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VNFIL in Europe: Learning from the Best
Brussels, 11. December 2014
Competences for Germany
Dr. Martin Noack
Bertelsmann S...
Our Mission: „Inspiring people. Shaping the Future.“
(Reinhard Mohn)
…was founded by Reinhard Mohn (1921–2009) in 1977, an...
Current Situation in Germany
Germany‘s dual system of vocational training is very successful and even
gets adapted by oth...
Competences and labor market risks of lowly qualified
From: Heisig/Solga (2013) Kompetenzen und Arbeitsmarktchancen von ge...
Current Situation
6,1 Mio. people at working age without a formal vocational degree run a 4
times higher unemployment ris...
The current Study
 How do other countries approach Validation of non-formal and informal
learning?
 What systems do they...
Today’s Agenda
14:10 – 14:20 Methodology for comparing the countries
Prof. Dr. Nicolas Schöpf, University of Applied Labou...
Methodological procedure for comparing countries
Competences for Germany
Prof. Dr. Nicolas Schöpf
University of Applied La...
Core elements of a validation system
Competence-based recognition
Recognizing skills
Core elements of validation
systems
1...
Quality criteria
Competence-based recognition
Recognizing skills
Vocational training policy focus:
Accessibility, availabi...
Quality criteria of a validation system
Competence-based recognition
Recognizing skills
Degree of the elements D C B A
1 L...
Quality criteria of a validation system. Example
Competence-based recognition
Recognizing skills
Degree of the elements D ...
Quality criteria
Competence-based recognition
Recognizing skills
Vocational training policy focus:
Accessibility, availabi...
Examination of transfer possibilities
Degree of the elements D C B A
1 Legal frameworks O O
2 Procedures and instruments O...
Competence-based recognition
Recognizing skills
Core elements compared between countries
Legal Framework: France
Competences for Germany
Janet LOONEY (& Alain MICHEL)
European Institute of Education and Social P...
Vocational training in France
Competence-based recognition
Recognizing skills
In France, vocational certificates are deliv...
The legal basis for VAE
Competence-based recognition
Recognizing skills
Three main stages (from VAP to VAE)
1) 1984-1985: ...
The legal basis, cont.
Competence-based recognition
Recognizing skills
 The 2009 Law on Lifelong Vocational Training, set...
Procedures and Instruments: Denmark
Competences for Germany
Matthias Haaber
Head of section
Danish Ministry of Education
General and adults vocational education
in Denmark
Competence-based recognition
Recognizing skills
 Tripartite co-operati...
Validation of prior learning in general and adult
vocational education
Competence-based recognition
Recognizing skills
 T...
Validation of prior learning in general and adult
vocational education
Competence-based recognition
Recognizing skills
• A...
Institutionalization & financial structures:
Switzerland
Competences for Germany
Prof. Dr. Nicolas Schöpf
University of Ap...
Switzerland: VET System
Competence-based recognition
Recognizing skills
• Dual System for basic
VET
• Learning providers:
...
Switzerland: Financial Structures for VNFIL
Competence-based recognition
Recognizing skills
Basically cantons can demand f...
Switzerland: Institutionalisation of VNFIL
Competence-based recognition
Recognizing skills
 Established responsibilities
...
Support Structures: United Kingdom
Competences for Germany
Dr. Andrew McCoshan
andrewmccoshan@btinternet.com
Features of the UK system
Competence-based recognition
Recognizing skills
• 3 main jurisdictions for education and trainin...
Support Structures - General Features
Competence-based recognition
Recognizing skills
• Overall characteristic: minimal re...
Support Structures - The Scottish Example
Competence-based recognition
Recognizing skills
Practical Support includes:
SCQF...
Support Structures in Scotland – Local Facilitators
Competence-based recognition
Recognizing skills
RPL
policies
RPL
coord...
Transfer criteria and conclusion
Competences for Germany
Prof. Dr. Nicolas Schöpf
University of Applied Labour Studies (Hd...
Validation of non-formal and informal learning in
Germany: The Status Quo
Competence-based recognition
Recognizing skills
...
Draft Transfer Perspectives: The example legal
Framework
Competence-based recognition
Recognizing skills
Aims:
 Establish...
What can civil society actors do to promote change?
Competence-based recognition
Recognizing skills
 Provide data, facts,...
Thank you for your attention!
Competences for Germany
Dr. Martin Noack
Senior Project Manager
Programme Learning for Life
...
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Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning (VNFIL) in Europe: Learning from the Best

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Auf einem Workshop im Rahmen der EUCIS-LLL Lifelong Learning Week diskutierten am 12.12.2014 internationale Experten in Brüssel die Zwischenergebnisse einer Studie der Bertelsmann Stiftung zur Anerkennung non-formalen und informellen Lernens. Hierbei standen folgende Kernfragen im Zentrum:

- Wie gehen andere Ländern hinsichtlich der Anerkennung von Kompetenzen vor?
- Welche Systeme haben sich dort etabliert, wie werden sie genutzt und wie werden sie in der jeweiligen nationalen Diskussion bewertet?
- Welche Modelle oder Elemente davon können für Deutschland beispielgebend sei?

Acht Good-Practice-Länder aus dem europäischen Ausland wurden hierfür ausgewählt.

Zusammenfassung:
Deutschlands duales Ausbildungssystem ist extrem erfolgreich und wird derzeit sogar von anderen Ländern adaptiert. Und das zu Recht. Menschen die in Deutschland eine duale Ausbildung absolvieren haben viel höhere gesellschaftliche Teilhabechancen. Leider erreicht es aber nicht alle, für die eine Hochschullaufbahn keine Option ist. Und für diese 6,1 Mio. Erwerbspersonen ohne abgeschlossene Berufsausbildung in Deutschland sieht die Situation düster aus.
Sie haben ein 4-faches Arbeitslosigkeitsrisiko als solche mit Berufsausbildung. Dabei ist es keinesfalls so, dass sie schlicht nicht über die notwendigen Kompetenzen verfügen. Jeder sechste formal gering qualifizierte Mann verfügt laut jüngsten Ergebnissen über hohe alltagsmathematische Kompetenzen, die sich für ihn aber überhaupt nicht auf die Erwerbschancen auszahlen. Ganz anders als in anderen Ländern. Dort gelingt es mittels rechtlich verankerter Verfahren zur Anerkennung non-formal und informell erworbener Kompetenzen, dieses ungenutzte Potenzial zu heben. Was können wir daraus für Deutschland lernen? Gerade mit Blick auf das vom EU-Rat vorgegebene Ziel, in den Mitgliedstaaten ein formales Kompetenzanerkennungssystem bis 2018 zu etablieren. Eine Studie der Bertelsmann Stiftung beleuchtet acht europäische Beispiele und sucht entlang von fünf Kernelementen nach Impulsen für einen Transfer nach Deutschland.
In Frankreich besteht zum Beispiel ein umfassender Rechtsanspruch auf die Anerkennung von Kompetenzen die in Zertifikaten mündet, denen man nicht mehr ansieht wo und wie der formale Abschluss erworben wurde. In der Schweiz sind Anerkennungsverfahren, vor allem für formal Geringqualifizierte weitestgehend kostenfrei. In Dänemark sind die Verfahren gemeinsam mit Arbeitgebern und Bildungsinstitutionen entwickelt worden um ihre Relevanz für den Arbeitsmarkt sicherzustellen und in Schottland gibt es eine umfassende lokale Struktur für die oftmals notwendige Anerkennungsberatung.

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Validation of Non-Formal and Informal Learning (VNFIL) in Europe: Learning from the Best

  1. 1. VNFIL in Europe: Learning from the Best Brussels, 11. December 2014 Competences for Germany Dr. Martin Noack Bertelsmann Stiftung
  2. 2. Our Mission: „Inspiring people. Shaping the Future.“ (Reinhard Mohn) …was founded by Reinhard Mohn (1921–2009) in 1977, and has ca. 330 employees worldwide and a Budget of 65 Mio. Euro p.a., …is a nonprofit organization that functions exclusively as a private operating foundation, …is independent and politically nonpartisan. As a foundation, we see ourselves as an integral part of society. We are committed to the values of freedom, solidarity and humanity and believe in the benefits of competition Bertelsmann Foundation… Competences for Germany Competence-based recognition Focus areas • Integration & Immigration • Health • Culture & Society • Education www.elli.org • Politics & Economics www.sgi-network.org www.bti-project.org
  3. 3. Current Situation in Germany Germany‘s dual system of vocational training is very successful and even gets adapted by other countries 6,1 Mio. people at working age without a formal vocational degree run a 4 times higher unemployment risk compared to those who have the degree People with high levels of formal qualification (ISCED-5 or -6) participated more than twice as much (67%) in continuing education compared to those with low levels (up to ISCED-2) of formal qualification (32 %) 1 Competences of lowly qualified males do not reduce the risk of unemployment – in contrast to other countries2 1 Susanne Seyda / Dirk Werner, (2012) IW-Weiterbildungserhebung 2011 2 Heisig/Solga (2013) Kompetenzen und Arbeitsmarktchancen von gering Qualifizierten in Deutschland Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills
  4. 4. Competences and labor market risks of lowly qualified From: Heisig/Solga (2013) Kompetenzen und Arbeitsmarktchancen von gering Qualifizierten in Deutschland Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills
  5. 5. Current Situation 6,1 Mio. people at working age without a formal vocational degree run a 4 times higher unemployment risk compared to those who have the degree People with high levels of formal qualification (ISCED-5 or -6) participated more than twice as much (67%) in continuing education compared to those with low levels (up to ISCED-2) of formal qualification (32 %) 1 In Germany competences of lowly qualified males do not reduce the risk of unemployment – in contrast to other countries2 Existing procedures for validation with their low number of participants (below 30.000 per year) do not succeed in opening a path for lowly qualified. 3 1 Susanne Seyda / Dirk Werner, (2012) IW-Weiterbildungserhebung 2011 2 Heisig/Solga (2013) Kompetenzen und Arbeitsmarktchancen von gering Qualifizierten in Deutschland 3 Schöpf (2014) Die Situation in Deutschland: Die Anerkennung der Ergebnisse informellen und non- formalen Lernens bei formal Geringqualifizierten: Status Quo und Perspektiven Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills
  6. 6. The current Study  How do other countries approach Validation of non-formal and informal learning?  What systems do they have in place, how (much) are they used, and how are they discussed in the national debate?  Which approaches or elements thereof could be transferable to Germany?  Country selection based on success of present validation approaches for lowly qualified : Goal: To provide valuable input for the German discussion regarding the implementation of the 2012-Recommendation of the European Council. Planned publication date of the study is the first half of 2015 Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills
  7. 7. Today’s Agenda 14:10 – 14:20 Methodology for comparing the countries Prof. Dr. Nicolas Schöpf, University of Applied Labour Studies 14:20 – 14:40 Legal Framework: France Janet Looney, EIESP 14:40 – 15:00 Procedures and Instruments: Denmark Matthias Haaber, Danish Ministry of Education 15:00 – 15:25 Institutionalization & financial structures: Switzerland Prof. Dr. Nicolas Schöpf, University of Applied Labour Studies 15:25 – 15:45 Support Structures: United Kingdom Dr. Andrew McCoshan, ECVET expert UK and consultant 15:45 – 16:00 Transfer criteria and conclusion Prof. Dr. Nicolas Schöpf, University of Applied Labour Studies Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills
  8. 8. Methodological procedure for comparing countries Competences for Germany Prof. Dr. Nicolas Schöpf University of Applied Labour Studies (HdBA) Claudia Gaylor Research Institute for Vocational Education and Training (f-bb), Nuremberg
  9. 9. Core elements of a validation system Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills Core elements of validation systems 1 Legal frameworks 2 Financing of the validation 3 Institutionalisation 4 Procedures and instruments 5 Support structures
  10. 10. Quality criteria Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills Vocational training policy focus: Accessibility, availability and binding force  Have the procedures proven themselves in a national context?  Have they already been implemented to a relevant degree or just tested in programmes and projects?  Are they accessible and financially viable for formally low-skilled persons?  Have competent bodies for validation been named or newly set up?  Is validation anchored in national educational and labour market legislation?  Does it lead to certifications which are the same or of the same value as formal qualifications?  …
  11. 11. Quality criteria of a validation system Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills Degree of the elements D C B A 1 Legal frameworks None Few regulated instruments Regulations without legal entitlement Regulations with legal entitlement 2 Procedures and instruments Heterogeneous procedures without standards and QA Heterogeneous procedures with QA Standardised procedures, limited scope Standardised procedures, universally implemented 3 Financing of the validation Predominantly by participants By temporary/regional programmes By companies and authorities Entitlement to public financing 4 Institutionalisation No responsibilities regulated with limited scope Changing project and training providers Different responsibilities with high visibility Statutory institutions in the education system 5 Support structures None Support in temporary/regional programmes Support at education providers Comprehensive, central support
  12. 12. Quality criteria of a validation system. Example Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills Degree of the elements D C B A 1 Legal frameworks O 2 Procedures and instruments O 3 Financing of the validation O 4 Institutionalisation O 5 Support structures O
  13. 13. Quality criteria Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills Vocational training policy focus: Accessibility, availability and binding force  Have the procedures proven themselves in a national context?  Have they already been implemented to a relevant degree or just tested in programmes and projects?  Are they accessible and financially viable for formally low-skilled persons?  Have competent bodies for validation been named or newly set up?  Is validation anchored in national educational and labour market legislation?  Does it lead to certifications which are the same or of the same value as formal qualifications?  …
  14. 14. Examination of transfer possibilities Degree of the elements D C B A 1 Legal frameworks O O 2 Procedures and instruments O O 3 Financing of the validation O O 4 Institutionalisation O O 5 Support stuctures O O Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills
  15. 15. Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills Core elements compared between countries
  16. 16. Legal Framework: France Competences for Germany Janet LOONEY (& Alain MICHEL) European Institute of Education and Social Policy (EIESP) www.eiesp.org
  17. 17. Vocational training in France Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills In France, vocational certificates are delivered through four different pathways:  Initial vocational education in schools, primarily administered by the Ministry of Education, but also other ministries (Agriculture, Health and Social Affairs, National Defense, etc.) and Chambers of Commerce and Industry, Chambers of Trades and Crafts and Chambers of Agriculture  Apprenticeship (apprentices must pass the same external examinations as learners in formal programs; they may earn up to Master’s level degrees_  Continuous vocational training (CVT) organized by ministries (mainly Ministry of Education, Ministry of Labor, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Health and Social Affairs and Ministry of Industry), local authorities (regional councils), Chambers of Commerce and Industry, industry branches and enterprises themselves  Recognition and validation of informally acquired competences: “validation des acquis de l’expérience” (VAE) since 2002  Around 60 – 65,000 VAE appplications per year, and around 30,000 full qualifications awarded each year. For higher education, there are about 4,300 VAE applications in 2011, and more than 4,000 validations (full or partial qualifications)
  18. 18. The legal basis for VAE Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills Three main stages (from VAP to VAE) 1) 1984-1985: recognition/validation of professional experience (VAP) for admission to higher education courses 1) 1992: New Act setting conditions for validation of professional experience (VAP) for higher education diplomas 1) 2002: ‘Social Modernisation Act’ setting conditions for recognition/validation of professional or other life experience (Validation des Acquis de l’Expérience: VAE) for diplomas/certifications classified within the National Qualifications Framework (valid for all EQF levels). Anybody with at least 3-years’ experience in any kind of activity has an unrestricted right to undertake a procedure of VAE to validate informally acquired competences.
  19. 19. The legal basis, cont. Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills  The 2009 Law on Lifelong Vocational Training, set up a program targeting unemployed workers, 16-25-year old youth without qualifications, and workers currently in the workforce. Free courses are provided to these individual.  The 2014 Law on Vocational training (March 5) sets up a personal training account (“Crédit personnel de formation”, or CPF) for all individuals at least 16 years of age who are either employed or looking for a job, and reinforces the flexibility to get a qualification through recognition of successive learning outcomes over time *********  The French legal framework covers all four phases of validation (identification, documentation, assessment and certification)  All core elements of validation systems are written into law (individual right to validation; procedures and instruments; financial aspects; support structures)  Individuals may receive financial support to meet training needs  VAE procedures are available to anyone of 16 years and older  Most occupations are covered; industries may either accept qualifications earned through VAE procedures or issue their own “titres professionel
  20. 20. Procedures and Instruments: Denmark Competences for Germany Matthias Haaber Head of section Danish Ministry of Education
  21. 21. General and adults vocational education in Denmark Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills  Tripartite co-operation  Shared responsibility between state and social partners  Approved, financed and quality ensured by the ministry – ensures a global approach / national standards and certificates  Educations and training programmes are developed by the social partners (sector committees) - ensures relevance to the labour market and target group  Ensure recognition of skills and competences through formal, non-formal and informal learning  Free access to general vocational education. Participants or employers pay tuition fees – 100-150 euro pr. week for adult vocational education  Provided by vocational colleges and training centres – to meet the needs of the local labour market and companies  Council for general vocational education and adult vocational education advises and gives recommendations to the Minister
  22. 22. Validation of prior learning in general and adult vocational education Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills  The Ministry are responsible for the legislative framework and for taking national initiatives for implementing the legislation and have also devolped policy guidelines  The Ministry has launched several initiatives to raise awareness of validation of prior learning and to promote its use. These have included projects and a national information campaign – but the awareness in the public could still be better!  Institutions responsible for counselling/guidance, and for assessing and approving validation within their educational and training programs also responsible for quality assurance, review and evaluation  The usability of the results is good due to that the social partners ensures relevance to the labour market and target group  Validation both lead to shortening of education tracks and it can also replace exams in part or full.
  23. 23. Validation of prior learning in general and adult vocational education Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills • An interactive tool My Competence Portfolio (for the pre-phase) has been devolped to be used by all stakeholders, especially students, education institutions and companies. It has to be further developed, so that it can be better used as a basis for assessment of prior learning  New reform (1. august 2015): General vocational education for adults (+25). The learning pathways will be based on validation of prior learning. The prior learning assessment will consist of an objective and an individual part. The sector committees must describe which prior education, training programs and work experience which can be credited in certain vocational education for adults  Schools basis for the objective part of prior learning assessment will be clearer, and more transparent for students which concrete shortening they are entitled  The individual assessment allows further shortening based on a specific assessment of the individual's skills
  24. 24. Institutionalization & financial structures: Switzerland Competences for Germany Prof. Dr. Nicolas Schöpf University of Applied Labour Studies (HdBA)
  25. 25. Switzerland: VET System Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills • Dual System for basic VET • Learning providers: Companies and VET schools • Around 250 VET profiles (Lehrberufe) • VET located on secondary and tertiary level • Permeability between basic and higher VET Source: Cedefop, Inventory 2015, Country Report Switzerland
  26. 26. Switzerland: Financial Structures for VNFIL Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills Basically cantons can demand fees but there is a federal recommendation to provide the proceduere free of charge - Inconsistent situation within the cantons Status Quo: procedure extensively free of charge - Candidates usual between 35 and 55 years - Low incomes, Family etc Example Canton Bern:  Candidates without a degree on secondary level: free of charge  Candidates with a degree on secondary level: canton takes over 40% of charge Summary:  Extensively public financing of validation (equalisation concerning the formal system)  Additional services (personal coachings) have to be paid by the candidate
  27. 27. Switzerland: Institutionalisation of VNFIL Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills  Established responsibilities - entrance portals - providers for additional qualification - specific providers for validation  Continuity und quality assurance through connecting the procedure with cantonal agencies of VET  Professionalism and acceptance through productive integration of organsations of labour work Summary:  Integration of public authorities and organsations of labour works  Integration of experts in each phase and step of the procedure  Continuous connection of the procedure to public authorities
  28. 28. Support Structures: United Kingdom Competences for Germany Dr. Andrew McCoshan andrewmccoshan@btinternet.com
  29. 29. Features of the UK system Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills • 3 main jurisdictions for education and training: Wales, Scotland, England and Northern Ireland In vocational training: - “markets", “choice”, provider autonomy - qualifications and credit frameworks In the labour market: - employer “voluntarism" - polarised “low skills/high skills" economy Learner pathways Lower secondary (11-16) Range of qualifications Upper secondary (16-19) Aiming at university Aiming at labour market 3-4 academic qualifications Mix of academic & vocational qualifications
  30. 30. Support Structures - General Features Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills • Overall characteristic: minimal regulation and national guidance • Qualifications frameworks integrate recognition–no ‘two tier’ system • Responsibilities placed upon awarding organisations and providers • Outreach and access provision is commonplace … although variable • Generic advice and guidance available throughout the system
  31. 31. Support Structures - The Scottish Example Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills Practical Support includes: SCQF Handbook: User Guide which devotes 2 of 9 chapters to RPL Principles • Clear mechanisms for making RPL claims are to be in place. • Effective links between learning providers, guidance services and Human Resource personnel, where appropriate, should be established to support individuals for RPL. RPL should be: accessible, inclusive, facilitated through awareness raising; initial information, advice and guidance “Facilitating the Recognition of Prior Learning: Toolkit" - particular emphasis on the role of the “facilitator"; handouts and ideas for learners SCQF web pages devoted to RPL including: - online guide, case studies - assistance for learners, employers and providers - workshops for training institutions
  32. 32. Support Structures in Scotland – Local Facilitators Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills RPL policies RPL coordinators Facilitators Teachers, trainers, line managers, mentors Help learners to understand how to identify prior experiences, gather and record evidence, identify further learning needs Work with assessors to understand assessment requirements Be aware of qualification and awarding organisation requirements, learning outcomes Assessors Local Provider
  33. 33. Transfer criteria and conclusion Competences for Germany Prof. Dr. Nicolas Schöpf University of Applied Labour Studies (HdBA) Dr. Martin Noack Bertelsmann Stiftung
  34. 34. Validation of non-formal and informal learning in Germany: The Status Quo Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills Legal Framework No consistent framework No individual right on Validation Single regulation, that allows access to the external examination (BBiG §45, HWO §37) Procedures and instruments External examination: Access to the final examination of a vocation Preconditions: • Proof of 1.5 times the education period as professional experience • or presentation of certificates as proof of vocational competence Needs: • Support: Cosulting structures and information sources for the target groups • Financing model which avoids fees and intensice costs for preparation and procedure • Institutionalisation: Competent bodies, established support structures, public sensibility
  35. 35. Draft Transfer Perspectives: The example legal Framework Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills Aims:  Establishing the individual right on participation in a validation of non-formal and informal learning  Consistent and overall regulation of the procedure, the responsibilities, the support, and the financing Possible connecting points in present:  Standardisation of sub-legal solutions, making access to given options easier  Connecting the Validation of non-formal and informal learning with the recognition of foreign degrees (BQFG 2012)  Reform of basic legal basis for VET in Germany (BBiG)
  36. 36. What can civil society actors do to promote change? Competence-based recognition Recognizing skills  Provide data, facts, and figures that make the existing problem visible  Develop concepts for what to change and how  Conduct surveys regarding the acceptance of different conceptional ideas by relevant stakeholders  Implement conceptional ideas in restricted areas to show they work  Communicate policy change recommendations directly to policy makers
  37. 37. Thank you for your attention! Competences for Germany Dr. Martin Noack Senior Project Manager Programme Learning for Life Bertelsmann Stiftung Carl-Bertelsmann-Straße 256 | 33311 Gütersloh | Germany Telefon: +49 5241 81-81476 | Fax: +49 5241 81-681544 E-Mail: martin.noack@bertelsmann-stiftung.de

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