Job Layout

B
Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 1
Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 2
Job Layout
A Job layout planning and optimization on site can reduce the transportation flows,
moving, reloading, and enhancing the services of the construction work to improve the
work productivity and thus the costs of a project.
3
o The first duties of a superintendent are to prepare a job-layout for the project.
On this layout the following area must be drawn to scale (in addition to the proposed
building).
1. Offices (contractor's offices, Engineering offices, time keeper, clerk of work).
2. Materials (cement, aggregate, etc.).
3. Equipment’s (crane, mixer, scaffold …).
4. Storage (sanitary, electrical …).
5. Timber storage and fabrication area.
6. Reinforcement storage, cement storage and fabrication area.
7. Car parks (for visitors near the entrance and employers).
8. Drying room, mess room, and toilets for the employers (must be adjacent).
Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq
Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 4
o In preparing the job-layout the following notes must be considered:
1. Areas units which depend on the maximum amount of material. Maximum number of
employers, and equipments which may be in the project during the construction progress.
2. The general office and warehouse should be located near the main entrance.
3. Arrange all areas to reduce the time consumed in carrying materials from storage areas to
the project.
4. Materials that are similar in use should be stored close together, where possible.
5. A roof must be provided for the storage area of materials like gypsum, cement, and so on
6. If area is not available at the job site, the contractor must obtain storage area near the site as
possible.
o Site Layout Planning Elements
A well planned site including all temporary facilities and utilities lead to
1) Increasing productivity and safety,
2) reducing area(s) needed for temporary construction
3) maximizing utilization.
Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 5
o The following points should be considered in good site layout
1. Safety
 Fire prevention: Fire is a major cause of damage on construction sites. So that, fire
extinguishers are basic requirements on a construction project.
 Medical services: On construction project a first aid kit is a must. In remote projects a
well-equipped medical room with a doctor and nurse is important.
 Construction safety clothing: Basic safety supplies like safety shoes, hard hats,
gloves, and goggles must be used by workers.
2. Site Accessibility
 easy accessibility will keep the morale of the equipment and vehicle drivers high
 minimize the chance of accidents
 save time in maneuvering to arrive and leaving the project.
 in case of large projects, proper planning is required to layout the roads leading from
the nearest highway.
 internal roads are necessary for easy flow of work.
 also, parking lots are provided
 for the owner, office, and craft personnel, but this facility must be planned where space
does exist.
Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 6
3. Information Signs
 Site map: It should locate details of the project, and displayed in the office of the site
superintendent or project manager and posted at the entrance gate.
 Traffic regulatory signs: For large projects, traffic regulatory signs help in guiding
the traffic on the site and avoid accidents to a considerable extent.
 Display of labor relations’ policy and safety rules: This will help in eliminating
disputes between labor and management.
 Emergency routes and underground services: It is important to display the
emergency escape routes on every floor as the building progresses. Locations of
underground services should be marked to prevent its damage.
4. Security
 Entrance: It is necessary to have a proper guard entrance to the site provided by a
booth. Also, it is necessary to keep track of all visitors to the project.
 Lighting: It is necessary to have a standby generator to maintain site lighting.
 Fencing: The boundary should be fenced off from a security point of view.
5. Accommodation
 On large construction projects, it is necessary to provide camp accommodation for all
type of staff who involved in the project.
Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 7
6. Offices
 The offices should be close together, close to the site, and in a safe area. Also, provide
the offices with proper office equipment. The offices at the site may include job office,
general contractor office, and sub-contractors ,consultants offices, engineer s office
and so on..
7. Water Supply and Sanitation
 It is necessary to have water and toilet facilities in convenient locations to
accommodate the work force.
8. Material Handling
 One third or more of all construction operations can be classified as material handling.
The use of proper equipment for material handling and advance planning for
minimizing multiple handling will result indirect cost and time savings.
9. Storage and site cleaning
It is necessary to plan and reserve storage areas for materials so that multiple movement of
material is avoided:-
 Laydown areas: Areas reserved for storage of large materials and equipment and it
can be short-term or long-term.
 Warehouses: They are sheltered storage facilities where materials are stored
until they have disbursed to the job.
 Material staging areas: They used when materials are stored near the work
on a short-term basis. They are generally as close to work as possible.
Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 8
 Site cleaning: It is necessary at a work place and especially where the extent of debris
produced is high. Regular disposal of debris is necessary.
10. Craft Change-Houses
 Craft change-houses provide sheltered space for craft personnel to change and store
clothes, wash, and rest during waiting periods.
11. Batch plant and Fabrication Shops
Batch plants are provided on projects where it is more economical to produce concrete on site
than to buy a ready mix.
 Aggregate storage piles,
 cement silos
 admixture tanks will accompany an on-site batch plant.
 Shops are used where materials and equipment are fabricated on site. This includes
electrical, mechanical, carpentry, and paint shops. Also, testing shops used to house the
necessary testing equipment and personnel for the project.
Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 9
o Temporary Facilities Selection
One of the characteristics of temporary facilities is the availability of diverse solutions for
the same function. This section describes some of the considerations when selecting the
required temporary facilities for a specific project.
• Construction type: The construction of an industrial plant, such as power plant, requires
more storage and fabrication area for mechanical process and electrical work than other
projects such as a highway project.
• Type of contract: For turn-key contract, the contractor can consolidate the
administrative and construction operations, means that fewer but larger and more
efficient temporary facilities can be selected. On the other hand, if the project is managed
under a series of different contracts, this will translate into a higher number of smaller
temporary facilities serving each individual contractor.
• Project size: A relatively small project can be managed from a trailer or portable
structure. While a five to ten year project may need temporary facilities of a more
permanent nature.
• Project location: Projects located in uninhabited regions or in places where skilled labor
is scarce require additional facilities for eating and living. Project far from industrial
centers require more on site services such as batch plant, equipment maintenance shops,
long term storage area, and even some other recreational centers for the families.
Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 10
Also, the selection of some of the temporary facilities depend on the manpower permanent
resident from the site. The work force break down into three categories as shown in Figure 1
below
L1: local labor force (5 km from site). No lodging
or transportation needs.
L2: nearby labor force (5 - 60 km from site).
No lodging needs, but daily transportation needed.
L3: far away (more than 60 km from site).
Lodging facilities needed.
In addition; The type and number of temporary facilities needed for a specific project must
be determined prior to their sizing and location. Table 1 gives a list of common temporary
facilities that can be used in a project. While some temporary facilities are to be selected from
this list for a specific project, taking into account the factors cited above, as well as other
temporary facilities justified by the uniqueness of the project.
Figure 1: Workforce breakdown
Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 11
Table 1: A List of temporary facilities
Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 12
Table 2: Area estimates for temporary facilities
Table 3 Range of office space requirements
Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 13
Table 4: Temporary facilities areas based on project cost
Furthermore; Based on experience, the following general equation is used to determine the
material storage area for any type of construction project. Table 5 shows the parameters that
affect this equation. The total required storage area, An, is calculated as follows:
Where
Qmax : Maximum estimated quantity in storage space;
Im : Utilization index for materials;
qn : quantity of materials can be stored per m2;
Qtotal : Total quantity of materials required for the project;
qdaily : estimated quantity required per day;
T : Construction period (not total project duration);
t : average stock (days) k : Fluctuation factor
`
Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 14
Table 5: Parameters for sizing material storage area
o Regulations and Safety Standards
Some safety rules were also compiled from safety and health manual (ILO 1992), safety and health
administration (OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration 1987), building codes (UBC
1985; SBC 1985). Some of these regulations are listed below.
• At least 10 feet clearance from buildings or structures shall be maintained for piles of lumber and
other combustible materials to be used in the construction.
• Driveways between and around open yard combustible storage piles shall be at least 15 feet wide and
free from accumulation of rubbish.
• Material stored inside buildings under construction shall not be placed within 6 feet of any hoist way
or inside floor openings, or within 10 feet of an exterior wall, which does not extend above the top of
the material stored.
Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 15
Example:-
𝒅𝒂𝒊𝒍𝒚
3
𝒏
2
m
max max
3
An = .
. n
2
Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 16
o Example of Site Layout Planning for a Building Project
Figure 2 illustrates the layout of building materials and access roads for the purposes of
servicing two hoists for the erection of a low-rise building. Comment on and criticize the
present layout in relation to the positioning of the materials and hoists.
Figure 2: given site layout
Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 17
Figure 3: Hoist Shape
Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 18
o Criticism of existing site layout:
 Both hoists have separate scaffold staging, causing increased costs.
 Materials are not stockpiled near hoists.
 Entrance to the site is too narrow for truck to pass.
 Stores are located behind the batching plant so obscuring storeman's view, as well as the
check point is separated from the stores.
 Concrete and mortar mixers are located too far from the hoists.
 Stockpiles are dispersed and hinder unloading.
 Temporary roads are long and narrow.
 Some stores are difficult to reach.
o Suggested improved layout:
 Both hoists are housed in a common scaffold.
 Batching plants have direct discharge into dumpers.
 The access has been widened near the site entrance.
 The stores are located to give a good view of all materials stockpiles, and they are sited
near the temporary road.
 Concrete and mortar mixers are located near the hoists.
 The temporary road is shorter and wider.
 A compound is provided to police non-bulk materials. As shown in Figure 3 below
Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 19
Figure 3: Improved site layout
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Job Layout

  • 1. Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 1
  • 2. Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 2 Job Layout A Job layout planning and optimization on site can reduce the transportation flows, moving, reloading, and enhancing the services of the construction work to improve the work productivity and thus the costs of a project.
  • 3. 3 o The first duties of a superintendent are to prepare a job-layout for the project. On this layout the following area must be drawn to scale (in addition to the proposed building). 1. Offices (contractor's offices, Engineering offices, time keeper, clerk of work). 2. Materials (cement, aggregate, etc.). 3. Equipment’s (crane, mixer, scaffold …). 4. Storage (sanitary, electrical …). 5. Timber storage and fabrication area. 6. Reinforcement storage, cement storage and fabrication area. 7. Car parks (for visitors near the entrance and employers). 8. Drying room, mess room, and toilets for the employers (must be adjacent). Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq
  • 4. Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 4 o In preparing the job-layout the following notes must be considered: 1. Areas units which depend on the maximum amount of material. Maximum number of employers, and equipments which may be in the project during the construction progress. 2. The general office and warehouse should be located near the main entrance. 3. Arrange all areas to reduce the time consumed in carrying materials from storage areas to the project. 4. Materials that are similar in use should be stored close together, where possible. 5. A roof must be provided for the storage area of materials like gypsum, cement, and so on 6. If area is not available at the job site, the contractor must obtain storage area near the site as possible. o Site Layout Planning Elements A well planned site including all temporary facilities and utilities lead to 1) Increasing productivity and safety, 2) reducing area(s) needed for temporary construction 3) maximizing utilization.
  • 5. Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 5 o The following points should be considered in good site layout 1. Safety  Fire prevention: Fire is a major cause of damage on construction sites. So that, fire extinguishers are basic requirements on a construction project.  Medical services: On construction project a first aid kit is a must. In remote projects a well-equipped medical room with a doctor and nurse is important.  Construction safety clothing: Basic safety supplies like safety shoes, hard hats, gloves, and goggles must be used by workers. 2. Site Accessibility  easy accessibility will keep the morale of the equipment and vehicle drivers high  minimize the chance of accidents  save time in maneuvering to arrive and leaving the project.  in case of large projects, proper planning is required to layout the roads leading from the nearest highway.  internal roads are necessary for easy flow of work.  also, parking lots are provided  for the owner, office, and craft personnel, but this facility must be planned where space does exist.
  • 6. Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 6 3. Information Signs  Site map: It should locate details of the project, and displayed in the office of the site superintendent or project manager and posted at the entrance gate.  Traffic regulatory signs: For large projects, traffic regulatory signs help in guiding the traffic on the site and avoid accidents to a considerable extent.  Display of labor relations’ policy and safety rules: This will help in eliminating disputes between labor and management.  Emergency routes and underground services: It is important to display the emergency escape routes on every floor as the building progresses. Locations of underground services should be marked to prevent its damage. 4. Security  Entrance: It is necessary to have a proper guard entrance to the site provided by a booth. Also, it is necessary to keep track of all visitors to the project.  Lighting: It is necessary to have a standby generator to maintain site lighting.  Fencing: The boundary should be fenced off from a security point of view. 5. Accommodation  On large construction projects, it is necessary to provide camp accommodation for all type of staff who involved in the project.
  • 7. Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 7 6. Offices  The offices should be close together, close to the site, and in a safe area. Also, provide the offices with proper office equipment. The offices at the site may include job office, general contractor office, and sub-contractors ,consultants offices, engineer s office and so on.. 7. Water Supply and Sanitation  It is necessary to have water and toilet facilities in convenient locations to accommodate the work force. 8. Material Handling  One third or more of all construction operations can be classified as material handling. The use of proper equipment for material handling and advance planning for minimizing multiple handling will result indirect cost and time savings. 9. Storage and site cleaning It is necessary to plan and reserve storage areas for materials so that multiple movement of material is avoided:-  Laydown areas: Areas reserved for storage of large materials and equipment and it can be short-term or long-term.  Warehouses: They are sheltered storage facilities where materials are stored until they have disbursed to the job.  Material staging areas: They used when materials are stored near the work on a short-term basis. They are generally as close to work as possible.
  • 8. Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 8  Site cleaning: It is necessary at a work place and especially where the extent of debris produced is high. Regular disposal of debris is necessary. 10. Craft Change-Houses  Craft change-houses provide sheltered space for craft personnel to change and store clothes, wash, and rest during waiting periods. 11. Batch plant and Fabrication Shops Batch plants are provided on projects where it is more economical to produce concrete on site than to buy a ready mix.  Aggregate storage piles,  cement silos  admixture tanks will accompany an on-site batch plant.  Shops are used where materials and equipment are fabricated on site. This includes electrical, mechanical, carpentry, and paint shops. Also, testing shops used to house the necessary testing equipment and personnel for the project.
  • 9. Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 9 o Temporary Facilities Selection One of the characteristics of temporary facilities is the availability of diverse solutions for the same function. This section describes some of the considerations when selecting the required temporary facilities for a specific project. • Construction type: The construction of an industrial plant, such as power plant, requires more storage and fabrication area for mechanical process and electrical work than other projects such as a highway project. • Type of contract: For turn-key contract, the contractor can consolidate the administrative and construction operations, means that fewer but larger and more efficient temporary facilities can be selected. On the other hand, if the project is managed under a series of different contracts, this will translate into a higher number of smaller temporary facilities serving each individual contractor. • Project size: A relatively small project can be managed from a trailer or portable structure. While a five to ten year project may need temporary facilities of a more permanent nature. • Project location: Projects located in uninhabited regions or in places where skilled labor is scarce require additional facilities for eating and living. Project far from industrial centers require more on site services such as batch plant, equipment maintenance shops, long term storage area, and even some other recreational centers for the families.
  • 10. Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 10 Also, the selection of some of the temporary facilities depend on the manpower permanent resident from the site. The work force break down into three categories as shown in Figure 1 below L1: local labor force (5 km from site). No lodging or transportation needs. L2: nearby labor force (5 - 60 km from site). No lodging needs, but daily transportation needed. L3: far away (more than 60 km from site). Lodging facilities needed. In addition; The type and number of temporary facilities needed for a specific project must be determined prior to their sizing and location. Table 1 gives a list of common temporary facilities that can be used in a project. While some temporary facilities are to be selected from this list for a specific project, taking into account the factors cited above, as well as other temporary facilities justified by the uniqueness of the project. Figure 1: Workforce breakdown
  • 11. Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 11 Table 1: A List of temporary facilities
  • 12. Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 12 Table 2: Area estimates for temporary facilities Table 3 Range of office space requirements
  • 13. Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 13 Table 4: Temporary facilities areas based on project cost Furthermore; Based on experience, the following general equation is used to determine the material storage area for any type of construction project. Table 5 shows the parameters that affect this equation. The total required storage area, An, is calculated as follows: Where Qmax : Maximum estimated quantity in storage space; Im : Utilization index for materials; qn : quantity of materials can be stored per m2; Qtotal : Total quantity of materials required for the project; qdaily : estimated quantity required per day; T : Construction period (not total project duration); t : average stock (days) k : Fluctuation factor `
  • 14. Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 14 Table 5: Parameters for sizing material storage area o Regulations and Safety Standards Some safety rules were also compiled from safety and health manual (ILO 1992), safety and health administration (OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration 1987), building codes (UBC 1985; SBC 1985). Some of these regulations are listed below. • At least 10 feet clearance from buildings or structures shall be maintained for piles of lumber and other combustible materials to be used in the construction. • Driveways between and around open yard combustible storage piles shall be at least 15 feet wide and free from accumulation of rubbish. • Material stored inside buildings under construction shall not be placed within 6 feet of any hoist way or inside floor openings, or within 10 feet of an exterior wall, which does not extend above the top of the material stored.
  • 15. Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 15 Example:- 𝒅𝒂𝒊𝒍𝒚 3 𝒏 2 m max max 3 An = . . n 2
  • 16. Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 16 o Example of Site Layout Planning for a Building Project Figure 2 illustrates the layout of building materials and access roads for the purposes of servicing two hoists for the erection of a low-rise building. Comment on and criticize the present layout in relation to the positioning of the materials and hoists. Figure 2: given site layout
  • 17. Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 17 Figure 3: Hoist Shape
  • 18. Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 18 o Criticism of existing site layout:  Both hoists have separate scaffold staging, causing increased costs.  Materials are not stockpiled near hoists.  Entrance to the site is too narrow for truck to pass.  Stores are located behind the batching plant so obscuring storeman's view, as well as the check point is separated from the stores.  Concrete and mortar mixers are located too far from the hoists.  Stockpiles are dispersed and hinder unloading.  Temporary roads are long and narrow.  Some stores are difficult to reach. o Suggested improved layout:  Both hoists are housed in a common scaffold.  Batching plants have direct discharge into dumpers.  The access has been widened near the site entrance.  The stores are located to give a good view of all materials stockpiles, and they are sited near the temporary road.  Concrete and mortar mixers are located near the hoists.  The temporary road is shorter and wider.  A compound is provided to police non-bulk materials. As shown in Figure 3 below
  • 19. Civil Engineering Department Saad.bilbas@epu.edu.iq 19 Figure 3: Improved site layout