The search for aramid copolymers was largely driven by scientific observations
made early on by Ozawa and Matsuda.
Solution properties Rigid chain macromolecules such as the aromatic
poly-aramids exhibit low solubility in many common solvent systems
utilized in polymer technology. This is due to the fact that the entropy
term in the Gibbs energy of solvation makes a very small contribution
because of the rigidity.
Extruded polymer spinning solutions are stretched across a tiny air gap
after being extruded via spinning holes, as shown in Figure. The rotating
holes serve a vital purpose. Crystal domains become extended and
oriented in the direction of deformation as a result of shear.
• Elongation stretching occurs once in the air gap. This is effected by making the
velocity of the fiber as it leaves the coagulating bath higher than the velocity of
the polymer as it emerges from the spinning.
Figure 1 schematically representation of the extrusion of the liquid crystalline solution in the dry-jet wet-
Fibers can exhibit three possible lateral or transverse crystalline arrangements and
these are illustrated in Figure.
(a) Represents a fiber with random crystal orientation.
(b) Radial crystal orientation and
(c) Tangential crystal orientation. Interestingly, the radial crystalline orientation can
only be brought about using the dry-jet wet-spinning process used for para-aramid
For the past 50 years, carbon fibers have been under constant development. Starting with
rayon and progressing through
isotropic and mesosphere pitches
ablated graphite, and finally carbon containing gases, there has been a progression of
Rayon-based carbon fibers are no longer in production, and so are of historical interest only;
they will not be discussed in this part. PAN-based fiber technologies are well developed and
currently account for most commercial production of carbon fibers.
Gel-spun polyethylene fibers
The technology of gel-spinning semi-dilute ultra-high molecular weight
polyethylene solutions to obtain ultra-high strength polyethylene fibers is
well-known. Better characteristics can be obtained because to the lower
number of entanglements compared to more concentrated systems (e.g. melt-
spinning or hydrostatic extrusion).
Gel spinning, also known as semi-melt spinning, is a method that prepares
high-strength and high-elastic modules fiber in the gel state.
After the extrusion of the polymer solution or plasticized gel from the spinnerets, it is cooled
in solvent or water before being stretched into gel fiber by ultra-high extension.
The main steps in the process are:
The continuous extrusion of a solution of ultra-high-molecular weight
Spinning of the solution, gelation and crystallization of the UHMW-PE.
This can be done either by cooling and extraction or by evaporation of the
Super drawing and removal of the remaining solvent gives the fiber its final
properties but the other steps are essential in the production of a fiber with
Glass fiber is a very versatile industrial material being used today. It can be
easily produced using raw materials, available in unlimited quantities.
Glass fiber refers to a yarn or fiber, which is manufactured from molten glass
having a particular composition. A majority of the glass fibers are made using
silica (SiO2). Some other ingredients like (calcium, aluminum, sodium,
boron, magnesium and iron oxide) are added to the base silica for decreasing
the working temperature and imparting properties, which could be helpful in
some particular applications.
Glass Fiber Types and Its Characterization
Depending on the final use of the products, several types of glass fibers are
produced. Out of these glass fibers, more than 90% are E-glass fibers,
which are inexpensive and used for many general applications. The
remaining 10% of the glass fibers are premium and used for specific
applications. Similar to the E-glass fibers, some of these premium glass
fibers have letter designations that indicate their special properties.
A few also have trade names, however not all the glass fibers are subjected
to the standard ASTM specifications D 578-98.
The glass fibers differ depending on their chemical composition, sizing
processes, and their mechanical, physical and thermal properties. For
example, E-Glass is designated by the letter ‘E’, which represents the
glass fiber family that is used for general and electrical applications and
is characterized by its low electrical conductivity.
Application of High Performance Fiber
1. Application of Aramid Fiber
• Aramid fibers are a class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers. They are
used in Aerospace and military applications, for ballistic-rated body armor fabric
and ballistic composites, in marine cordage, marine hull reinforcement, and as an
2. Application of Carbon fiber
1. Physical strength, specific toughness, light weight Aerospace, road and marine transport, sporting goods
2. High dimensional stability, low coefficient of
thermal expansion, and low abrasion
Missiles, aircraft brakes, aerospace antenna and
support structure, large telescopes, optical benches,
waveguides for stable high-frequency (GHz) precision
3. Good vibration damping, strength, and toughness Audio equipment, loudspeakers for Hi-fi equipment,
pickup arms, robot arms
4. Electrical conductivity Automobile hoods, novel tooling, casings and bases
for electronic equipment’s, EMI and RF shielding,
5. Biological inertness and x-ray permeability Medical applications in prostheses, surgery and x-ray
equipment, implants, tendon/ligament repair
6. Fatigue resistance, self-lubrication, high damping Textile machinery, genera engineering
7. Chemical inertness, high corrosion resistance Chemical industry; nuclear field; valves, seals, and
pump components in process plants
8. Electromagnetic properties Large generator retaining rings, radiological
3. Application of Gel-spun polyethylene fibers
In the years after the introduction of commercially produced fibers, gel-spun
polyethylene fibers have been used, or suggested for use, in widely different
Ropes and Cables Ballistic protection Miscellaneous
Towing lines Bullet proof vests Sails
Mooring/anchor lines Inserts for vests Motor helmets
Yacht ropes Helmets Cut resistant gloves
Long lines Car amour panels Radomes
Trawl nets Spall liners Dental floss
Fish farms Ballistic blankets Speaker cones
Para pent lines Containment shields Cryogenic composites
4. Application of Glass fiber
For industrial gaskets, materials with high-temperature insulation provide an effective
thermal barrier. Fiberglass is one of the most extensively used materials in industrial gaskets
because it is long-lasting, safe, and provides excellent thermal insulation.
Chemical industry: In this industry, the fiberglass grating is used for anti-slip safety
feature of the embedded grit surface and the chemically resistant feature of different resin
compounds. The chemicals being used are matched with the resins.
Cooling towers: Since cooling towers are always wet, they have to be protected from
rust, corrosion, and other safety issues. Due to the excellent properties of fiberglass, it is
used in these towers as screening to keep people and animals away from the danger zones.
Docks and marinas: The docks get corroded, rusted and damaged by the salty sea water.
So, fiberglass is used here for protection.
High-performance fibers have long been a critical element in
a variety of industrial applications. They were formed with
the intention of having a wide range of applications. In
addition to high-performance polymeric fibers, inorganic
chemical substances such as carbon, silicon, boron, and
others are used to make high-performance inorganic fibers,
which are frequently treated at high temperatures.
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