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CHAPTER FOUR
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION IN
ORGANIZATION
4.1. Internal and External
Communication
1. External communication refers to
communication with outside sources such
as customers, suppliers, professional
associations, government organization etc.
 As the external environment has become
more dynamic and turbulent, regular
exchange of information with outside
agencies and individuals becomes
essential.
 Whether by phone, fax, video tape, or
letter, much of this communication is
carefully orchestrated, and some occurs
informally.
 Two functional units particularly important
in managing the flow of external
messages are: the marketing department
and the public relation department.
 Marketing focuses on selling goods and
services, whereas public relations is more
concerned with developing the
organization’s overall permutation.
 2. Internal communication takes place
within the organization among managers
and other personnel between
department, superiors and subordinates.
Vertical and horizontal communications
take place within the organization
4.2. Formal Communication
 is established by the management and
formally shown in the charts of the
organizations.
 It is the channel which is deliberately and
consciously established.
 Formal channel is the line of
communication for transmission of
messages and information officially within
and outside the organization.
 The formal communication channel is
used to transmit official messages,
policies, procedures, directives, and job
Downward Communication
When vertical communication flows
from a higher level to one or more
lower levels in the organization it is
known as downward communication.
Downward communication flows from
the top of the organization and carries
the message that translates top
management planning and decision
making into orders that direct office
employee.
Some examples of downward
communication are:
Information related to policies, rules,
procedures, objectives, and other type
of plans
Work assignment and directives
Feedback about work performance
General information about the
organization such as its progress and
status
Upward Communication:- Is the vertical
flow of communication from lower level to
higher levels in the organization.
This may take place from the supervisor
to middle level manager, from manager to
general manager and then from general
manager to board of directors.
It helps managers judge the effectiveness
of downward communication and enables
them to learn about organizational
problems.
Information communicated are:
The activities of subordinates in terms
of their achievement, progress and
plans
Unresolved work problems in which
subordinates may need help from
seniors
Suggestions (ideas) for improvement
in offices or department/organization
The feelings of subordinates about
their jobs, associates, working
Lateral Communication:
 It usually follows the pattern of
workflow in an organization occurring
between members of work groups
between one work group and another
between members of departments
having the same status.
 Its main purpose is to provide a direct
channel for organizational co-
operation and problem solving.
Diagonal Communication
 refers to interchange of message among two
persons located at different levels of
hierarchy and outside the direct chain of
command.
 It serves the purpose of coordination and
integration and involves by passing the chain
of command as in the case of horizontal
communication.
 It is used to speed up information flow to
improve understanding and to coordinate for
the achievement of organizational objectives.
4.3. Informal channel of communication
 known, as the grapevine in communication
that takes place without regard to hierarchical
 Informal communication can be thought of as
relating to personal rather than positional
issues.
 In other words Informal channel or the
grapevine does not follow the formal
channels established by the management.
 This type of communication arises on
account of natural desire of people to
communicate each other and is the result of
social interaction of people.
Characteristics of Informal
Communication
 It is very fast and spontaneous
 It is not entirely reliable
 Its messages are difficult to stop once
they get started
 It is accessible to everybody in that
organization
 It can be supportive or obstacle to the
effort of management
Types of Grapevine Chains
Single strand Chain: In this chain Person
“A” tells to a single person “B”, who tells it
to a person “C” and so on
The Gossip Chain: a person being the
source of the information transmits to
many individuals.
Probability Chain: here individuals are
indifferent about to whom they offer
information. They tell people at random
and those people in turn tell other at
random.
Cluster Chain: Here person “A” conveys
the information to few selected
individuals, some of whom then inform a
4.4.Verbal and Non-verbal
Communication
4.4.1.Verbal communication
can be of two types, oral and written.
The main difference between the oral and
written is the time factor.
Written communication is slower in
preparation, in conveyance (carrying or
transmitting) and in perception
(understanding).
4.4.2. Non-verbal Communication:
 is the process of communication without words.
People use nonverbal signals to support
and clarify verbal communication.
Generally, nonverbal communication is
presented in the following main
categories:
1. Appearance: conveys nonverbal
expressions that affect recipient’s attitude
towards the verbal message, even before
they read or hear them.
It can be of two types:
Personal appearance:
clothing, hair style, cosmetics, jewelry,
neatness, etc…are parts of personal
appearance.
They can convey impressions regarding
occupation, age, nationality, social and
economic level, etc … depending on
circumstances.
Appearance of surroundings:
 it includes office size, location of the
office, furnishings, machine and
equipment's, wall decorations, floor,
lightings, etc…
Body language: it includes the following:
Facial expression:
are (eye and face) especially helpful
means of communicating non-verbally.
They can show hidden emotions like
anger, annoyance, confusion, enthusiasm,
fear, joy, love interest, sorrow, surprising
and uncertainty.
Gestures and postures:
gestures (traffic and deaf people).
Postures convey impression of self-
impressions of self-confidence, status and
interest.
 Smell and touch:
various smell or odors and artificial
fragrances on human beings can
sometimes convey emotions and feelings
better than spoken words.
For example some odor on equipment
can indicate- smoke, fire, decay or
dangerous leaks…
Touching people in different ways can
silently communicate friendship, approval,
anger or other feelings.
 Silence, Time and Sound:
Silence: can actually cause serious hard
feelings, loss of business, loss of sales,
sometimes loss of profit and loss of
opportunities.
Time: is important in many ways.
being on time for appointments, for work
each day and for deadlines communicate
favorable nonverbal messages in our
culture.
Sound: in addition to speaking person
voice, other human sound like clearing
throat, language, etc… also communicate
non-verbally.
 Sometimes nonhuman sounds like bells,
cars, trains, airplanes all can be
significant nonverbal communicators.
 END OF CHAPTER FOUR

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Chapter 4.pptx

  • 1. CHAPTER FOUR TYPES OF COMMUNICATION IN ORGANIZATION
  • 2. 4.1. Internal and External Communication 1. External communication refers to communication with outside sources such as customers, suppliers, professional associations, government organization etc.  As the external environment has become more dynamic and turbulent, regular exchange of information with outside agencies and individuals becomes essential.
  • 3.  Whether by phone, fax, video tape, or letter, much of this communication is carefully orchestrated, and some occurs informally.  Two functional units particularly important in managing the flow of external messages are: the marketing department and the public relation department.  Marketing focuses on selling goods and services, whereas public relations is more concerned with developing the organization’s overall permutation.
  • 4.  2. Internal communication takes place within the organization among managers and other personnel between department, superiors and subordinates. Vertical and horizontal communications take place within the organization
  • 5. 4.2. Formal Communication  is established by the management and formally shown in the charts of the organizations.  It is the channel which is deliberately and consciously established.  Formal channel is the line of communication for transmission of messages and information officially within and outside the organization.  The formal communication channel is used to transmit official messages, policies, procedures, directives, and job
  • 6.
  • 7. Downward Communication When vertical communication flows from a higher level to one or more lower levels in the organization it is known as downward communication. Downward communication flows from the top of the organization and carries the message that translates top management planning and decision making into orders that direct office employee.
  • 8. Some examples of downward communication are: Information related to policies, rules, procedures, objectives, and other type of plans Work assignment and directives Feedback about work performance General information about the organization such as its progress and status
  • 9. Upward Communication:- Is the vertical flow of communication from lower level to higher levels in the organization. This may take place from the supervisor to middle level manager, from manager to general manager and then from general manager to board of directors. It helps managers judge the effectiveness of downward communication and enables them to learn about organizational problems.
  • 10. Information communicated are: The activities of subordinates in terms of their achievement, progress and plans Unresolved work problems in which subordinates may need help from seniors Suggestions (ideas) for improvement in offices or department/organization The feelings of subordinates about their jobs, associates, working
  • 11. Lateral Communication:  It usually follows the pattern of workflow in an organization occurring between members of work groups between one work group and another between members of departments having the same status.  Its main purpose is to provide a direct channel for organizational co- operation and problem solving.
  • 12. Diagonal Communication  refers to interchange of message among two persons located at different levels of hierarchy and outside the direct chain of command.  It serves the purpose of coordination and integration and involves by passing the chain of command as in the case of horizontal communication.  It is used to speed up information flow to improve understanding and to coordinate for the achievement of organizational objectives.
  • 13. 4.3. Informal channel of communication  known, as the grapevine in communication that takes place without regard to hierarchical  Informal communication can be thought of as relating to personal rather than positional issues.  In other words Informal channel or the grapevine does not follow the formal channels established by the management.  This type of communication arises on account of natural desire of people to communicate each other and is the result of social interaction of people.
  • 14. Characteristics of Informal Communication  It is very fast and spontaneous  It is not entirely reliable  Its messages are difficult to stop once they get started  It is accessible to everybody in that organization  It can be supportive or obstacle to the effort of management
  • 15. Types of Grapevine Chains Single strand Chain: In this chain Person “A” tells to a single person “B”, who tells it to a person “C” and so on The Gossip Chain: a person being the source of the information transmits to many individuals.
  • 16. Probability Chain: here individuals are indifferent about to whom they offer information. They tell people at random and those people in turn tell other at random. Cluster Chain: Here person “A” conveys the information to few selected individuals, some of whom then inform a
  • 17. 4.4.Verbal and Non-verbal Communication 4.4.1.Verbal communication can be of two types, oral and written. The main difference between the oral and written is the time factor. Written communication is slower in preparation, in conveyance (carrying or transmitting) and in perception (understanding).
  • 18. 4.4.2. Non-verbal Communication:  is the process of communication without words. People use nonverbal signals to support and clarify verbal communication. Generally, nonverbal communication is presented in the following main categories: 1. Appearance: conveys nonverbal expressions that affect recipient’s attitude towards the verbal message, even before they read or hear them. It can be of two types:
  • 19. Personal appearance: clothing, hair style, cosmetics, jewelry, neatness, etc…are parts of personal appearance. They can convey impressions regarding occupation, age, nationality, social and economic level, etc … depending on circumstances.
  • 20. Appearance of surroundings:  it includes office size, location of the office, furnishings, machine and equipment's, wall decorations, floor, lightings, etc… Body language: it includes the following: Facial expression: are (eye and face) especially helpful means of communicating non-verbally.
  • 21. They can show hidden emotions like anger, annoyance, confusion, enthusiasm, fear, joy, love interest, sorrow, surprising and uncertainty. Gestures and postures: gestures (traffic and deaf people). Postures convey impression of self- impressions of self-confidence, status and interest.
  • 22.  Smell and touch: various smell or odors and artificial fragrances on human beings can sometimes convey emotions and feelings better than spoken words. For example some odor on equipment can indicate- smoke, fire, decay or dangerous leaks… Touching people in different ways can silently communicate friendship, approval, anger or other feelings.
  • 23.  Silence, Time and Sound: Silence: can actually cause serious hard feelings, loss of business, loss of sales, sometimes loss of profit and loss of opportunities. Time: is important in many ways. being on time for appointments, for work each day and for deadlines communicate favorable nonverbal messages in our culture.
  • 24. Sound: in addition to speaking person voice, other human sound like clearing throat, language, etc… also communicate non-verbally.  Sometimes nonhuman sounds like bells, cars, trains, airplanes all can be significant nonverbal communicators.
  • 25.  END OF CHAPTER FOUR