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W 2/4 The role of the maritime
spatial planning to safeguard the
#BalticMSP
Underwater cultural heritage –
opportunities to use synergies and
current political framework
underwater cultural heritage
Sallamaria Tikkanen
National Board of Antiquities, Finland
Legal Framework
• United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, UNCLOS (1982):
• Articles 136, 149 and 303:
• The Area and its resources are the common heritage of mankind
• All objects of an archaeological and historical nature shall be preserved for the
benefit of mankind
• Rights of the State or country of cultural, historical and archaeological origin
• UNESCO Convention on the protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage (2001):
• Seeks to improve international collaboration and conservation practices
• Sets common principles such as the in situ preservation of CH when possible and
prohibits the commercial exploitation of CH
• Obliges to use best practicable means (for excample MSP?) to prevent/mitigate
incidental effects on CH
• Annex Rules concerning activities directed at UCH
• World Heritage Convention (1972):
• Requires to integrate the protection of CH into comprehensive
planning programmes
Photo: The wreck of Vrouw
Maria, J. Flinkman
Photo: E. Salo
Legal Framework
• Council of Europe: Valetta Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage
(1992):
• Requirements for the protection of archaeological heritage whether situated on land
or under water
• Requirements to establish inventories, archaeological reserves and reporting of new
sites
• Requirements that archaeologists and planners consult each others on
archaeological issues
• The total cost of archaeological operations are to be provided for in major public or
private development schems
• Example: Finland: The Antiquities Act (295/63) applied in territorial waters:
• The planner of public land-use projects or the party responsible for a public or a
large private project must examine the effects of the plan on antiquities
and is required to fund the research work caused by the project
Photo: J. Polkko
Photo: E. Salo
Legal Framework
• Environmental Impact Assesment (EIA)
• Nord Stream 1-2
• Baltic Connector
• Marine wind mill parks
• Shipping lines
• Harbour developments
Tornio, Röyttä wind farm area,
an undewater landscape of a
saw mill island of Kuusiluoto
The wreck of Sofia Maria,
photo: T. Salminen
Pori, Kallonlahti
wreck, photo:NBA
Legal Framework
• Council of Europe: Landscape Convention (2000)
• "Landscape" means an area, as perceived by people, whose character is the
result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors
• Includes land, inland water and marine areas
• Actions to identify and asses landscapes
• Requires to integrate landscape into planning policies
• The idea of underwater landscape
• Faro Convention on the value of CH for society (2005)
• Addresses CH in a comprehensive way
• Requires to utilise heritage aspects of CH to enrich the process of landuse
planning
• Recognises the role of all citizens and civil society through share responsibiltiy
Photo: U.Klemelä
Management measures
• MSP as tool for protection, management and sustainable use of
UCH sites
• CH setting conditions
• MSP and maritime history: both deals with the relationship
between people, society and the sea
Photo: O. Mäkinen
1994
How to
manage UCH
sites in a
sustainable
way?
Synergies with other sectors
• With Blue Growth/economic/tourism: museums, exhibitions on Europe‘s maritime
history, telling the story of the seas, publications etc.
• Blue Growth/recreation and leisure: underwater parks and dive trails, opportunities for
divers and non- divers in situ and online, the lure of the sea shores, seascapes, maritime
landscapes and old maritime buildings
• With nature/ecology: shipwrecks and other archaeological artefacts as artificial reefs
• With social aspects: identity building, well-being, sense of belonging, place making,
meanings, narratives, values of people, citizens own data etc.
• With MPAs: Presence of UCH protects marine environment from other uses like trawling
• With data sharing: ships wrecks as a source for history, ecology, environmental history,
spatial planning etc.
Maritime CH sites as multifunctional sites
Photo:P. Tuuri
Photo:NBA
Helsinki Underwaterpark Kronprins Gustav Adolf
Nordic Blue Parks Project: underwater cultural heritage and nature
Photo: Metsähallitus
Vrouw Maria simulation at the Maritime Museum of Finland
World Heritage site of Suomenlinna Sea Fortress, making UCH landscape visible for
the visitors
Still photo of a multibeamsonar video by E. Salo
A shiptrap area of Jussarö Nord Stream 2 Project: a 1800th century
shipwreck in the Finnish EEZ

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Underwater cultural heritage – opportunities to use synergies and current political framework at the 2nd Baltic Maritime Spatial Planning Forum

  • 1. W 2/4 The role of the maritime spatial planning to safeguard the #BalticMSP Underwater cultural heritage – opportunities to use synergies and current political framework underwater cultural heritage Sallamaria Tikkanen National Board of Antiquities, Finland
  • 2. Legal Framework • United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, UNCLOS (1982): • Articles 136, 149 and 303: • The Area and its resources are the common heritage of mankind • All objects of an archaeological and historical nature shall be preserved for the benefit of mankind • Rights of the State or country of cultural, historical and archaeological origin • UNESCO Convention on the protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage (2001): • Seeks to improve international collaboration and conservation practices • Sets common principles such as the in situ preservation of CH when possible and prohibits the commercial exploitation of CH • Obliges to use best practicable means (for excample MSP?) to prevent/mitigate incidental effects on CH • Annex Rules concerning activities directed at UCH • World Heritage Convention (1972): • Requires to integrate the protection of CH into comprehensive planning programmes Photo: The wreck of Vrouw Maria, J. Flinkman Photo: E. Salo
  • 3. Legal Framework • Council of Europe: Valetta Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage (1992): • Requirements for the protection of archaeological heritage whether situated on land or under water • Requirements to establish inventories, archaeological reserves and reporting of new sites • Requirements that archaeologists and planners consult each others on archaeological issues • The total cost of archaeological operations are to be provided for in major public or private development schems • Example: Finland: The Antiquities Act (295/63) applied in territorial waters: • The planner of public land-use projects or the party responsible for a public or a large private project must examine the effects of the plan on antiquities and is required to fund the research work caused by the project Photo: J. Polkko Photo: E. Salo
  • 4. Legal Framework • Environmental Impact Assesment (EIA) • Nord Stream 1-2 • Baltic Connector • Marine wind mill parks • Shipping lines • Harbour developments Tornio, Röyttä wind farm area, an undewater landscape of a saw mill island of Kuusiluoto The wreck of Sofia Maria, photo: T. Salminen Pori, Kallonlahti wreck, photo:NBA
  • 5. Legal Framework • Council of Europe: Landscape Convention (2000) • "Landscape" means an area, as perceived by people, whose character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors • Includes land, inland water and marine areas • Actions to identify and asses landscapes • Requires to integrate landscape into planning policies • The idea of underwater landscape • Faro Convention on the value of CH for society (2005) • Addresses CH in a comprehensive way • Requires to utilise heritage aspects of CH to enrich the process of landuse planning • Recognises the role of all citizens and civil society through share responsibiltiy Photo: U.Klemelä
  • 6. Management measures • MSP as tool for protection, management and sustainable use of UCH sites • CH setting conditions • MSP and maritime history: both deals with the relationship between people, society and the sea Photo: O. Mäkinen 1994 How to manage UCH sites in a sustainable way?
  • 7. Synergies with other sectors • With Blue Growth/economic/tourism: museums, exhibitions on Europe‘s maritime history, telling the story of the seas, publications etc. • Blue Growth/recreation and leisure: underwater parks and dive trails, opportunities for divers and non- divers in situ and online, the lure of the sea shores, seascapes, maritime landscapes and old maritime buildings • With nature/ecology: shipwrecks and other archaeological artefacts as artificial reefs • With social aspects: identity building, well-being, sense of belonging, place making, meanings, narratives, values of people, citizens own data etc. • With MPAs: Presence of UCH protects marine environment from other uses like trawling • With data sharing: ships wrecks as a source for history, ecology, environmental history, spatial planning etc. Maritime CH sites as multifunctional sites Photo:P. Tuuri
  • 9. Nordic Blue Parks Project: underwater cultural heritage and nature Photo: Metsähallitus
  • 10. Vrouw Maria simulation at the Maritime Museum of Finland
  • 11. World Heritage site of Suomenlinna Sea Fortress, making UCH landscape visible for the visitors Still photo of a multibeamsonar video by E. Salo
  • 12. A shiptrap area of Jussarö Nord Stream 2 Project: a 1800th century shipwreck in the Finnish EEZ