1. Alternatives of IC engine
Muhammad Ishtiaq Khan 19PWMEC4830
Muhammad Salman Khan 19PWMEC4811
Hazrat Ali 19PWMEC4775
Muhammad Bilal 19PWMEC4714
2. What is IC engine
In internal combustion (IC) engine, the combustion of fuel takes place
inside the engine cylinder and heat is generated within the cylinder.
IC engines are of two types:
1. Reciprocating engine
Examples: Gasoline and diesel engines.
2. Rotary engine
Examples: Wankel engine and open cycle gas turbine
IC engines are the most common form of heat engines used in
vehicles, boats, ships, airplanes, and trains etc.
The rotor has a set of internal gear teeth.
These teeth mate with a gear that is fixed to the
This gear mating determines the path and
direction the rotor takes through the housing.
It is roughly oval in
The shape of
is designed so that
three tips of the rotor
will always stay in
contact with the will of
Each part of the
housing is dedicated
to one part of the
Much simpler design compare to piston counterpart.
High power to weight ratio.
Less vibration compare to reciprocating type.
Smooth power flow and high RPM
It consumes a lot of fuel.
The spare parts are very costly.
There is incomplete combustion of the air-fuel mixture.
High manufacturing cost.
The rotor apex points are in direct contact with the casing Due
to direct contact cracking is produced.
16. 2. Gas Turbine Engine
Gas turbines are a type of internal combustion (IC)
engine in which burning of an air-fuel mixture produces
hot gases that spins a turbine to produce power.
Also called combustion Turbine.
The pressurized gas is created by the burning of a fuel.
18. Principle of
Slow down incoming air
Dynamically Compress air
Heat addition through
Run the compressor
Nozzle/ Free Turbine
Generation of thrust
19. Working Principle
The basic operation of
the gas turbine is a
Air is compressed to
high pressure by
Then fuel and
compressed air are
mixed in a combustion
chamber and ignited.
Hot gases are given off
which rotates the
21. Methods to increase
Increase pressure ratio
Increase the inlet
Reheat the working
Reheating the working
Increasing the mass
flow inside the
22. Uses of Gas turbine
23. 3. Free Piston
A free-piston engine is a
engine, in which the
piston motion is not
controlled by a
determined by the
interaction of forces
from the combustion
25. Main parts
Combustion chamber or cylinder- Same as the I C engine a combustion cylinder
is the rigid cylindrical chamber inside which the combustion of air-fuel takes place,
and also it is the housing inside which piston moves.
Carburetor is a device that mixes air and fuel for internal combustion engines in
an appropriate air–fuel ratio for combustion.
Bounce cylinder: It is cylinder with a piston which is interconnected with the main
piston. The main function of the bounce cylinder is to stored the energy during
expansion of the F P engine and apply it to starts the compression stroke again for
Sparkplug- The spark plug is used to ignite the air-fuel mixture and fuel injector
injectes the diesel fuel during the compression of air which results into the
Loading devices- These are the devices that are used in free piston engine as the
replacement of crankshaft of the IC engine, The selection of the load device which
is to be used depends upon the required application of the F P engine like turbine
26. Working of free piston engine
The entry of fuel through the inlet port of the engine takes place at the end of expansion
stroke of the engine.
After the entry of the fuel inlet port closes and the compression of the fuel due to the
compression stroke occurs which in turn increases the pressure of the fuel inside the
After this compression fuel gets ignited either by spark plug (gasoline engine) or by
compression (diesel engine) depending upon the type of the F P engine used.
Due to this combustion of the fuel high pressure impulse is generated which in turn pushes
the piston and the expansion of the gases produced during the combustion occurs.
The gases expanded during the expansion stroke are then exhausted with the high pressure
through the exhaust port of the engine during the expansion stroke.
These exhaust gases having high pressure are blown over the blades of the electric
generator turbine which in turn causes rotation of the turbine and the generation of the
electricity takes place.