Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.

Quality management @ ppt DOMS

6.776 Aufrufe

Veröffentlicht am

Quality management @ ppt DOMS

Veröffentlicht in: Business, Technologie
  • Als Erste(r) kommentieren

Quality management @ ppt DOMS

  1. 1. Quality Management
  2. 2. Lecture Outline <ul><li>What Is Quality? </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution of Quality Management </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Tools </li></ul><ul><li>TQM and QMS </li></ul><ul><li>Focus of Quality Management—Customers </li></ul><ul><li>Role of Employees in Quality Improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Quality in Service Companies </li></ul><ul><li>Six Sigma </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of Quality Management on Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Awards </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 9000 </li></ul>2-
  3. 3. What Is Quality? <ul><li>Oxford American Dictionary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a degree or level of excellence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>American Society for Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>totality of features and characteristics that satisfy needs without deficiencies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumer’s and producer’s perspective </li></ul>2-
  4. 4. What Is Quality: Customer’s Perspective <ul><li>Fitness for use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how well product or service does what it is supposed to </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quality of design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>designing quality characteristics into a product or service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A Mercedes and a Ford are equally “fit for use,” but with different design dimensions. </li></ul>2-
  5. 5. Dimensions of Quality: Manufactured Products <ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>basic operating characteristics of a product; how well a car handles or its gas mileage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ extra” items added to basic features, such as a stereo CD or a leather interior in a car </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>probability that a product will operate properly within an expected time frame; that is, a TV will work without repair for about seven years </li></ul></ul>2-
  6. 6. Dimensions of Quality: Manufactured Products <ul><li>Conformance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>degree to which a product meets pre–established standards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Durability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how long product lasts before replacement; with care, L. L. Bean boots may last a lifetime </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Serviceability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ease of getting repairs, speed of repairs, courtesy and competence of repair person </li></ul></ul>2-
  7. 7. Dimensions of Quality: Manufactured Products <ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how a product looks, feels, sounds, smells, or tastes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assurance that customer will not suffer injury or harm from a product; an especially important consideration for automobiles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perceptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>subjective perceptions based on brand name, advertising, etc. </li></ul></ul>2-
  8. 8. Dimensions of Quality: Services <ul><li>Time and timeliness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how long must a customer wait for service, and is it completed on time? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is an overnight package delivered overnight? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Completeness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is everything customer asked for provided? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is a mail order from a catalogue company complete when delivered? </li></ul></ul>2-
  9. 9. Dimensions of Quality: Service <ul><li>Courtesy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how are customers treated by employees? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are catalogue phone operators nice and are their voices pleasant? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is same level of service provided to each customer each time? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is your newspaper delivered on time every morning? </li></ul></ul>2-
  10. 10. Dimensions of Quality: Service <ul><li>Accessibility and convenience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how easy is it to obtain service? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>does service representative answer you calls quickly? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is service performed right every time? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is your bank or credit card statement correct every month? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how well does company react to unusual situations? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how well is a telephone operator able to respond to a customer’s questions? </li></ul></ul>2-
  11. 11. What Is Quality: Producer’s Perspective <ul><li>Quality of conformance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>making sure product or service is produced according to design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>if new tires do not conform to specifications, they wobble </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>if a hotel room is not clean when a guest checks in, hotel is not functioning according to specifications of its design </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-
  12. 12. Meaning of Quality 2-
  13. 13. What Is Quality: A Final Perspective <ul><li>Customer’s and producer’s perspectives depend on each other </li></ul><ul><li>Producer’s perspective: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>production process and COST </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Customer’s perspective: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fitness for use and PRICE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Customer’s view must dominate </li></ul>2-
  14. 14. Evolution of Quality Management: Quality Gurus <ul><li>Walter Shewhart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1920s, developed control charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced term “ quality assurance” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>W. Edwards Deming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed courses during WW II to teach statistical quality-control techniques to engineers and executives of military suppliers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After war, began teaching statistical quality control to Japanese companies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Joseph M. Juran </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Followed Deming to Japan in 1954 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on strategic quality planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality improvement achieved by focusing on projects to solve problems and securing breakthrough solutions </li></ul></ul>2-
  15. 15. Evolution of Quality Management: Quality Gurus <ul><li>Armand V. Feigenbaum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1951, introduced concepts of total quality control and continuous quality improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Philip Crosby </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1979, emphasized that costs of poor quality far outweigh cost of preventing poor quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1984, defined absolutes of quality management—conformance to requirements, prevention, and “zero defects” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kaoru Ishikawa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoted use of quality circles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed “fishbone” diagram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasized importance of internal customer </li></ul></ul>2-
  16. 16. Deming’s 14 Points 2- <ul><li>Create constancy of purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt philosophy of prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Cease mass inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Select a few suppliers based on quality </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly improve system and workers </li></ul>
  17. 17. Deming’s 14 Points <ul><li>Institute worker training </li></ul><ul><li>Instill leadership among supervisors </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate fear among employees </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate barriers between departments </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate slogans </li></ul>2-
  18. 18. Deming’s 14 Points <ul><li>Eliminate numerical quotas </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance worker pride </li></ul><ul><li>Institute vigorous training and education programs </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a commitment from top management to implement above 13 points </li></ul>2-
  19. 19. Deming Wheel: PDCA Cycle 2-
  20. 20. Quality Tools <ul><li>Process Flow Chart </li></ul><ul><li>Cause-and-Effect Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Check Sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Pareto Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Histogram </li></ul><ul><li>Scatter Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical Process </li></ul><ul><li>Control Chart </li></ul>2-
  21. 21. Flow Chart <ul><li>A diagram of the steps in a process </li></ul><ul><li>Helps focus on location of problem in a process </li></ul>2-
  22. 22. Cause-and-Effect Diagram <ul><li>Cause-and-effect diagram (“fishbone” diagram) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chart showing different categories of problem causes </li></ul></ul>2-
  23. 23. Cause-and-Effect Matrix <ul><li>Cause-and-effect matrix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>grid used to prioritize causes of quality problems </li></ul></ul>2-
  24. 24. Check Sheets and Histograms <ul><li>Tally number of defects from a list of causes </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency diagram of data for quality problem </li></ul>2-
  25. 25. Pareto Analysis <ul><li>Pareto analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most quality problems result from a few causes </li></ul></ul>2-
  26. 26. Pareto Chart 2-
  27. 27. Scatter Diagram <ul><li>Graph showing relationship between 2 variables in a process </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies pattern that may cause a quality problem </li></ul>2-
  28. 28. Control Chart <ul><li>A chart with statistical upper and lower limits </li></ul><ul><li>If sample statistics remain between these limits we assume the process is in control </li></ul>Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-
  29. 29. TQM and QMS <ul><li>Total Quality Management (TQM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>customer-oriented, leadership, strategic planning, employee responsibility, continuous improvement, cooperation, statistical methods, and training and education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quality Management System (QMS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>system to achieve customer satisfaction that complements other company systems </li></ul></ul>2-
  30. 30. Focus of Quality Management— Customers <ul><li>TQM and QMSs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>serve to achieve customer satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Satisfied customers are less likely to switch to a competitor </li></ul><ul><li>It costs 5-6 times more to attract new customers as to keep an existing one </li></ul><ul><li>94-96% of dissatisfied customers don’t complain </li></ul><ul><li>Small increases in customer retention mean large increases in profits </li></ul>2-
  31. 31. Quality Management in the Supply Chain <ul><li>Companies need support of their suppliers to satisfy their customers </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the number of suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Partnering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a relationship between a company and its supplier based on mutual quality standards </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-
  32. 32. Measuring Customer Satisfaction <ul><li>An important component of any QMS </li></ul><ul><li>Use customer surveys to hear “Voice of the Customer” </li></ul><ul><li>American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) </li></ul>2-
  33. 33. Role of Employees in Quality Improvement <ul><li>Participative problem solving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>employees involved in quality-management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>every employee has undergone extensive training to provide quality service to Disney’s guests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kaizen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>involves everyone in process of continuous improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>employees determining solutions to their own problems </li></ul></ul>2-
  34. 34. Quality Circles <ul><li>Voluntary group of workers and supervisors from same area who address quality problems </li></ul>2- Presentation Implementation Monitoring Solution Problem results Problem Analysis Cause and effect Data collection and analysis Problem Identification List alternatives Consensus Brainstorming Training Group processes Data collection Problem analysis Organization 8-10 members Same area Supervisor/moderator
  35. 35. Process (Quality) Improvement Teams <ul><li>Focus attention on business processes rather than separate company functions </li></ul><ul><li>Includes members from the interrelated departments which make up a process </li></ul><ul><li>Important to understand the process the team is addressing </li></ul><ul><li>Process flowcharts are key tools </li></ul>2-
  36. 36. Quality in Services <ul><li>Service defects are not always easy to measure because service output is not usually a tangible item </li></ul><ul><li>Services tend to be labor intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Services and manufacturing companies have similar inputs but different processes and outputs </li></ul>2-
  37. 37. Quality Attributes in Services <ul><li>Principles of TQM apply equally well to services and manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Timeliness is an important dimension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how quickly a service is provided </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benchmark </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ best” level of quality achievement in one company that other companies seek to achieve </li></ul></ul>2-
  38. 38. Six Sigma <ul><li>A process for developing and delivering virtually perfect products and services </li></ul><ul><li>Six Sigma is a measure of how much a process deviates from perfection </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: 3.4 defects per million opportunities (DPMO) </li></ul>2-
  39. 39. Six Sigma Process <ul><li>A lign </li></ul><ul><ul><li>executives create balanced scorecard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobilize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>project teams formed and empowered to act </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accelerate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>black and green belts execute project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Govern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>monitor and review projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Champion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an executive responsible for project success </li></ul></ul>2-
  40. 40. Breakthrough Strategy: DMAIC <ul><li>Define </li></ul><ul><ul><li>problem is defined </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>process measured, data collected </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analyze </li></ul><ul><ul><li>data analysis to find cause of problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>develop solutions to problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ensure improvement is continued </li></ul></ul>2-
  41. 41. Six Sigma Process 2- 3.4 DPMO 67,000 DPMO cost = 25% of sales DEFINE CONTROL IMPROVE ANALYZE MEASURE
  42. 42. Black Belts and Green Belts <ul><li>Black Belt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>project leader </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Master Black Belt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a teacher and mentor for Black Belts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Green Belts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>project team members </li></ul></ul>2-
  43. 43. Six Sigma Tools (1-3) <ul><li>Quality Function Deployment (QFD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>capture the “voice of the customer” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cause & Effect Matrix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identify and prioritize causes of a problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Failure Modes and Affects Analysis (FMEA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>analyze potential problems before they occur </li></ul></ul>2-
  44. 44. Six Sigma Tools (4-6) <ul><li>t-Test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>test for differences between groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statistical Process Control (SPC) Chart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>monitor a process over time for variations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design of Experiments (DOE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>determining relationships between factors affecting inputs and outputs of a process </li></ul></ul>2-
  45. 45. Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) <ul><li>A systematic approach to designing products and processes that will achieve Six Sigma </li></ul><ul><li>Uses same basic approach as breakthrough strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Employs the strategy up front in the design and development phases </li></ul><ul><li>A more effective and less expensive way to achieve Six Sigma </li></ul>2-
  46. 46. Lean Six Sigma <ul><li>Integrate Six Sigma and “lean systems” (Ch 16) </li></ul><ul><li>Lean seeks to optimize process flows </li></ul><ul><li>Lean extends earlier efforts in efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Lean process improvement steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>determine what creates value for customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identify “value stream” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>remove waste in the value stream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make process responsive to customer needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>continually repeat attempts to remove waste </li></ul></ul>2-
  47. 47. Lean Six Sigma <ul><li>Six Sigma and Lean seek </li></ul><ul><ul><li>process improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased value to customers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They approach the goals in different, complementary ways </li></ul>2-
  48. 48. Profitability <ul><li>The typical criterion for selecting Six Sigma projects </li></ul><ul><li>One of the factors distinguishing Six Sigma from TQM </li></ul><ul><li>“ Quality is not only free, it is an honest-to-everything profit maker” </li></ul><ul><li>Quality improvements reduce costs of poor quality </li></ul>2-
  49. 49. Cost Impact of Six Sigma <ul><li>Medtek Company implements Six Sigma to reduce defects from 10% to 0 %. Then spend $120,000 for more change. </li></ul><ul><li>After Six </li></ul><ul><li>Original After Changes Sigma Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Sales $1,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Variable cost 600,000 540,054 540,054 </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed cost 350,000 350,000 360,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Profit 50,000 109,946 99,946 </li></ul><ul><li>Doubled 33.3% return </li></ul><ul><li>Return on 120,000 = 100*(49,946-10,000)/120,000 = 33.3% </li></ul>2-
  50. 50. Cost of Quality <ul><li>Cost of Achieving Good Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>costs incurred during product design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appraisal costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>costs of measuring, testing, and analyzing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost of Poor Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal failure costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>include scrap, rework, process failure, downtime, and price reductions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External failure costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>include complaints, returns, warranty claims, liability, and lost sales </li></ul></ul></ul>2-
  51. 51. Prevention Costs <ul><li>Quality planning costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>costs of developing and implementing quality management program </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Product-design costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>costs of designing products with quality characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>costs expended to make sure productive process conforms to quality specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>costs of developing and putting on quality training programs for employees and management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>costs of acquiring and maintaining data related to quality, and development and analysis of reports on quality performance </li></ul></ul>2-
  52. 52. Appraisal Costs <ul><li>Inspection and testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>costs of testing and inspecting materials, parts, and product at various stages and at end of process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Test equipment costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>costs of maintaining equipment used in testing quality characteristics of products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operator costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>costs of time spent by operators to gather data for testing product quality, to make equipment adjustments to maintain quality, and to stop work to assess quality </li></ul></ul>2-
  53. 53. Internal Failure Costs <ul><li>Scrap costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>costs of poor-quality products that must be discarded, including labor, material, and indirect costs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rework costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>costs of fixing defective products to conform to quality specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process failure costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>costs of determining why production process is producing poor-quality products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process downtime costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>costs of shutting down productive process to fix problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Price-downgrading costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>costs of discounting poor-quality products—that is, selling products as “seconds” </li></ul></ul>2-
  54. 54. External Failure Costs <ul><li>Customer complaint costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>costs of investigating and satisfactorily responding to a customer complaint resulting from a poor-quality product </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Product return costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>costs of handling and replacing poor-quality products returned by customer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Warranty claims costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>costs of complying with product warranties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Product liability costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>litigation costs resulting from product liability and customer injury </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lost sales costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>costs incurred because customers are dissatisfied with poor-quality products and do not make additional purchases </li></ul></ul>2-
  55. 55. Measuring and Reporting Quality Costs <ul><li>Index numbers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ratios that measure quality costs against a base value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>labor index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ratio of quality cost to labor hours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cost index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ratio of quality cost to manufacturing cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sales index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ratio of quality cost to sales </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>production index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ratio of quality cost to units of final product </li></ul></ul></ul>2-
  56. 56. Cost of Quality 2- <ul><li>Year </li></ul><ul><li>2006 2007 2008 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention 27,000 41,500 74,600 112,300 </li></ul><ul><li>Appraisal 155,000 122,500 113,400 107,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Internal failure 386,400 469,200 347,800 219,100 </li></ul><ul><li>External failure 242,000 196,000 103,500 106,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Total 810,400 829,200 639,300 544,400 </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Sales 4,360,000 4,450,000 5,050,000 5,190,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing costs 1,760,000 1,810,000 1,880,000 1,890,000 </li></ul>
  57. 57. Cost of Quality <ul><li>Quality index = total quality costs/base * 100 </li></ul><ul><li>2006 quality cost per sale </li></ul><ul><li>810,400 * 100 / 4,360,000 = 18.58 </li></ul>2- Quality Quality Manufacturing Year Sales Index Cost Index 2006 18.58 46.04 2007 18.63 45.18 2008 12.66 34.00 2009 10.49 28.80
  58. 58. Quality–Cost Relationship <ul><li>Cost of quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>difference between price of nonconformance and conformance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cost of doing things wrong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20 to 35% of revenues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cost of doing things right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 to 4% of revenues </li></ul></ul></ul>2-
  59. 59. Effect of Quality Management on Productivity <ul><li>Productivity = output / input </li></ul><ul><li>Quality impact on productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fewer defects increase output, and quality improvement reduces inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yield </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a measure of productivity </li></ul></ul>2-
  60. 60. Measuring Product Yield and Productivity 2- Yield=(total input)(% good units) + (total input)(1-%good units)(% reworked) or Y=(I)(%G)+(I)(1-%G)(%R) where I = initial quantity started in production %G = percentage of good units produced %R = percentage of defective units that are successfully reworked
  61. 61. Computing Product Yield <ul><li>Motor manufacturer </li></ul><ul><li>Starts a batch of 100 motors. </li></ul><ul><li>80 % are good when produced </li></ul><ul><li>50 % of the defective motors can be reworked </li></ul>2- Y =(I)(%G)+(I)(1-%G)(%R) = 100(.80) + 100(1-.80)(.50) = 90 motors Increase quality to 90% good Y =100(.90) + 100(1-.90)(.50) = 95 motors
  62. 62. Computing Product Cost per Unit 2- Product Cost where: K d = direct manufacturing cost per unit I = input K r = rework cost per unit R = reworked units Y = yield
  63. 63. Cost per Unit <ul><li>Direct cost = $30 Rework cost = $12 </li></ul><ul><li>80% good 50% can be reworked </li></ul>2- Increase quality to 90% good = $30*100 + $12*10 90 motors = $34.67/motor = $30*100 + $12*5 95 motors = $32.21/motor
  64. 64. Computing Product Yield for Multistage Processes 2- Y = ( I )(% g 1 )(% g 2 ) … (% g n ) where: I = input of items to the production process that will result in finished products g i = good-quality, work-in-process products at stage i
  65. 65. Multistage Yield <ul><ul><li>Average Percentage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage Good Quality </li></ul><ul><li>1 0.93 </li></ul><ul><li>2 0.95 </li></ul><ul><li>3 0.97 </li></ul><ul><li>4 0.92 </li></ul>2- = 100 * .93 * .95 * .97 * .92 = 78.8 motors Y = ( I )(% g 1 )(% g 2 ) … (% g n )
  66. 66. Initial Batch Size For 100 Motors <ul><li>I = </li></ul>2- Y (% g 1 )(% g 2 ) … (% g n ) = = 126.88  127 100 100 * .93 * .95 * .97 * .92
  67. 67. Quality–Productivity Ratio <ul><li>QPR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>productivity index that includes productivity and quality costs </li></ul></ul>2- QPR = (good-quality units) (input) (processing cost) + (reworked units) (rework cost) (100)
  68. 68. Quality Productivity Ratio 2- <ul><li>Direct cost = $30 Rework cost = $12 </li></ul><ul><li>80% good 50% can be reworked </li></ul><ul><li>Initial batch size = 100 </li></ul>QPR = 80 + 10 100 * $30 + 10 * $12 (100) = 2.89 QPR = 160 + 20 200 * $30 + 20 * $12 (100) = 2.89 – NO CHANGE Base Case Case 1: Increase I to 200
  69. 69. Quality Productivity Ratio 2- Case 2: Reduce direct cost to $26 and rework cost to $10 QPR = 80 + 10 100 * $26 + 10 * $10 (100) = 3.33 QPR = 95 + 2.5 100 * $30 + 2.5 * $12 (100) = 3.22 Case 3: Increase %G to 95% QPR = 95 + 2.5 100 * $26 + 2.5 * $10 (100) = 3.71 Case 4: Decrease costs and increase %G
  70. 70. Malcolm Baldrige Award <ul><li>Created in 1987 to stimulate growth of quality management in United States </li></ul><ul><li>Categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information and analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resource focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer and market focus </li></ul></ul>2-
  71. 71. Other Awards for Quality <ul><li>National individual awards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Armand V. Feigenbaum Medal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deming Medal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E. Jack Lancaster Medal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edwards Medal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shewhart Medal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ishikawa Medal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International awards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European Quality Award </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canadian Quality Award </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australian Business Excellence Award </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deming Prize from Japan </li></ul></ul>2-
  72. 72. ISO 9000 <ul><li>Procedures and policies for international quality certification </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 9000:2008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality Management Systems—Fundamentals and Vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>defines fundamental terms and definitions used in ISO 9000 family </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ISO 9001:2008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality Management Systems—Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>standard to assess ability to achieve customer satisfaction </li></ul></ul>2-
  73. 73. ISO 9000 <ul><li>ISO 9004:2008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality Management Systems—Guidelines for Performance Improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>guidance to a company for continual improvement of its quality-management system </li></ul></ul>2-
  74. 74. ISO 9000 Certification, Implications, and Registrars <ul><li>ISO 9001:2008—only standard that carries third-party certification </li></ul><ul><li>Many overseas companies will not do business with a supplier unless it has ISO 9000 certification </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 9000 accreditation </li></ul><ul><li>ISO registrars </li></ul>2-

×