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Consumer Behavior
Practice Questions and MC
         Questions
 (Part One: Chapters 1-7)

                        1-1
Note!!
• It is important to practice some of the
  questions at the back of the text as well as
  attempt some Multiple-Choice Questions
• The answers to the selected practice essay
  questions here do NOT represent a “model
  answer” and you are strongly advised to draft
  your own approach and give your own local
  examples
• The MCQ do not have answers- practice
  these yourself and compare with your
  classmates
                                             1-2
Review and discussion
      questions
    Chapter One
Consumer Behavior and
  Marketing Strategy


                        1-3
Review Questions


7.        How should marketing managers view the consumer, and how
will this view of the consumer help them to understand consumer
purchasing behaviour?
          The consumer should be viewed as a problem solver—a
decision-making unit that takes in information, processes it in the light of
an existing situation, and takes the action that will, it is hoped, achieve
satisfaction and enhance lifestyle. Managers can thus see that a purchase
is the means consumers have of solving (or trying to solve) many
problems, both actual and potential.

10.     How relevant is the study of the consumer decision-making
process?
        As consumers make purchase decisions to enhance their present
or desired lifestyles, managers interested in influencing those consumers
must have a thorough understanding of this decision-making process.



                                                                        1-4
Discussion Questions
 1.   Does the Internet present a particular challenge to marketers?
      Why or why not?

      The Internet represents a major shift in consumer behaviour.
      Recent statistics show that an increasing number of Australian
      consumers use the Internet to purchase products such as
      Christmas gifts. While some categories of products are more
      readily traded over the Internet, it can also affect the way
      marketing is undertaken in the firm. For example, segmentation
      may be less vital in that consumers volunteer to visit the site.
      Price may be customised. Promotion can involve only
      information that is needed. Hence, the Internet provides a new
      context in which to aim to deliver satisfaction. The principle is
      the same but the method is different.




                                                                       1-5
2.   Is it possible to evaluate the ‘total’ or non-verbal meaning of an
     advertisement? If so, how should advertising experts proceed?

     With a variety of market research techniques (see Appendix A), it
     is possible to determine the non-verbal meaning of an
     advertisement. For example, a cigarette advertisement that shows
     young, healthy, attractive people having fun in a beach setting
     where the key participants are smoking provides a variety of non-
     verbal cues that contribute to the total meaning of the
     advertisement.
     Market researchers could determine the exact perceptions and
     meaning of the advertisement by creating a series of focus
     groups. Some groups could be smokers and others non-smokers.
     Other differentiations could be between teenagers, young adults,
     middle-aged adults and senior citizens. Projective techniques
     could also be used to uncover the total meaning of an
     advertisement.
                                                                          1-6
3.   Of what use to practising marketing managers are models such as
     the consumer behaviour model?

     Even though the model does not allow for prediction, it provides
     a valuable understanding of how all the aspects of consumer
     behaviour fit together. The practising marketing manager needs
     to be aware of the interrelationships of the concepts of consumer
     behaviour in order to develop effective marketing strategy.




                                                                     1-7
Multiple-Choice Questions




                            1-8
An understanding of consumer behaviour includes all of the following variables
except:
A. amount purchased
B. consumers' values
C. economic situations
D. consumers' perceptions
E. how purchases are consumed

Consumer behaviour theory provides the manager with:
A. more problems than it solves
B. concrete solutions to most marketing problems
C. the proper questions to ask in most market decision situations
D. solutions to problems
E. none of the given answers

Customer value is:
A. derived from the price of the product
B. the difference between all of the benefits derived from the total product and all of
the costs of acquiring those products
C. the cost to the consumer of altering their behaviour to buy a product
D. the difference between the perceived financial and social costs in obtaining the
product and the financial and social gain in owning the product
E. none of the given answers
                                                                                          1-9
The marketing manager should view the consumer as:
A. a decision-making unit
B. a problem solver
C. being primarily concerned with economic factors
D. automatically responding in set ways to marketing stimuli
E. A and B only

Which of the following is not treated as a major influence on consumer lifestyle:
A. culture
B. reference groups
C. social status
D. motives
E. all of the given answers are major influences

Mary needs a computer for her studies. She has some computer knowledge from her
previous purchase 5 years ago, but feels that she needs to read more computer
magazines, consult several computer shops, and ask for advice from her IT friends
before she makes a purchase. What kind of decision-making is Mary experiencing:
A. limited
B. extended
C. complex
D. complicated
E. behavioural
                                                                                    1-10
Culture provides us with:
A. sophisticated ways of behaving
B. our expected norms of behaviour
C. our basic physiological motives
D. all of the given answers
E. none of the given answers

Groups serve as a ____________ and as a ___________ for the individual:
A. social stimulant, social determinant
B. segmentation point, target market
C. source of encouragement, interpreter of information
D. reference point, source of information
E. none of the given answers

Which of the following often leads to lifestyle changes:
A. the results of past consumption decisions
B. time-related events such as ageing
C. external events such as a job change
D. all of the given answers
E. none of the given answers


                                                                          1-11
Review and discussion
      questions
    Chapter Two:
Situational Influences


                         2-12
Review Questions
3.   What are the four types of situations that matter most to marketers?
     Give an example for each.

The situation in which consumers receive information has an impact on
    their behaviour. We all know that the degree to which we see and
    listen to marketing communications is determined by whether we are
    alone or in a group, in a good mood or a bad one, in a hurry or not,
    and so on. Therefore, in terms of the communication situation,
    marketing managers have to answer questions such as: is it better to
    advertise on a happy or sad television program? A calm or exciting
    program?
The purchase situation can also affect product selection. For example,
    mothers shopping with children are more likely to be influenced by
    the product preferences of their children than when they are
    shopping on their own. Also, if a consumer has a shortage of time
    (e.g. a student trying to make a purchase between classes), this can
    affect the store chosen, the number of brands considered and the
    price the consumer is willing to pay

                                                                      2-13
The usage situation is the way in which the product will be
used/consumed. For example, a consumer may serve a different
type of wine to dinner guests than they would use personally in
a non-social situation .A family may choose a different holiday
depending on which family members are going.

Consumers must frequently dispose of products and/or product
packages after or before the product is used. Decisions made by
consumers regarding the disposal situation can create significant
social problems, as well as marketing opportunities.



                                                                    2-14
4.   What are the five main categories of situational influences?
     Give an example for each.

Physical surroundings include geographical and institutional
    location, décor, sounds, aromas, lighting, weather, and visible
    configurations of merchandise or other material surrounding
    the stimulus object.
Social surroundings provide additional depth to a description of a
    situation. Examples are other people present, their
    characteristics, their apparent roles and the interpersonal
    interactions that are occurring.
Temporal perspective may be specified in units ranging from time
    of day to season of the year. Time may also be measured
    relative to some past or future event for the situational
    participant. This allows conceptions such as time constraints
    imposed by prior commitments.




                                                                      2-15
Task definition includes an intent or requirement to select,
shop for or obtain information about a general or specific
product. In addition, tasks may reflect different buyer and
user roles anticipated by the individual. For instance, a person
shopping for a small appliance as a wedding gift for a friend
is in a different situation than when shopping for a small
appliance for personal use.

Antecedent states are momentary moods (e.g. anxiety,
pleasantness, hostility or excitation) or momentary conditions
(e.g. cash on hand, fatigue, illness) rather than long-term
individual traits.




                                                                   2-16
5.   How do moods influence behaviour?

Moods are transient feeling states that are generally not tied to a
   specific event or object. They tend to be less intense than
   emotions and may operate without the individual’s awareness.
   While moods may affect all aspects of a person’s behaviour, they
   generally do not completely interrupt ongoing behaviour as an
   emotion might. Individuals use such terms as ‘happy’, ‘cheerful’,
   ‘peaceful’, ‘sad’, ‘blue’ and ‘depressed’ to describe their moods.

Moods both affect and are affected by the consumption process. For
   example, television program content can influence mood and
   arousal level, which, in turn, influences information-processing
   activities. Moods also influence decision processes and the
   purchase and consumption of various products. For example, one
   study found that positive moods were associated with increased
   browsing and ‘impulse’ purchasing. Negative moods also
   increased impulse purchasing in some consumers.

                                                                        2-17
8.   How does crowding affect shopping behaviour?

As shown in Figure 2.4 (p. 44) an increased physical density
    of the store creates perceptions of confinement and
    crowding. These perceptions in turn cause shoppers to
    modify their shopping strategies in that they reduce the
    time spent shopping, buy fewer items and alter their
    use of in-store information. The net outcome of this
    physical situation is dissatisfaction with the store, an
    unpleasant shopping experience and reduced
    confidence in the shopping that has taken place.




                                                               2-18
Discussion Questions
      1.   Discuss the potential importance of each situational influence if you are developing a
           marketing strategy to promote the purchase of:
           (a) a haircut
           (b) Hungry Jack’s
           (c) an MP3 player
           (d) tofu.



                                        Situational influencer
           Products                Physical        Social        Temporal   Task     Antecedent
           Haircut                      3           2               1         3             2
           Hungry Jack’s                1           3               1         3             2
           MP3                          1           2               3         2             3
           Tofu                         1           3               3         3             1




           1 = major influence likely


           2 = slight influence possible


           3 = less, or no, influence likely

                                                                                                    2-19
2.   What product categories seem most susceptible to situational influences? Why?

     As a general category, service-type products (restaurants, theatres and so forth) seem
     particularly susceptible to situational influences that can be controlled. This is particularly
     true because these products use physical surroundings very much as a ‘part’ of the product.
     Products that are convenience goods (low-priced, frequently purchased, necessities etc.), such
     as toothpaste, are probably less susceptible to situational influence as a class. (Specific brand
     choice, however, may not be.)
     In contrast, specialty and shopping goods are probably more likely to be influenced by the
     situation. Consumers of these products would seem to exercise more choice about whether or
     not to purchase. Habit may be less important, and the purchase process itself may be more
     important. These factors all tend to increase situational influence.




                                                                                                 2-20
3.   In those instances where marketers have little control over the consumption situation, why is
     it important that they understand how the situation relates to the consumption of their
     product?

     Point out to students that, even when the situation itself can’t be controlled, other more
     controllable factors can be changed to lessen (or enhance) the impact of the situation itself.
     This would be similar to a marketer being faced with a government regulation that can’t be
     changed, but that must be accounted for in the marketing strategy.

4.   How would you change the situational classification scheme presented in this chapter?

     There are many other approaches that could be taken, and this should be pointed out to
     students. Classification schemes based on events (e.g. being out for lunch), attitudes (e.g.
     attitude towards cooking after a tough day) and lifestyles may lead to different insights into
     the underlying influence of a use situation. Other factors could also be considered, such as
     perceived risk, satisfaction and the need to conform. These and other influences could be
     discussed in light of how they create use situations that influence purchase behaviour.



                                                                                                      2-21
Multiple-Choice Questions




                            2-22
The choice of a fast food restaurant when a friend comes to visit, you are in the middle of
an interesting chat, and you discover it is time for lunch is influenced by:
A. antecedent state
B. social surroundings
C. temporal perspective
D. task definition
E. physical surroundings

The usage situation deals with:
A. how the product is purchased
B. who influences the product purchased
C. how we communicate to consumers about consumption
D. how and when the product is consumed
E: all of the given answers

When a consumer is so loyal to a particular brand that it is the only brand purchased, the
marketer:
A. should look closely at the communications situation
B. must consider the usage situation
C. can redefine the consumer's task definition through advertising
D. can ignore the situational influences
E. none of the given answers



                                                                                              2-23
The five classes of situational influences are:
A. physical surroundings, people, task definition, lighting and sound
B. people, task definition, social surroundings, temporal factors and mood
C. physical surroundings, social surroundings, temporal perspective, task definition and
mood
D. people, task definition, mood, temporal factors and antecedent states
E. physical surroundings, social surroundings, temporal perspective, task definition and
antecedent states

Store atmosphere is:
A. the sum of all physical features of a retail environment
B. shown to affect consumers’ judgment of store quality
C. shown to affect consumers’ judgment of store image
D. known to influence shoppers’ moods
E. all of the given answers

A group that stays longer in a restaurant because of the music has been influenced by the
___________________ characteristic of the situation:
A. antecedent state
B. physical surroundings
C. temporal perspective
D. social surroundings
E. none of the given answers
Answer: B

                                                                                           2-24
Individuals shopping at a ‘convenience’ store rather than a store regularly shopped at
because they are in a hurry, are being influenced by the ___________________ characteristic of
the situation:
A. antecedent state
B. physical surrounding
C. temporal perspective
D. task definition
E. none of the given answers

A person who shops at a nicer store than normal because he/she is buying a gift rather
than a personal item is influenced by the _____________________ characteristic of the
situation:
A. antecedent state
B. social surroundings
C. temporal perspective
D. task definition
E. none of the given answers

An individual who decides to purchase food at a take-away food store rather than cook
when too tired has been influenced by the ____________________ characteristic of the
situation:
A. utilisation orientation
B. task definition
C. antecedent state
D. physical surroundings
E. none of the given answers                                                         2-25
Which of the following is not a social motive for shopping outside the home:
A. communicating with others with similar interests
B. meeting with one's friends
C. acquiring status and authority
D. meeting or being near other people
E. all of the given answers

Muffin Break positions itself as the ideal place for a friendly chat. This is a marketing effort
based on the ________________ characteristic of the situation:
A. temporal perspective
B. social surroundings
C. antecedent condition
D. physical surroundings
E. C and D only

When the marketer can neither control nor influence the physical situation:
A. advertising should be increased
B. product improvements should be made
C. the sales force should be increased
D. the various elements of the marketing mix should be altered to match the needs and
expectations of the target market
E. none of the given answers


                                                                                             2-26
The advantage of large shopping malls according to consumer behaviour theory is:
A. social experiences for consumers
B. safe and comfortable area for shopping
C. consumers are exposed to a wide range of information and products
D. plenty of parking
E. A,B and C

It usually takes 3 seconds to buy a can of soft drink but it can months to choose the
right car. This is an example of:
A. task definition
B. temporal perspective
C. mood
D. antecedent state
E. momentary condition




                                                                                        2-27
Review and discussion
      questions
    Chapter Three:
 Problem Recognition


                        3-28
Review Questions



1.   What does purchase involvement mean? How does it differ from product involvement?

     We define purchase involvement as the level of concern for, or interest in, the purchase
     process, once the purchase process has been triggered by the need to consider a particular
     purchase. Purchase involvement is not the same as product involvement. A person may be very
     involved with a brand and have a very low level of involvement with the purchase process
     because of brand loyalty.

     Or a person could have a rather low level of involvement with a product but have a high level
     of purchase involvement because of a desire to set an example for a child or impress a friend
     who is on the shopping trip (situational factors). There are also individual differences in
     general involvement level and in the involvement response to particular situations.




                                                                                                   3-29
3.   How do habitual, limited and extended decision making differ? How do the two types of
     habitual decision making differ?

     Habitual decision making, in effect, involves no decision per se. That is, a problem is
     recognised, an internal search (long-term memory) provides a single preferred solution (brand),
     that brand is purchased and an evaluation occurs only if the brand fails to perform as expected.

     Limited decision making covers the middle ground between habitual decision making and
     extended decision making. In its simplest form (lowest level of purchase involvement) it is
     very similar to habitual decision making.

     Extended decision making is the response to a very high level of purchase involvement. An
     extensive internal and external information search is followed by a complex evaluation of
     multiple alternatives. After the purchase, doubt as to its correctness is likely, and a thorough
     evaluation of the purchase takes place.




                                                                                                  3-30
6.   What are the main uncontrollable factors that influence the desired state?

     •   Culture/social class: These variables set broad boundaries on desired states. For example,
         in Australia and New Zealand cleanliness is a highly desired state.
     •   Change in reference groups: This can have a major effect on consumer lifestyle and, hence,
         the desired performance of products that are purchased. Joining a business firm following
         graduation from university requires adapting to a new reference group and, subsequently, a
         new lifestyle, which may demand a different style of dress and behaviour.
     •   Changes in household characteristics: The birth of a first child greatly alters one’s lifestyle
         and creates new problems, which need solutions.
     •   Changes, or expected changes, in financial status: Receiving, or expecting to receive, a
         relatively large sum of money may alter desire for the kind of car one drives, and lead to a
         large discrepancy between what is desired and what exists.
     •   Previous decisions: The purchase of a product (e.g. a new car) may trigger recognition of a
         need for insurance.

     •   Individual development: As we evolve through different stages of socialisation, our
         lifestyle changes. For example, the choice of holidays could be expected to be different for
         a 12-year-old, a 25-year-old, and a 65-year-old.
     •   Emotions: Sometimes consumers seek positive emotional experiences, and purchase goods
         and services to obtain such experiences.
     •   Motives: Maslow suggests that as lower-level motives are satisfied, high-level motives
         begin to dominate the desired state.
     •   Changing situations: The situation may influence problem recognition. For example, in hot
         weather people prefer cold drinks and in cold weather they prefer hot drinks.
                                                                                                           3-31
7.   What are the main uncontrollable factors that influence the existing state?

     •   Past decisions: These determine the individual’s set of problem solutions and resources.
         They provide the framework for the actual state.
     •   Normal depletion: Examples of normal depletion include a tyre wearing out, running out of
         cereal or the need to change the oil in a car.

     •   Product/brand performance: After purchasing a particular brand of shampoo, the consumer
         may find that its performance (actual state) is far below what is expected and desired in the
         performance of this shampoo. Thus, dissatisfaction with the shampoo would alter the
         consumer’s perceptions of the shampoo performance (actual state).
     •   Individual development: The normal process of individual development can also influence
         our perception of an actual state. For example, a six-year-old has a different perception of
         the toys included in a cereal box than a twelve-year-old. As a result, the six-year-old is
         more likely to be satisfied with the toy (the actual state) than the twelve-year-old.
     •   Governmental and consumer groups: These groups may provide information to the public
         that would alter the public’s perception of actual performance (state). Information on a
         car’s safety may alter perceptions of the actual state of certain cars.
     •   Product availability: The absence of particular products, lack of awareness of products or
         brands, or inability to afford certain products all affect the actual state. For example, the
         relative lack of sodium-free food products in Australia has a major impact on the actual
         state of health of many consumers.
     •   Situation: The presence of others, physical conditions and antecedent states are key
         elements of the actual state.
                                                                                                         3-32
9.   In what ways can marketers react to problem recognition? Give several examples.

     •   Modify the marketing mix (product, price, place and promotion) to resolve a particular
         problem and improve on the existing level of performance (actual state).
     •   In the case of latent problem recognition, the marketer may stimulate problem recognition
         and direct search, evaluation and purchase of a product that resolves the problem.

     •   For problem recognition for a problem of little importance, the marketer may bring greater
         attention to this problem (increase its perceived importance) while indicating a solution to
         this problem.
     •   In some instances a marketer may try to reduce either the discrepancy that is the cause of
         the problem recognition and/or the importance attached to it, thereby reducing the intensity
         of the problem.




                                                                                                 3-33
Discussion Questions


2.   Which products do you think are generally purchased or used for emotional
     reasons? How would the decision process differ for an emotion-driven
     purchase compared with a more functional purchase?

     Products such as perfume, fancy lingerie, evening dresses, ornate jewellery,
     sports cars etc. are often purchased or used to elicit a desired emotion.
     The decision process would differ in several ways. Importance of the
     product-use situation would be greater, and, hence, consumers would be
     more sensitive to potential alternatives that may enhance emotional
     experiences. Information search may be more extensive. In general, these
     would be very high-involvement purchases, and consumers would be more
     likely to recognise problems more quickly, and to search for better
     solutions more often.




                                                                              3-34
Multiple-Choice Questions




                            3-35
Problem recognition involves:
A. choosing between two or more potentially satisfactory alternatives
B. a discrepancy between a situational variable and a psychological variable
C. determining which of two or more alternative goals to pursue
D. approach-approach conflict
E. none of the given answers
Answer: E
Difficulty: High

A problem of which the consumer is not aware is:
A. a situational problem
B. a potential problem
C. a manifest problem
D. an actual problem
E. none of the given answers

The uncontrollable factors that affect the desired state include all of the
following except:
A. changing family characteristics
B. previous decisions
C. individual development
D. reference groups
E. all of the given answer
                                                                               3-36
The uncontrollable factors that affect the actual state include all of the following
except:
A. the situation
B. dissatisfaction with the existing solution
C. changing financial expectations
D. efforts of consumer groups
E. all of the given answers

The existing or actual state is affected by:
A. inability to afford certain products
B. absence of particular products
C. lack of awareness of products or brands
D. A and C only
E. A, B and C

An approach to determining the problems consumers face by analysing the
purchase and/or use of a particular product or brand is known as:
A. problem analysis
B. activity analysis
C. situation analysis
D. latent problem analysis
E. none of the given answers
                                                                                 3-37
Selective problem recognition involves:
A. a discrepancy which any brand within a product category can reduce
B. a discrepancy which a variety of brands within a product category can reduce
C. recognition of a problem for which there is no solution
D. manifest problem recognition
E. none of the given answers

Attempts by firms to ‘break into’ habitual or limited decision making when their
brand is not currently used generally focus on:
A. the desired state
B. the discrepancy between the existing and desired states
C the existing state
D. the current situation
E. none of the given answers

The level of a person’s desire to resolve a particular problem depends on 2
factors:
A. the relative importance of the problem and the magnitude of the discrepancy
between the desired state and the actual state
B. information search and alternative evaluation
C. environmental and situational factors
D. mood and motivation
E. the involvement level of the product and previous decisions made
                                                                              3-38
Suppressing problem recognition is done because:
A. some companies want their consumers to have a low level of involvement for
their product
B. companies want consumers to be influenced primarily by packaging, price and
other marketing variables at the point of purchase
C. government regulation of certain products
D. consumer movements limit promotion of some products
E. A and B

Timing problem recognition can sometimes be difficult for a marketer to
influence because:
A. consumers vary in how long they decide they may have an actual problem
B. some consumers aren’t influenced by marketing at all
C. some consumer needs can arise suddenly
D. problem recognition is influenced by many factors
E. B and C




                                                                            3-39
Review and discussion
 questions (selected)
    Chapter Four:
 Information Search


                        4-40
Review Questions

1.    When does information search occur? What is the difference between internal and external
      information search?

      Information search occurs in response to a recognised problem that is deemed important
      enough to resolve. Because an internal information search is much easier, less time consuming
      and less expensive than external search, internal search generally occurs first. This involves
      bringing relevant information from what is retained in long-term memory into current memory.
      If no satisfactory solution can be obtained, then an external information search would follow if
      warranted by the nature of the problem and its importance.

2.    What are evaluative criteria and how do they relate to information search?

      Evaluative criteria are those characteristics that are important to the consumer in the evaluation
      and choice of alternatives. With regard to information search, evaluative criteria—in part—
      guide information search by outlining what information should be sought in order to resolve a
      particular problem.


                                                                                                     4-41
.   What roles do the evoked set, the inert set, and the inept set play in a consumer’s information
    search? Why are some brands in a consumer’s evoked set and others in the inert set or the inept
    set?

    Those brands that a consumer is aware of (i.e. those in his or her awareness set) can be
    classified as belonging to either an evoked, inert or inept set. Consumers’ evoked sets include
    brands that they would readily consume. Brands in their inert sets are brands they are aware of
    but indifferent towards, and not likely to consume as long as brands in their evoked set are
    available. Brands in their inept sets are brands they are aware of, but dislike so much that they
    would not consume them.
    Consumers will focus their information search on brands in their evoked sets. Marketers of
    brands in a target consumer’s inert set have to work hard to get the consumer to seek additional
    information that could affect the inclusion of the marketer’s brand in the consumer’s evoked
    set. Consumers will rarely seek information on brands classified as inept.




                                                                                                 4-42
4.   What are the primary sources of information available to consumers and what effect does each
     have on information search?

     The primary sources of information available to consumers are: personal sources, such as
     friends and family; independent sources, such as consumer groups, government agencies and
     non-partisan organisations; marketing sources, such as advertising, promotion, packaging and
     sales personnel; and experiential sources, such as direct product inspection or trial.
     Each source varies in its effect on different consumers but, in general, personal and experiential
     sources of information are perceived to be more credible; independent sources are perceived to
     be more factual; and marketing sources are perceived to be less objective yet more informative.




                                                                                                 4-43
6.   How do different market characteristics affect a consumer’s information search effort?

     •   Price range: The higher the price difference between brands, the greater the financial
         benefit of a search effort.
     •   Number of alternatives: The larger the number of alternative solutions (brands and
         products), the greater the search.
     •   Store distribution: The density of retail trade outlets affects the search effort. A lower
         density increases the cost of visiting a number of retail outlets and, hence, reduces the level
         of prepurchase information search. High store density lowers this cost and thus increases
         the likelihood of a search effort.
     •   Information availability: The more information available, the greater the search, unless the
         ready availability of information has already produced sufficient learning. Information
         availability is increased by advertising, point-of-purchase displays, sales personnel,
         package information, other experienced consumers and independent sources.




                                                                                                      4-44
7.   How do different consumer characteristics influence a consumer’s information search effort?

     •   Learning and experience: A satisfying experience, followed by repeat purchase of a
         particular brand of product, has the effect of reducing prepurchase information search.
     •   Personality and self-concept: Different self-images and personality traits (such as open-
         mindedness and self-confidence) can affect consumer information search. Those who see
         themselves as deliberate shoppers, for example, engage in greater search than shoppers
         who do not have this aspect of self-concept.
     •   Perceived risk: The greater the perceived risk related to a particular purchase (whether
         financial or psychological), the greater the motivation to make a satisfactory choice and,
         hence, the greater prepurchase search.
     •   Socio-economic: Using occupation, education and income as a basis for describing
         socioeconomic differences, information search has been found to be greater for those in
         higher socioeconomic classes (i.e. those with higher occupational status, more education
         and larger incomes) than those in lower socio-economic classes.
     •   Age and family life cycle: Age and stage of family life cycle are inversely related to
         information search. That is, younger consumers and those in the early stages of the family
         life cycle tend to exhibit greater pre-purchase information search than older consumers and
         those in later stages of the family life cycle.

                                                                                                       4-45
9.   How do situational characteristics influence a consumer’s information search effort?

     •   Time availability: The more time available for the purchase, the greater the search.
     •   Purchase for others: Gift purchases generally evoke more search effort than purchases for
         self.
     •   Pleasant surroundings: These may increase search within that store or shopping centre, but
         reduce total search effort.
     •   Social surroundings: May increase or decrease search, depending on the nature of the social
         situation.
     •   Physical/mental energy: Will increase search, compared to a situation of fatigue.




                                                                                                4-46
Discussion Questions




3.      Is it ever in the best interests of a marketer to encourage potential customers to carry out an
       extended pre-purchase search? Why or why not?

       Discussion of this question must focus on the relative position of the marketer. If the brand is in
       a position of strength—if the marketer’s brand is known—then the marketer may want to limit
       the search and direct it to his/her brand or product. However, if the firm’s brand is unknown,
       that firm’s strategy may be to encourage search, evaluation and comparison, since this activity
       could lead to a favourable evaluation and a greater probability of purchasing the lesser-known
       brand.




                                                                                                   4-47
8.   How can marketers encourage consumers to search for information about their goods and
     services by using the Internet?

     Marketers can provide details of their web addresses in their advertising and promotion and on
     packaging. Also, if there other sources (such as the Australian Consumers’ Association
     website, www.choice.com.au) that provide independent information about different brands
     through their surveys, these could also be provided to assist consumers to evaluate and
     compare different brands in a product category.
     Also, companies might encourage consumers to visit some of the discussion forums or chat
     groups related to particular product categories.




                                                                                             4-48
Multiple-Choice Questions




                            4-49
Internal information search:
A. almost never occurs
B. is most important in extended decisions
C. involves utilising information sources other than the individual's memory
D. is not sufficient to solve consumer problems
E. none of the given answers

A consumer notices a new product in a store because of a point-of-purchase
display, and based on the information given in the display purchases the product.
This is an example of:
A. habitual decision making
B. limited decision making
C. extended decision making
D. internal search
E. none of the given answers

External information can include all of the following except:
A. direct experiences with the product through inspection or trial
B. professional information provided in pamphlets, articles, and books
C. marketing-generated information
D. the opinions, attitudes and feelings of friends, neighbours and relatives
E. all of the given answers can be included in external search
                                                                               4-50
All of the brands that a consumer would consider for the solution of a particular
problem are known as the:
A. inept set
B. decision set
C. evoked set
D. inert set
E. none of the given answers

All of the brands that a consumer is aware of but is indifferent toward are known
as the:
A. inept set
B. so what set
C. evoked set
D. inert set
E. none of the given answers

The inert set is:
A. all those brands a consumer would consider for the solution of a problem
B. all those brands a consumer is aware of for the solution of a problem
C. all those brands a consumer would not consider for the solution of a problem
D. all those brands a consumer is aware of but is indifferent toward
E. none of the given answers
                                                                                4-51
The evoked set is:
A. all those brands a consumer would consider for the solution of a problem
B. all those brands a consumer is aware of for the solution of a problem
C. all those brands a consumer would not consider for the solution of a problem
D. all those brands a consumer is aware of but is indifferent toward
E. none of the given answers

Which of the following is NOT one of the primary sources of information
available to consumers:
A. personal sources
B. experiential sources
C. memory
D. independent sources
E. all of the given answers are primary sources of information

Consumers engage in external search when:
A. they perceive they can obtain a lower price
B. they perceive they can obtain a preferred style
C. the perceived cost of search is less than the perceived value of the search
D. the required information is available
E. none of the given answers

                                                                                 4-52
A brand in a product category characterised by extended decisions that is in the
evoked set requires a(n) ________________ strategy:
A. maintenance
B. disrupt
C. intercept
D. acceptance
E. none of the given answers

Consumer characteristics that are associated with a high level of external search
include all of the following except:
A. extensive experience with the product category
B. early stages of the household life cycle
C. a high level of perceived risk in the purchase
D. a relatively high education level
E. all of the given answers are associated with a high level of external search

A brand in a product category characterised by extended decisions that is not in
the evoked set requires a(n) ________________ strategy:
A. maintenance
B. disrupt
C. acceptance
D. preference
E. none of the given answers
                                                                               4-53
A brand in a product category characterised by limited purchase decisions
that is not in the target market's evoked set needs a(n) _______________________
strategy:
A. disrupt
B. intercept
C. acceptance
D. preference
E. none of the given answers

A brand in a product category characterised by limited purchase decisions
that is in the target market's evoked set needs a(n) _______________________
strategy:
A. disrupt
B. intercept
C. acceptance
D. preference
E. none of the given answers




                                                                                   4-54
A disrupt strategy:
A. is used by marketers when the brand they are promoting is not part of the
evoked set and the target market engages in habitual decision making and the
first task of this strategy is to disrupt the existing decision pattern
B. is marketing communications, such as comparative advertising, that is used
to disrupt the decision making behaviour of the consumer
C. is used in high involvement situations where the consumers may display
high brand loyalty to a product
D. is used in low involvement situations where consumers exhibit habitual
purchase behaviour

Capture strategy is:
A. marketing communications that are used to capture the consumer’s
attention
B. capturing the consumer’s attention by using different tactics in the
servicescape environment
C. used by marketers when the brand is in the target market’s evoked set and
consumers engage in limited decision making
D. used by marketers when the brand is in the target market’s inert set and
consumers engage in limited decision making


                                                                               4-55
An intercept strategy is used when:
A. an organisation in a shopping mall needs to intercept consumers who walk by a
store
B. the objective is to intercept the consumer during the search for information on
the brands in the evoked set
C. the objective is to intercept the consumer during the search for information on
the brands in the inert set
D. B and C

Preference strategy is used when:
A. the objective is to make the brand the preferred one in the target market,
placing it in the evoked set. This is especially used when the consumer undertakes
extended decision making
B. the objective is to make the brand the preferred one in the target market,
placing it in the inert set. This is especially used when the consumer undertakes
extended decision making
C. the objective is to make the brand the preferred one in the target market,
placing it in the evoked set. This is especially used when the consumer undertakes
limited decision making
D. the objective is to make the brand the preferred one in the target market,
mainly through the use of marketing communication techniques

                                                                               4-56
Review and discussion
       questions
     Chapter Five:
Evaluating and Selecting
      Alternatives



                           5-57
Review Questions


1.     Define the term ‘evaluative criteria’.

       Evaluative criteria are the various features a consumer looks for in response to a particular type
       of problem. Before purchasing a calculator, a consumer might be concerned with cost, size,
       power source, capabilities, display and warranty. These would be the evaluative criteria.
       Someone else could approach the same purchase with an entirely different set of evaluative
       criteria, such as brand, memory and warranty.

2.     How can a marketing manager determine which evaluative criteria consumers use?

       The marketing manager can utilise either direct or indirect methods. Direct methods would
       include asking consumers what information they use, or, in a focus-group setting, observing
       what consumers verbalise about products and their attributes. Indirect methods, such as
       projective techniques, allow a person to indicate what ‘someone else’ (probably that very
       person) might do. Multidimensional scaling is a useful indirect technique.



                                                                                                   5-58
.    What is sensory discrimination and what role does it play in the evaluation of products?

     Sensory discrimination refers to an individual’s ability to distinguish between similar stimuli
     presented to one sense mode. This plays a major role in the evaluation of products that may
     differ in characteristics. For example, one stereo may be technically superior in sound
     characteristics, but listening to both this stereo and one of lesser technical quality may not
     allow you to sense this difference.

6.   What is meant by a just-noticeable difference? How have marketers used this concept in
     marketing products?

     The just-noticeable difference is the minimum amount of variation that would have to take
     place in a given stimulus such that a difference could be detected.
     Marketers attempting to differentiate their brand of product must find a level of performance
     between their brand and competitors’ brands that surpasses the j.n.d. However, a marketer may
     want to change a product or price but not have consumers perceive any change, and, hence, not
     surpass the j.n.d.


                                                                                                       5-59
7.   What are surrogate indicators? How are they used in the consumer evaluation process?

     An attribute (evaluative criterion) used to stand for or indicate another attribute is a surrogate
     indicator. For many products it is difficult to assess quality; consumers may therefore use the
     price or image of the product as a basis for inferring the product’s quality.

8.   How have marketers used surrogate indicators in positioning various products?

     Marketers of clothing and alcoholic beverages use the price of these goods in product
     positioning because consumers often use the price of these goods as a surrogate indicator of
     quality. Hence, marketers of products that are difficult to differentiate on the basis of physical
     characteristics will use surrogate indicators like price and social status to imply quality.




                                                                                                    5-60
Discussion Questions

     4.      The table below represents, for several brands of motorbikes, a particular consumer’s
             evaluative criteria, ranking of criteria importance, acceptable level of performance and
             judgments of performance. Discuss the brand choice this consumer would make when using the
             lexicographic, compensatory and conjunctive decision rules.


                                                                                Alternative brands
                                           Minimum
           Evaluative      Criterion       acceptable       Honda        BMW        Vespa      Kawasaki   Triumph
            criterion     importance      performance
          Price               30                4              2           4           2             4       2


          Horsepower          15                3              4           2           5             5       4


          Weight               5                2              3           3           3             3       3


          Economy             35                3              4           4           3             2       4


          Colour              10                3              4           4           3             2       5
          selection
          Frame                5                2              4           2           3             3       3


             Note: 1 = very poor; 2 = poor; 3 = fair; 4 = good; 5 = very good

                                                                                                                    5-61
•   Using a lexicographic decision rule, this consumer would first focus on the most
    important evaluative criterion specified in the table, economy (a relative weight of 35),
    and find that Honda, BMW and Triumph all perform equally well.
•   A compensatory rule that weights each score by its importance would produce the
    following scores: Honda—335, BMW—355, Vespa—300, Kawasaki—315, Triumph—
    340. Therefore, BMW would be selected.
•   Using an elimination-by-aspects rule would mean that four brands meet the minimum
    standard on the most important criterion, economy (minimum acceptable = 3): Honda
    (4), BMW (4), Vespa (3), Triumph (4). Of these, only one meets the minimum standard
    on the second most important criterion, price (minimum acceptable = 4): BMW (4).
    BMW would be selected.
•   A conjunctive decision rule would produce no choice, as no brand meets all the
    minimum performance levels. Additional search, lower standards or a different rule
    would be required.




                                                                                            5-62
Multiple-Choice Questions




                            5-63
Evaluative criteria are:
A. the alternatives available to solve a problem
B. limited to the evoked set
C. limited to the inept set
D. the various features a consumer looks for in a product for solving a particular problem
E. none of the given answers

Indirect methods for determining which evaluative criteria are being used include:
A. projective techniques
B. focus groups
C. interviews
D. A and B only
E. none of the given answers

Which of the following is a common approach to determining consumers' judgments of
brand performance on specific evaluative criteria:
A. semantic differential scale
B. conjoint analysis
C. MARC
D. linear programming
E. none of the given answer



                                                                                         5-64
Which of the following is a useful approach for determining the relative importance
consumers assign to various evaluative criteria:
A. semantic differential scale
B. conjoint analysis
C. MARC
D. linear programming
E. none of the given answers

A just noticeable difference (j.n.d.) refers to:
A. the relative difference in sensitivity between various sense modes
B. the minimum amount that one item can differ from another with the difference still being
noticed
C. the difference in importance assigned to various evaluative criteria
D. minimum variation in evaluative criteria required for inclusion in a multi-dimensional
scaling solution
E. none of the given answers

The readily observable attribute of a product used to represent the performance level of a
less observable attribute is known as:
A. a surrogate indicator
B. a lexicographic attribute
C. a compensatory attribute
D. an interactive variable
E. none of the given answers
                                                                                        5-65
The use of price as a surrogate indicator appears to decline with:
A. increases in visible product differences
B. increases in prior product experience
C. availability of additional product information
D. all of the given answers
E. none of the given answers
Given the following minimum standards: Price = 3, Quality = 4, and Ease of Use = 3,
which of the following compact disc players would be chosen using the conjunctive
decision rule:

                      Sanyo       Sony       Pioneer
Price                 4           5          2
Quality               4           3          5
Ease of Use           4           4          4

A. Sony
B. Sanyo
C. Pioneer
D. there's not enough information to decide
E. none of the given answers compact disc players would be chosen

                                                                                  5-66
Given the following attribute cut-offs: Price = 5, Quality = 5, and Ease of Use = 4, which
of the following computers would be chosen using the disjunctive decision rule:

                       Hewlett-Packard       Macintosh      IBM
Price                  5                     4              4
Quality                4                     3              5
Ease of Use            3                     3              3

A. Hewlett-Packard
B. Macintosh
C. IBM
D. Hewlett-Packard and IBM would be considered further
E. Macintosh and IBM would be considered further
Given the following attribute cut-offs: Price = 5, Quality = 5, and Ease of Use = 4, which
of the following compact disc players would be chosen using the disjunctive decision
rule:

                     Sony          Sanyo         Pioneer
 Price               5             4             4
 Quality             4             3             5
 Ease of Use         3             3             3

A. Sony
B. Sanyo
C. Pioneer
D. Sony and Pioneer would be considered further
E. Sanyo and Pioneer would be considered further
                                                                                             5-67
You are given the following information:

                  Rank       Cut-off Point
Price             1          4
Quality           2          4
Ease of Use       3          3

Which of the following compact disc players would be chosen using the elimination-by-
aspects decision rule:

                      Sony       Sanyo       Pioneer
Price                 3          5           4
Quality               4          4           4
Ease of Use           3          2           3

A. Sony
B. Sanyo
C. Pioneer
D. Sanyo and Pioneer would be considered further
E. none of the above compact disc players would be chosen



                                                                                        5-68
If using the lexicographic rule:
A. it is essential if this rule is used by the target market that the product equals
or exceeds the performance of all other competitors on the most important
criteria
B. it is essential if this rule is used by the target market that the product equals
or exceeds the performance of all other competitors on all criteria
C. it is essential if this rule is used by the target market that the product only
has to satisfactorily meet the criteria
D. none of the given answers is true

Elimination-by-aspects rule would be best used by a consumer when:
A. they have an important attribute that ranks far higher than all others
B. they have several attributes that ranks far higher than all others
C. they want a product which satisfies all criteria and has an important attribute
that ranks far higher than all others
D. they want a product which ranks high on all criteria and has an important
attribute that ranks far higher than all others
E. none of the given answers is true




                                                                                   5-69
Review and discussion
    questions (selected)
        Chapter Six:
Outlet Selection and Product
         Purchase



                               6-70
Review Questions


2.   What is store image and what are its dimensions and components?

     Store image is the overall perception of a particular retail outlet that is formed on the basis of
     impressions of that store, and comparable stores, in terms of the attributes commonly used to
     describe that particular type of retail outlet. A favourable store image can be expected to
     correspond with a favourable attitude towards that store and the intention to shop there for
     merchandise offered by that store (see Table 6.5, p.161).

3.   Describe the impact of retail advertising on retail sales.

     R et a i l    price     advertising            at tr acts   people    to     stor es,    g ene r at e s
     sal es       of   the   advertised         i t e ms    and       increases    s al es    of   other,
     unadvertised            i t ems   in    th e     store.     In   addition,     both     price     and
     non-price         advertising          affect     t h e s to re’ s i mage.     (See     Figur e   6. 1
     o n p. 16 3, Fi g ur e 6. 3 on p .1 7 0 an d Exh i b it 6 .1 o n p .15 6. )




                                                                                                       6-71
8.   What can happen in response to a stockout?

     A stockout, the situation when a store is temporarily out of a particular brand, can obviously
     affect a consumer purchase decision in that the consumer must then decide whether to:
     (a)     buy the same brand but at another store
     (b)     switch brands
     (c)     delay the purchase and buy the desired brand later at the same store
     (d)     forgo the purchase altogether.

     Table     6. 8   (p.    173)    and      Figur e   6.5    ( p.   174)     su mmar i se   the
     impacts o f a sto cko u t situ at io n.




                                                                                                 6-72
10.   What are some of the barriers to online shopping?

      As shown in Table 6.4 (p.160), the most common reasons for not shopping online were: they
      had no need to or they had not bothered to try; they had concerns about giving their credit card
      details online; and they had a preference for shopping in person.
      Various research studies have identified that some Internet users prefer online shopping over
      in-store shopping because of its convenience and time-saving potential. But many consumers
      still like shopping at stores and retail centres because this allows them to see, feel, touch and
      try on the products before they buy.

      Even though convenience is still a prime motivator for shopping
      online,     the    role   of   social    interaction      is     seen   as     an   obstacle      to
      shopping       online.         Retailers     can     simulate       the      features      of      a
      physical      store   online;      however,        they   also    need    to    consider    how
      they    can       replicate     social     interaction—perhaps                 through     chat-
      groups or discussion forums with consumers.



                                                                                                 6-73
Discussion Questions



    4.       What in-store characteristics could retailers use to
    enhance the probability of purchase by individuals who visit a
    store? Describe each factor in terms of how it should be used
    and describe its intended effect on the consumer for the
    following products:
             (a) toothpaste
             (b) a surf board
             (c) lemons
             (d) magazines
             (e) dessert at a restaurant
             (f) statistics software.
             Construct the table below and discuss the degree to
    which each in-store influence plays a role in the purchase of the
    products listed. While many answers are possible, those
    summarised below are easily deduced from most consumers’
    experiences.

                                                                        6-74
POP display   Store layout   Sales personnel   Promotional deals   Method of   Atmosphere
       Type of product                                                                           purchase




(a) Toothpaste                              X                                X


(b) Surfboard                                              X                                     X           X


(c) Lemons                    X             X                                X


(d) Magazines                 X             X


(e) Dessert at a restaurant                                X                                                 X




(f) Statistics software                                    X                                     X




                                                                                                                      6-75
Multiple-Choice Questions




                            6-76
When making a purchase decision, a consumer can follow the sequence:
A: outlet selection first, brand selection second
B. outlet and brand selection simultaneously
C. brand (or item) selection first, outlet selection second
D. all of the given answers


For a target market using a ‘brand first/outlet second’ decision sequence, a retailer
should:
A. have price specials on brands
B. use image advertising
C. stock many brands and/or key brands
D. A and C only


For a target market using a ‘brand first/outlet second’ decision sequence, a
manufacturer should NOT:
A. use brand availability advertising
B. develop brand image management
C. use more exclusive distribution
D. none of the given answers
E. A and C only
                                                                                 6-77
Shopping orientation refers to:
A. the situation that led to a particular shopping trip
B. the general approach one takes to acquiring both brands and non-purchase
satisfactions from various forms of retail outlets
C. whether the decision process was brand first/store second, store first/brand
second or simultaneous
D. the level of service provided by a retail outlet

Point-of-purchase displays generally have:
A. no influence on brand choice
B. modest influence on brand choice
C. high influence on brand choice
D. their major influence on product category sales

The attributes and components affecting an online store would include:
A. wide range of goods and services
B. lower prices
C. web page design and layout
D. all of the given answers



                                                                              6-78
Kylie is excited by new technology, has a home computer and pay TV, works
full-time, likes to spend time with her family, has a high monthly grocery
expenditure, likes to browse the Internet for hours and finds buying groceries
online appealing. She is a(n):
A. active shopper
B. modern responsible
C. time starved
D. Traditionalist

The effectiveness of sales personnel is influenced by the interaction(s) of the:
A. salesperson’s resources
B. nature of the customer’s buying task
C. customer-salesperson relationship
D. all of the given answers

A stockout situation is:
A. caused when a store is temporarily out of a particular brand or product
B. caused by a failure to integrate place correctly into the retail channel
C. market demand being underestimated due to a failure to understand
consumer behaviour
D. B and C
                                                                                   6-79
Raechel’s House of Beauty, a hairdresser and beautician aimed at the sub-30
market, has the latest music playing, air-conditioning, comfortable lounges and
mocktails in the waiting area. These are all examples of:
A. store layout
B. store atmosphere
C. servicescape
D. Atmospherics

Purchases that are made as a result of the consumer seeing a product, which
acts as a reminder that they need it, are called:
A. impulse purchases
B. reminder purchases
C. unplanned purchase
D. none of the given answers

The risks that consumers face when purchasing a product is classified as:
A. financial risk
B. social risk
C. performance and psychological
D. all of the given answers


                                                                              6-80
Review and discussion
   questions (selected)
      Chapter Seven:
Postpurchase and Customer
  Satisfaction and Loyalty



                             7-81
Review Questions


1.   What characteristics of a purchase situation are likely to contribute to postpurchase dissonance?

     Postpurchase dissonance refers to an after-purchase psychological condition in which the
     purchaser experiences some doubt or worry about the wisdom of the purchase just made.
     Characteristics of the purchase situation that are likely to contribute to postpurchase dissonance
     include:
     •   The degree of irrevocability of the decision. The easier it is to alter the decision, the less
         likely it is that the consumer would experience dissonance.
     •   The importance of the decision to the consumer. The more important the decision is to the
         consumer, the more likely it is that dissonance will occur.
     •   The difficulty of choosing among alternatives. The harder it is to select from among the
         alternatives, the more likely it is that the consumer will experience postpurchase
         dissonance.
     •   The individual’s tendency to experience anxiety. Some individuals have a higher tendency
         to experience anxiety than others. The higher the tendency to experience anxiety, the more
         likely it is that the individual will experience postpurchase dissonance.



                                                                                                          7-82
2.   In what ways can a marketer help to reduce postpurchase dissonance?

     Postpurchase dissonance may be reduced through advertisements aimed at recent purchasers of
     a product. A letter sent to a consumer immediately after purchase has the effect of reducing
     postpurchase dissonance. Generous warranties, postpurchase service, and easy return or
     exchange policies could also reduce the chances of postpurchase dissonance occurring.
     Any of these would perhaps reduce the dissonance that might be experienced in purchasing a
     product, since consumers know they have options available either to alter that decision after
     purchase or to ensure its satisfaction in terms of product performance.

3.   Why are marketers interested in disposal?

     Product disposal is important to marketing strategy because:
     •   sometimes disposal must precede product use due to financial or space limitations
     •   certain disposal strategies may give rise to a used or rebuilt market; and
     •   difficult or unsatisfactory disposal alternatives may cause some consumers to withdraw
         from the market for a particular item.




                                                                                                     7-83
9.    What is the relationship between product satisfaction and repurchase behaviour? What is the
      difference between repeat purchase and brand loyalty?

      Positive evaluation of and satisfaction with a product and/or brand are necessary conditions for
      repeat purchase of that product or brand. As long as other alternatives exist, consumers not
      satisfied with brand performance will seek other alternatives to satisfy their needs.
      The difference between repeat purchase behaviour and brand-loyal repeat purchase behaviour
      is that brand-loyal purchasers are psychologically committed to the brand purchased.
      Therefore, a consumer who makes repeat purchases of a certain brand of coffee, but is not
      psychologically committed to that brand of coffee, could not be considered brand loyal. A
      consumer exhibiting the same purchase behaviour but also expressing strong commitment to
      the brand is brand loyal.

10.   What characteristics have been found to distinguish brand loyal consumers from repeat
      purchase consumers?

      Based on a repeat-purchase measure of brand loyalty, there is little evidence to support any
      differences between loyal and non-loyal consumers in terms of socio-economic, demographic
      and psychological differences. In addition, there is only limited evidence that reference groups
      influence brand loyal behaviour.
      Loyalty to a particular store, however, has been found to be systematically related to brand
      loyalty. That is, the more store-loyal a consumer, the more likely the consumer will exhibit
      high brand loyalty.
                                                                                                         7-84
Multiple-Choice Questions




                            7-85
The likelihood and magnitude of postpurchase dissonance increases for all of
the following except:
A. the more irrevocable the decision
B. the more difficult it is to choose among alternatives
C. the more important the decision is
D. all of the given answers increase postpurchase dissonance

Which of the following is not an approach to reducing dissonance?
A. increase the desirability of the brand purchased
B. decrease the desirability of the rejected alternative
C. decrease the importance of the purchase decision
D. all of the given answers are approaches for reducing dissonance

Some, but not all, consumer purchases:
A. involve extensive postpurchase dissonance
B. do not involve postpurchase dissonance
C. involve postpurchase dissonance only if limited prepurchase alternative
evaluation was utilised
D. A and C



                                                                             7-86
Most studies treat non-loyal repeat purchasers of a brand of the same as:
A. repeat customers
B. unibrand purchasers only
C. unibrand and multibrand purchasers
D. those loyal to another brand, and non-use purchasers

Relationship marketing has these key elements:
A. customisation and augmentation
B. developing a core service or product
C. pricing to encourage loyalty
D. all of the given answers

Repeat purchase behaviour is frequently referred to as:
A. brand loyalty
B. relationship marketing
C. customer satisfaction
D. customer retention




                                                                            7-87
Which one is NOT an element of relationship marketing:
A. developing a core product around which to build customer relationships
B. pricing in a manner that encourages loyalty
C. engaging in internal marketing in order to perform well for customers
D. all of the given answers are elements of relationship marketing

Which of the following are ways in which disposal decisions may influence
marketing strategy:
A. Disposal may be necessary before acquisition of a replacement for financial or
space reasons.
B. Socially conscious consumers may consider disposal alternatives as important
evaluative criteria in the purchase decision.
C. Environmentally sound disposal decisions benefit society as a whole.
D. All of the given answers influence marketing strategy.

If a consumer has a high-performance expectation for a product, and after use
performance is perceived as better than expected, this consumer will be:
A. nonsatisfied
B. dissatisfied
C. satisfied
D. unsatisfied
                                                                              7-88
With respect to clothing, it has been found that:
A. dissatisfaction is caused by a failure of instrumental performance while
satisfaction requires both instrumental and symbolic performance at the
expected level
B. dissatisfaction is caused by a failure of symbolic performance while
satisfaction requires both instrumental and symbolic performance at the
expected level
C. dissatisfaction results if either symbolic or instrumental performance is
below expectation
D. satisfaction requires that either symbolic or instrumental performance
exceed expectations

Brand loyalty differs from repeat purchase behaviour in that brand loyalty:
A. involves at least 90 per cent of product category purchases with a single
brand
B. must exist over a minimum of 6 repurchase cycles
C. must not include any purchase of another brand when the primary brand is
available
D. implies a psychological commitment to the brand



                                                                               7-89
The difference between repeat purchase behaviour and brand loyalty is
explained by the statements below EXCEPT:
A. repeat purchase often results in brand loyalty
B. brand loyalty implies a psychological commitment to the brand
C. repeat purchase may exist because there is only one brand in that
product category
D. brand loyalty is biased

Many consumers judge the performance of a clothing product on its
appearance over time. This is an example of:
A. instrumental performance
B. symbolic performance
C. satisfaction measurement
D. none of the given answers




                                                                        7-90

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BB Practice Essay Questions and MCQ (Part One - Chapters 1-7)

  • 1. Consumer Behavior Practice Questions and MC Questions (Part One: Chapters 1-7) 1-1
  • 2. Note!! • It is important to practice some of the questions at the back of the text as well as attempt some Multiple-Choice Questions • The answers to the selected practice essay questions here do NOT represent a “model answer” and you are strongly advised to draft your own approach and give your own local examples • The MCQ do not have answers- practice these yourself and compare with your classmates 1-2
  • 3. Review and discussion questions Chapter One Consumer Behavior and Marketing Strategy 1-3
  • 4. Review Questions 7. How should marketing managers view the consumer, and how will this view of the consumer help them to understand consumer purchasing behaviour? The consumer should be viewed as a problem solver—a decision-making unit that takes in information, processes it in the light of an existing situation, and takes the action that will, it is hoped, achieve satisfaction and enhance lifestyle. Managers can thus see that a purchase is the means consumers have of solving (or trying to solve) many problems, both actual and potential. 10. How relevant is the study of the consumer decision-making process? As consumers make purchase decisions to enhance their present or desired lifestyles, managers interested in influencing those consumers must have a thorough understanding of this decision-making process. 1-4
  • 5. Discussion Questions 1. Does the Internet present a particular challenge to marketers? Why or why not? The Internet represents a major shift in consumer behaviour. Recent statistics show that an increasing number of Australian consumers use the Internet to purchase products such as Christmas gifts. While some categories of products are more readily traded over the Internet, it can also affect the way marketing is undertaken in the firm. For example, segmentation may be less vital in that consumers volunteer to visit the site. Price may be customised. Promotion can involve only information that is needed. Hence, the Internet provides a new context in which to aim to deliver satisfaction. The principle is the same but the method is different. 1-5
  • 6. 2. Is it possible to evaluate the ‘total’ or non-verbal meaning of an advertisement? If so, how should advertising experts proceed? With a variety of market research techniques (see Appendix A), it is possible to determine the non-verbal meaning of an advertisement. For example, a cigarette advertisement that shows young, healthy, attractive people having fun in a beach setting where the key participants are smoking provides a variety of non- verbal cues that contribute to the total meaning of the advertisement. Market researchers could determine the exact perceptions and meaning of the advertisement by creating a series of focus groups. Some groups could be smokers and others non-smokers. Other differentiations could be between teenagers, young adults, middle-aged adults and senior citizens. Projective techniques could also be used to uncover the total meaning of an advertisement. 1-6
  • 7. 3. Of what use to practising marketing managers are models such as the consumer behaviour model? Even though the model does not allow for prediction, it provides a valuable understanding of how all the aspects of consumer behaviour fit together. The practising marketing manager needs to be aware of the interrelationships of the concepts of consumer behaviour in order to develop effective marketing strategy. 1-7
  • 9. An understanding of consumer behaviour includes all of the following variables except: A. amount purchased B. consumers' values C. economic situations D. consumers' perceptions E. how purchases are consumed Consumer behaviour theory provides the manager with: A. more problems than it solves B. concrete solutions to most marketing problems C. the proper questions to ask in most market decision situations D. solutions to problems E. none of the given answers Customer value is: A. derived from the price of the product B. the difference between all of the benefits derived from the total product and all of the costs of acquiring those products C. the cost to the consumer of altering their behaviour to buy a product D. the difference between the perceived financial and social costs in obtaining the product and the financial and social gain in owning the product E. none of the given answers 1-9
  • 10. The marketing manager should view the consumer as: A. a decision-making unit B. a problem solver C. being primarily concerned with economic factors D. automatically responding in set ways to marketing stimuli E. A and B only Which of the following is not treated as a major influence on consumer lifestyle: A. culture B. reference groups C. social status D. motives E. all of the given answers are major influences Mary needs a computer for her studies. She has some computer knowledge from her previous purchase 5 years ago, but feels that she needs to read more computer magazines, consult several computer shops, and ask for advice from her IT friends before she makes a purchase. What kind of decision-making is Mary experiencing: A. limited B. extended C. complex D. complicated E. behavioural 1-10
  • 11. Culture provides us with: A. sophisticated ways of behaving B. our expected norms of behaviour C. our basic physiological motives D. all of the given answers E. none of the given answers Groups serve as a ____________ and as a ___________ for the individual: A. social stimulant, social determinant B. segmentation point, target market C. source of encouragement, interpreter of information D. reference point, source of information E. none of the given answers Which of the following often leads to lifestyle changes: A. the results of past consumption decisions B. time-related events such as ageing C. external events such as a job change D. all of the given answers E. none of the given answers 1-11
  • 12. Review and discussion questions Chapter Two: Situational Influences 2-12
  • 13. Review Questions 3. What are the four types of situations that matter most to marketers? Give an example for each. The situation in which consumers receive information has an impact on their behaviour. We all know that the degree to which we see and listen to marketing communications is determined by whether we are alone or in a group, in a good mood or a bad one, in a hurry or not, and so on. Therefore, in terms of the communication situation, marketing managers have to answer questions such as: is it better to advertise on a happy or sad television program? A calm or exciting program? The purchase situation can also affect product selection. For example, mothers shopping with children are more likely to be influenced by the product preferences of their children than when they are shopping on their own. Also, if a consumer has a shortage of time (e.g. a student trying to make a purchase between classes), this can affect the store chosen, the number of brands considered and the price the consumer is willing to pay 2-13
  • 14. The usage situation is the way in which the product will be used/consumed. For example, a consumer may serve a different type of wine to dinner guests than they would use personally in a non-social situation .A family may choose a different holiday depending on which family members are going. Consumers must frequently dispose of products and/or product packages after or before the product is used. Decisions made by consumers regarding the disposal situation can create significant social problems, as well as marketing opportunities. 2-14
  • 15. 4. What are the five main categories of situational influences? Give an example for each. Physical surroundings include geographical and institutional location, décor, sounds, aromas, lighting, weather, and visible configurations of merchandise or other material surrounding the stimulus object. Social surroundings provide additional depth to a description of a situation. Examples are other people present, their characteristics, their apparent roles and the interpersonal interactions that are occurring. Temporal perspective may be specified in units ranging from time of day to season of the year. Time may also be measured relative to some past or future event for the situational participant. This allows conceptions such as time constraints imposed by prior commitments. 2-15
  • 16. Task definition includes an intent or requirement to select, shop for or obtain information about a general or specific product. In addition, tasks may reflect different buyer and user roles anticipated by the individual. For instance, a person shopping for a small appliance as a wedding gift for a friend is in a different situation than when shopping for a small appliance for personal use. Antecedent states are momentary moods (e.g. anxiety, pleasantness, hostility or excitation) or momentary conditions (e.g. cash on hand, fatigue, illness) rather than long-term individual traits. 2-16
  • 17. 5. How do moods influence behaviour? Moods are transient feeling states that are generally not tied to a specific event or object. They tend to be less intense than emotions and may operate without the individual’s awareness. While moods may affect all aspects of a person’s behaviour, they generally do not completely interrupt ongoing behaviour as an emotion might. Individuals use such terms as ‘happy’, ‘cheerful’, ‘peaceful’, ‘sad’, ‘blue’ and ‘depressed’ to describe their moods. Moods both affect and are affected by the consumption process. For example, television program content can influence mood and arousal level, which, in turn, influences information-processing activities. Moods also influence decision processes and the purchase and consumption of various products. For example, one study found that positive moods were associated with increased browsing and ‘impulse’ purchasing. Negative moods also increased impulse purchasing in some consumers. 2-17
  • 18. 8. How does crowding affect shopping behaviour? As shown in Figure 2.4 (p. 44) an increased physical density of the store creates perceptions of confinement and crowding. These perceptions in turn cause shoppers to modify their shopping strategies in that they reduce the time spent shopping, buy fewer items and alter their use of in-store information. The net outcome of this physical situation is dissatisfaction with the store, an unpleasant shopping experience and reduced confidence in the shopping that has taken place. 2-18
  • 19. Discussion Questions 1. Discuss the potential importance of each situational influence if you are developing a marketing strategy to promote the purchase of: (a) a haircut (b) Hungry Jack’s (c) an MP3 player (d) tofu. Situational influencer Products Physical Social Temporal Task Antecedent Haircut 3 2 1 3 2 Hungry Jack’s 1 3 1 3 2 MP3 1 2 3 2 3 Tofu 1 3 3 3 1 1 = major influence likely 2 = slight influence possible 3 = less, or no, influence likely 2-19
  • 20. 2. What product categories seem most susceptible to situational influences? Why? As a general category, service-type products (restaurants, theatres and so forth) seem particularly susceptible to situational influences that can be controlled. This is particularly true because these products use physical surroundings very much as a ‘part’ of the product. Products that are convenience goods (low-priced, frequently purchased, necessities etc.), such as toothpaste, are probably less susceptible to situational influence as a class. (Specific brand choice, however, may not be.) In contrast, specialty and shopping goods are probably more likely to be influenced by the situation. Consumers of these products would seem to exercise more choice about whether or not to purchase. Habit may be less important, and the purchase process itself may be more important. These factors all tend to increase situational influence. 2-20
  • 21. 3. In those instances where marketers have little control over the consumption situation, why is it important that they understand how the situation relates to the consumption of their product? Point out to students that, even when the situation itself can’t be controlled, other more controllable factors can be changed to lessen (or enhance) the impact of the situation itself. This would be similar to a marketer being faced with a government regulation that can’t be changed, but that must be accounted for in the marketing strategy. 4. How would you change the situational classification scheme presented in this chapter? There are many other approaches that could be taken, and this should be pointed out to students. Classification schemes based on events (e.g. being out for lunch), attitudes (e.g. attitude towards cooking after a tough day) and lifestyles may lead to different insights into the underlying influence of a use situation. Other factors could also be considered, such as perceived risk, satisfaction and the need to conform. These and other influences could be discussed in light of how they create use situations that influence purchase behaviour. 2-21
  • 23. The choice of a fast food restaurant when a friend comes to visit, you are in the middle of an interesting chat, and you discover it is time for lunch is influenced by: A. antecedent state B. social surroundings C. temporal perspective D. task definition E. physical surroundings The usage situation deals with: A. how the product is purchased B. who influences the product purchased C. how we communicate to consumers about consumption D. how and when the product is consumed E: all of the given answers When a consumer is so loyal to a particular brand that it is the only brand purchased, the marketer: A. should look closely at the communications situation B. must consider the usage situation C. can redefine the consumer's task definition through advertising D. can ignore the situational influences E. none of the given answers 2-23
  • 24. The five classes of situational influences are: A. physical surroundings, people, task definition, lighting and sound B. people, task definition, social surroundings, temporal factors and mood C. physical surroundings, social surroundings, temporal perspective, task definition and mood D. people, task definition, mood, temporal factors and antecedent states E. physical surroundings, social surroundings, temporal perspective, task definition and antecedent states Store atmosphere is: A. the sum of all physical features of a retail environment B. shown to affect consumers’ judgment of store quality C. shown to affect consumers’ judgment of store image D. known to influence shoppers’ moods E. all of the given answers A group that stays longer in a restaurant because of the music has been influenced by the ___________________ characteristic of the situation: A. antecedent state B. physical surroundings C. temporal perspective D. social surroundings E. none of the given answers Answer: B 2-24
  • 25. Individuals shopping at a ‘convenience’ store rather than a store regularly shopped at because they are in a hurry, are being influenced by the ___________________ characteristic of the situation: A. antecedent state B. physical surrounding C. temporal perspective D. task definition E. none of the given answers A person who shops at a nicer store than normal because he/she is buying a gift rather than a personal item is influenced by the _____________________ characteristic of the situation: A. antecedent state B. social surroundings C. temporal perspective D. task definition E. none of the given answers An individual who decides to purchase food at a take-away food store rather than cook when too tired has been influenced by the ____________________ characteristic of the situation: A. utilisation orientation B. task definition C. antecedent state D. physical surroundings E. none of the given answers 2-25
  • 26. Which of the following is not a social motive for shopping outside the home: A. communicating with others with similar interests B. meeting with one's friends C. acquiring status and authority D. meeting or being near other people E. all of the given answers Muffin Break positions itself as the ideal place for a friendly chat. This is a marketing effort based on the ________________ characteristic of the situation: A. temporal perspective B. social surroundings C. antecedent condition D. physical surroundings E. C and D only When the marketer can neither control nor influence the physical situation: A. advertising should be increased B. product improvements should be made C. the sales force should be increased D. the various elements of the marketing mix should be altered to match the needs and expectations of the target market E. none of the given answers 2-26
  • 27. The advantage of large shopping malls according to consumer behaviour theory is: A. social experiences for consumers B. safe and comfortable area for shopping C. consumers are exposed to a wide range of information and products D. plenty of parking E. A,B and C It usually takes 3 seconds to buy a can of soft drink but it can months to choose the right car. This is an example of: A. task definition B. temporal perspective C. mood D. antecedent state E. momentary condition 2-27
  • 28. Review and discussion questions Chapter Three: Problem Recognition 3-28
  • 29. Review Questions 1. What does purchase involvement mean? How does it differ from product involvement? We define purchase involvement as the level of concern for, or interest in, the purchase process, once the purchase process has been triggered by the need to consider a particular purchase. Purchase involvement is not the same as product involvement. A person may be very involved with a brand and have a very low level of involvement with the purchase process because of brand loyalty. Or a person could have a rather low level of involvement with a product but have a high level of purchase involvement because of a desire to set an example for a child or impress a friend who is on the shopping trip (situational factors). There are also individual differences in general involvement level and in the involvement response to particular situations. 3-29
  • 30. 3. How do habitual, limited and extended decision making differ? How do the two types of habitual decision making differ? Habitual decision making, in effect, involves no decision per se. That is, a problem is recognised, an internal search (long-term memory) provides a single preferred solution (brand), that brand is purchased and an evaluation occurs only if the brand fails to perform as expected. Limited decision making covers the middle ground between habitual decision making and extended decision making. In its simplest form (lowest level of purchase involvement) it is very similar to habitual decision making. Extended decision making is the response to a very high level of purchase involvement. An extensive internal and external information search is followed by a complex evaluation of multiple alternatives. After the purchase, doubt as to its correctness is likely, and a thorough evaluation of the purchase takes place. 3-30
  • 31. 6. What are the main uncontrollable factors that influence the desired state? • Culture/social class: These variables set broad boundaries on desired states. For example, in Australia and New Zealand cleanliness is a highly desired state. • Change in reference groups: This can have a major effect on consumer lifestyle and, hence, the desired performance of products that are purchased. Joining a business firm following graduation from university requires adapting to a new reference group and, subsequently, a new lifestyle, which may demand a different style of dress and behaviour. • Changes in household characteristics: The birth of a first child greatly alters one’s lifestyle and creates new problems, which need solutions. • Changes, or expected changes, in financial status: Receiving, or expecting to receive, a relatively large sum of money may alter desire for the kind of car one drives, and lead to a large discrepancy between what is desired and what exists. • Previous decisions: The purchase of a product (e.g. a new car) may trigger recognition of a need for insurance. • Individual development: As we evolve through different stages of socialisation, our lifestyle changes. For example, the choice of holidays could be expected to be different for a 12-year-old, a 25-year-old, and a 65-year-old. • Emotions: Sometimes consumers seek positive emotional experiences, and purchase goods and services to obtain such experiences. • Motives: Maslow suggests that as lower-level motives are satisfied, high-level motives begin to dominate the desired state. • Changing situations: The situation may influence problem recognition. For example, in hot weather people prefer cold drinks and in cold weather they prefer hot drinks. 3-31
  • 32. 7. What are the main uncontrollable factors that influence the existing state? • Past decisions: These determine the individual’s set of problem solutions and resources. They provide the framework for the actual state. • Normal depletion: Examples of normal depletion include a tyre wearing out, running out of cereal or the need to change the oil in a car. • Product/brand performance: After purchasing a particular brand of shampoo, the consumer may find that its performance (actual state) is far below what is expected and desired in the performance of this shampoo. Thus, dissatisfaction with the shampoo would alter the consumer’s perceptions of the shampoo performance (actual state). • Individual development: The normal process of individual development can also influence our perception of an actual state. For example, a six-year-old has a different perception of the toys included in a cereal box than a twelve-year-old. As a result, the six-year-old is more likely to be satisfied with the toy (the actual state) than the twelve-year-old. • Governmental and consumer groups: These groups may provide information to the public that would alter the public’s perception of actual performance (state). Information on a car’s safety may alter perceptions of the actual state of certain cars. • Product availability: The absence of particular products, lack of awareness of products or brands, or inability to afford certain products all affect the actual state. For example, the relative lack of sodium-free food products in Australia has a major impact on the actual state of health of many consumers. • Situation: The presence of others, physical conditions and antecedent states are key elements of the actual state. 3-32
  • 33. 9. In what ways can marketers react to problem recognition? Give several examples. • Modify the marketing mix (product, price, place and promotion) to resolve a particular problem and improve on the existing level of performance (actual state). • In the case of latent problem recognition, the marketer may stimulate problem recognition and direct search, evaluation and purchase of a product that resolves the problem. • For problem recognition for a problem of little importance, the marketer may bring greater attention to this problem (increase its perceived importance) while indicating a solution to this problem. • In some instances a marketer may try to reduce either the discrepancy that is the cause of the problem recognition and/or the importance attached to it, thereby reducing the intensity of the problem. 3-33
  • 34. Discussion Questions 2. Which products do you think are generally purchased or used for emotional reasons? How would the decision process differ for an emotion-driven purchase compared with a more functional purchase? Products such as perfume, fancy lingerie, evening dresses, ornate jewellery, sports cars etc. are often purchased or used to elicit a desired emotion. The decision process would differ in several ways. Importance of the product-use situation would be greater, and, hence, consumers would be more sensitive to potential alternatives that may enhance emotional experiences. Information search may be more extensive. In general, these would be very high-involvement purchases, and consumers would be more likely to recognise problems more quickly, and to search for better solutions more often. 3-34
  • 36. Problem recognition involves: A. choosing between two or more potentially satisfactory alternatives B. a discrepancy between a situational variable and a psychological variable C. determining which of two or more alternative goals to pursue D. approach-approach conflict E. none of the given answers Answer: E Difficulty: High A problem of which the consumer is not aware is: A. a situational problem B. a potential problem C. a manifest problem D. an actual problem E. none of the given answers The uncontrollable factors that affect the desired state include all of the following except: A. changing family characteristics B. previous decisions C. individual development D. reference groups E. all of the given answer 3-36
  • 37. The uncontrollable factors that affect the actual state include all of the following except: A. the situation B. dissatisfaction with the existing solution C. changing financial expectations D. efforts of consumer groups E. all of the given answers The existing or actual state is affected by: A. inability to afford certain products B. absence of particular products C. lack of awareness of products or brands D. A and C only E. A, B and C An approach to determining the problems consumers face by analysing the purchase and/or use of a particular product or brand is known as: A. problem analysis B. activity analysis C. situation analysis D. latent problem analysis E. none of the given answers 3-37
  • 38. Selective problem recognition involves: A. a discrepancy which any brand within a product category can reduce B. a discrepancy which a variety of brands within a product category can reduce C. recognition of a problem for which there is no solution D. manifest problem recognition E. none of the given answers Attempts by firms to ‘break into’ habitual or limited decision making when their brand is not currently used generally focus on: A. the desired state B. the discrepancy between the existing and desired states C the existing state D. the current situation E. none of the given answers The level of a person’s desire to resolve a particular problem depends on 2 factors: A. the relative importance of the problem and the magnitude of the discrepancy between the desired state and the actual state B. information search and alternative evaluation C. environmental and situational factors D. mood and motivation E. the involvement level of the product and previous decisions made 3-38
  • 39. Suppressing problem recognition is done because: A. some companies want their consumers to have a low level of involvement for their product B. companies want consumers to be influenced primarily by packaging, price and other marketing variables at the point of purchase C. government regulation of certain products D. consumer movements limit promotion of some products E. A and B Timing problem recognition can sometimes be difficult for a marketer to influence because: A. consumers vary in how long they decide they may have an actual problem B. some consumers aren’t influenced by marketing at all C. some consumer needs can arise suddenly D. problem recognition is influenced by many factors E. B and C 3-39
  • 40. Review and discussion questions (selected) Chapter Four: Information Search 4-40
  • 41. Review Questions 1. When does information search occur? What is the difference between internal and external information search? Information search occurs in response to a recognised problem that is deemed important enough to resolve. Because an internal information search is much easier, less time consuming and less expensive than external search, internal search generally occurs first. This involves bringing relevant information from what is retained in long-term memory into current memory. If no satisfactory solution can be obtained, then an external information search would follow if warranted by the nature of the problem and its importance. 2. What are evaluative criteria and how do they relate to information search? Evaluative criteria are those characteristics that are important to the consumer in the evaluation and choice of alternatives. With regard to information search, evaluative criteria—in part— guide information search by outlining what information should be sought in order to resolve a particular problem. 4-41
  • 42. . What roles do the evoked set, the inert set, and the inept set play in a consumer’s information search? Why are some brands in a consumer’s evoked set and others in the inert set or the inept set? Those brands that a consumer is aware of (i.e. those in his or her awareness set) can be classified as belonging to either an evoked, inert or inept set. Consumers’ evoked sets include brands that they would readily consume. Brands in their inert sets are brands they are aware of but indifferent towards, and not likely to consume as long as brands in their evoked set are available. Brands in their inept sets are brands they are aware of, but dislike so much that they would not consume them. Consumers will focus their information search on brands in their evoked sets. Marketers of brands in a target consumer’s inert set have to work hard to get the consumer to seek additional information that could affect the inclusion of the marketer’s brand in the consumer’s evoked set. Consumers will rarely seek information on brands classified as inept. 4-42
  • 43. 4. What are the primary sources of information available to consumers and what effect does each have on information search? The primary sources of information available to consumers are: personal sources, such as friends and family; independent sources, such as consumer groups, government agencies and non-partisan organisations; marketing sources, such as advertising, promotion, packaging and sales personnel; and experiential sources, such as direct product inspection or trial. Each source varies in its effect on different consumers but, in general, personal and experiential sources of information are perceived to be more credible; independent sources are perceived to be more factual; and marketing sources are perceived to be less objective yet more informative. 4-43
  • 44. 6. How do different market characteristics affect a consumer’s information search effort? • Price range: The higher the price difference between brands, the greater the financial benefit of a search effort. • Number of alternatives: The larger the number of alternative solutions (brands and products), the greater the search. • Store distribution: The density of retail trade outlets affects the search effort. A lower density increases the cost of visiting a number of retail outlets and, hence, reduces the level of prepurchase information search. High store density lowers this cost and thus increases the likelihood of a search effort. • Information availability: The more information available, the greater the search, unless the ready availability of information has already produced sufficient learning. Information availability is increased by advertising, point-of-purchase displays, sales personnel, package information, other experienced consumers and independent sources. 4-44
  • 45. 7. How do different consumer characteristics influence a consumer’s information search effort? • Learning and experience: A satisfying experience, followed by repeat purchase of a particular brand of product, has the effect of reducing prepurchase information search. • Personality and self-concept: Different self-images and personality traits (such as open- mindedness and self-confidence) can affect consumer information search. Those who see themselves as deliberate shoppers, for example, engage in greater search than shoppers who do not have this aspect of self-concept. • Perceived risk: The greater the perceived risk related to a particular purchase (whether financial or psychological), the greater the motivation to make a satisfactory choice and, hence, the greater prepurchase search. • Socio-economic: Using occupation, education and income as a basis for describing socioeconomic differences, information search has been found to be greater for those in higher socioeconomic classes (i.e. those with higher occupational status, more education and larger incomes) than those in lower socio-economic classes. • Age and family life cycle: Age and stage of family life cycle are inversely related to information search. That is, younger consumers and those in the early stages of the family life cycle tend to exhibit greater pre-purchase information search than older consumers and those in later stages of the family life cycle. 4-45
  • 46. 9. How do situational characteristics influence a consumer’s information search effort? • Time availability: The more time available for the purchase, the greater the search. • Purchase for others: Gift purchases generally evoke more search effort than purchases for self. • Pleasant surroundings: These may increase search within that store or shopping centre, but reduce total search effort. • Social surroundings: May increase or decrease search, depending on the nature of the social situation. • Physical/mental energy: Will increase search, compared to a situation of fatigue. 4-46
  • 47. Discussion Questions 3. Is it ever in the best interests of a marketer to encourage potential customers to carry out an extended pre-purchase search? Why or why not? Discussion of this question must focus on the relative position of the marketer. If the brand is in a position of strength—if the marketer’s brand is known—then the marketer may want to limit the search and direct it to his/her brand or product. However, if the firm’s brand is unknown, that firm’s strategy may be to encourage search, evaluation and comparison, since this activity could lead to a favourable evaluation and a greater probability of purchasing the lesser-known brand. 4-47
  • 48. 8. How can marketers encourage consumers to search for information about their goods and services by using the Internet? Marketers can provide details of their web addresses in their advertising and promotion and on packaging. Also, if there other sources (such as the Australian Consumers’ Association website, www.choice.com.au) that provide independent information about different brands through their surveys, these could also be provided to assist consumers to evaluate and compare different brands in a product category. Also, companies might encourage consumers to visit some of the discussion forums or chat groups related to particular product categories. 4-48
  • 50. Internal information search: A. almost never occurs B. is most important in extended decisions C. involves utilising information sources other than the individual's memory D. is not sufficient to solve consumer problems E. none of the given answers A consumer notices a new product in a store because of a point-of-purchase display, and based on the information given in the display purchases the product. This is an example of: A. habitual decision making B. limited decision making C. extended decision making D. internal search E. none of the given answers External information can include all of the following except: A. direct experiences with the product through inspection or trial B. professional information provided in pamphlets, articles, and books C. marketing-generated information D. the opinions, attitudes and feelings of friends, neighbours and relatives E. all of the given answers can be included in external search 4-50
  • 51. All of the brands that a consumer would consider for the solution of a particular problem are known as the: A. inept set B. decision set C. evoked set D. inert set E. none of the given answers All of the brands that a consumer is aware of but is indifferent toward are known as the: A. inept set B. so what set C. evoked set D. inert set E. none of the given answers The inert set is: A. all those brands a consumer would consider for the solution of a problem B. all those brands a consumer is aware of for the solution of a problem C. all those brands a consumer would not consider for the solution of a problem D. all those brands a consumer is aware of but is indifferent toward E. none of the given answers 4-51
  • 52. The evoked set is: A. all those brands a consumer would consider for the solution of a problem B. all those brands a consumer is aware of for the solution of a problem C. all those brands a consumer would not consider for the solution of a problem D. all those brands a consumer is aware of but is indifferent toward E. none of the given answers Which of the following is NOT one of the primary sources of information available to consumers: A. personal sources B. experiential sources C. memory D. independent sources E. all of the given answers are primary sources of information Consumers engage in external search when: A. they perceive they can obtain a lower price B. they perceive they can obtain a preferred style C. the perceived cost of search is less than the perceived value of the search D. the required information is available E. none of the given answers 4-52
  • 53. A brand in a product category characterised by extended decisions that is in the evoked set requires a(n) ________________ strategy: A. maintenance B. disrupt C. intercept D. acceptance E. none of the given answers Consumer characteristics that are associated with a high level of external search include all of the following except: A. extensive experience with the product category B. early stages of the household life cycle C. a high level of perceived risk in the purchase D. a relatively high education level E. all of the given answers are associated with a high level of external search A brand in a product category characterised by extended decisions that is not in the evoked set requires a(n) ________________ strategy: A. maintenance B. disrupt C. acceptance D. preference E. none of the given answers 4-53
  • 54. A brand in a product category characterised by limited purchase decisions that is not in the target market's evoked set needs a(n) _______________________ strategy: A. disrupt B. intercept C. acceptance D. preference E. none of the given answers A brand in a product category characterised by limited purchase decisions that is in the target market's evoked set needs a(n) _______________________ strategy: A. disrupt B. intercept C. acceptance D. preference E. none of the given answers 4-54
  • 55. A disrupt strategy: A. is used by marketers when the brand they are promoting is not part of the evoked set and the target market engages in habitual decision making and the first task of this strategy is to disrupt the existing decision pattern B. is marketing communications, such as comparative advertising, that is used to disrupt the decision making behaviour of the consumer C. is used in high involvement situations where the consumers may display high brand loyalty to a product D. is used in low involvement situations where consumers exhibit habitual purchase behaviour Capture strategy is: A. marketing communications that are used to capture the consumer’s attention B. capturing the consumer’s attention by using different tactics in the servicescape environment C. used by marketers when the brand is in the target market’s evoked set and consumers engage in limited decision making D. used by marketers when the brand is in the target market’s inert set and consumers engage in limited decision making 4-55
  • 56. An intercept strategy is used when: A. an organisation in a shopping mall needs to intercept consumers who walk by a store B. the objective is to intercept the consumer during the search for information on the brands in the evoked set C. the objective is to intercept the consumer during the search for information on the brands in the inert set D. B and C Preference strategy is used when: A. the objective is to make the brand the preferred one in the target market, placing it in the evoked set. This is especially used when the consumer undertakes extended decision making B. the objective is to make the brand the preferred one in the target market, placing it in the inert set. This is especially used when the consumer undertakes extended decision making C. the objective is to make the brand the preferred one in the target market, placing it in the evoked set. This is especially used when the consumer undertakes limited decision making D. the objective is to make the brand the preferred one in the target market, mainly through the use of marketing communication techniques 4-56
  • 57. Review and discussion questions Chapter Five: Evaluating and Selecting Alternatives 5-57
  • 58. Review Questions 1. Define the term ‘evaluative criteria’. Evaluative criteria are the various features a consumer looks for in response to a particular type of problem. Before purchasing a calculator, a consumer might be concerned with cost, size, power source, capabilities, display and warranty. These would be the evaluative criteria. Someone else could approach the same purchase with an entirely different set of evaluative criteria, such as brand, memory and warranty. 2. How can a marketing manager determine which evaluative criteria consumers use? The marketing manager can utilise either direct or indirect methods. Direct methods would include asking consumers what information they use, or, in a focus-group setting, observing what consumers verbalise about products and their attributes. Indirect methods, such as projective techniques, allow a person to indicate what ‘someone else’ (probably that very person) might do. Multidimensional scaling is a useful indirect technique. 5-58
  • 59. . What is sensory discrimination and what role does it play in the evaluation of products? Sensory discrimination refers to an individual’s ability to distinguish between similar stimuli presented to one sense mode. This plays a major role in the evaluation of products that may differ in characteristics. For example, one stereo may be technically superior in sound characteristics, but listening to both this stereo and one of lesser technical quality may not allow you to sense this difference. 6. What is meant by a just-noticeable difference? How have marketers used this concept in marketing products? The just-noticeable difference is the minimum amount of variation that would have to take place in a given stimulus such that a difference could be detected. Marketers attempting to differentiate their brand of product must find a level of performance between their brand and competitors’ brands that surpasses the j.n.d. However, a marketer may want to change a product or price but not have consumers perceive any change, and, hence, not surpass the j.n.d. 5-59
  • 60. 7. What are surrogate indicators? How are they used in the consumer evaluation process? An attribute (evaluative criterion) used to stand for or indicate another attribute is a surrogate indicator. For many products it is difficult to assess quality; consumers may therefore use the price or image of the product as a basis for inferring the product’s quality. 8. How have marketers used surrogate indicators in positioning various products? Marketers of clothing and alcoholic beverages use the price of these goods in product positioning because consumers often use the price of these goods as a surrogate indicator of quality. Hence, marketers of products that are difficult to differentiate on the basis of physical characteristics will use surrogate indicators like price and social status to imply quality. 5-60
  • 61. Discussion Questions 4. The table below represents, for several brands of motorbikes, a particular consumer’s evaluative criteria, ranking of criteria importance, acceptable level of performance and judgments of performance. Discuss the brand choice this consumer would make when using the lexicographic, compensatory and conjunctive decision rules. Alternative brands Minimum Evaluative Criterion acceptable Honda BMW Vespa Kawasaki Triumph criterion importance performance Price 30 4 2 4 2 4 2 Horsepower 15 3 4 2 5 5 4 Weight 5 2 3 3 3 3 3 Economy 35 3 4 4 3 2 4 Colour 10 3 4 4 3 2 5 selection Frame 5 2 4 2 3 3 3 Note: 1 = very poor; 2 = poor; 3 = fair; 4 = good; 5 = very good 5-61
  • 62. Using a lexicographic decision rule, this consumer would first focus on the most important evaluative criterion specified in the table, economy (a relative weight of 35), and find that Honda, BMW and Triumph all perform equally well. • A compensatory rule that weights each score by its importance would produce the following scores: Honda—335, BMW—355, Vespa—300, Kawasaki—315, Triumph— 340. Therefore, BMW would be selected. • Using an elimination-by-aspects rule would mean that four brands meet the minimum standard on the most important criterion, economy (minimum acceptable = 3): Honda (4), BMW (4), Vespa (3), Triumph (4). Of these, only one meets the minimum standard on the second most important criterion, price (minimum acceptable = 4): BMW (4). BMW would be selected. • A conjunctive decision rule would produce no choice, as no brand meets all the minimum performance levels. Additional search, lower standards or a different rule would be required. 5-62
  • 64. Evaluative criteria are: A. the alternatives available to solve a problem B. limited to the evoked set C. limited to the inept set D. the various features a consumer looks for in a product for solving a particular problem E. none of the given answers Indirect methods for determining which evaluative criteria are being used include: A. projective techniques B. focus groups C. interviews D. A and B only E. none of the given answers Which of the following is a common approach to determining consumers' judgments of brand performance on specific evaluative criteria: A. semantic differential scale B. conjoint analysis C. MARC D. linear programming E. none of the given answer 5-64
  • 65. Which of the following is a useful approach for determining the relative importance consumers assign to various evaluative criteria: A. semantic differential scale B. conjoint analysis C. MARC D. linear programming E. none of the given answers A just noticeable difference (j.n.d.) refers to: A. the relative difference in sensitivity between various sense modes B. the minimum amount that one item can differ from another with the difference still being noticed C. the difference in importance assigned to various evaluative criteria D. minimum variation in evaluative criteria required for inclusion in a multi-dimensional scaling solution E. none of the given answers The readily observable attribute of a product used to represent the performance level of a less observable attribute is known as: A. a surrogate indicator B. a lexicographic attribute C. a compensatory attribute D. an interactive variable E. none of the given answers 5-65
  • 66. The use of price as a surrogate indicator appears to decline with: A. increases in visible product differences B. increases in prior product experience C. availability of additional product information D. all of the given answers E. none of the given answers Given the following minimum standards: Price = 3, Quality = 4, and Ease of Use = 3, which of the following compact disc players would be chosen using the conjunctive decision rule: Sanyo Sony Pioneer Price 4 5 2 Quality 4 3 5 Ease of Use 4 4 4 A. Sony B. Sanyo C. Pioneer D. there's not enough information to decide E. none of the given answers compact disc players would be chosen 5-66
  • 67. Given the following attribute cut-offs: Price = 5, Quality = 5, and Ease of Use = 4, which of the following computers would be chosen using the disjunctive decision rule: Hewlett-Packard Macintosh IBM Price 5 4 4 Quality 4 3 5 Ease of Use 3 3 3 A. Hewlett-Packard B. Macintosh C. IBM D. Hewlett-Packard and IBM would be considered further E. Macintosh and IBM would be considered further Given the following attribute cut-offs: Price = 5, Quality = 5, and Ease of Use = 4, which of the following compact disc players would be chosen using the disjunctive decision rule: Sony Sanyo Pioneer Price 5 4 4 Quality 4 3 5 Ease of Use 3 3 3 A. Sony B. Sanyo C. Pioneer D. Sony and Pioneer would be considered further E. Sanyo and Pioneer would be considered further 5-67
  • 68. You are given the following information: Rank Cut-off Point Price 1 4 Quality 2 4 Ease of Use 3 3 Which of the following compact disc players would be chosen using the elimination-by- aspects decision rule: Sony Sanyo Pioneer Price 3 5 4 Quality 4 4 4 Ease of Use 3 2 3 A. Sony B. Sanyo C. Pioneer D. Sanyo and Pioneer would be considered further E. none of the above compact disc players would be chosen 5-68
  • 69. If using the lexicographic rule: A. it is essential if this rule is used by the target market that the product equals or exceeds the performance of all other competitors on the most important criteria B. it is essential if this rule is used by the target market that the product equals or exceeds the performance of all other competitors on all criteria C. it is essential if this rule is used by the target market that the product only has to satisfactorily meet the criteria D. none of the given answers is true Elimination-by-aspects rule would be best used by a consumer when: A. they have an important attribute that ranks far higher than all others B. they have several attributes that ranks far higher than all others C. they want a product which satisfies all criteria and has an important attribute that ranks far higher than all others D. they want a product which ranks high on all criteria and has an important attribute that ranks far higher than all others E. none of the given answers is true 5-69
  • 70. Review and discussion questions (selected) Chapter Six: Outlet Selection and Product Purchase 6-70
  • 71. Review Questions 2. What is store image and what are its dimensions and components? Store image is the overall perception of a particular retail outlet that is formed on the basis of impressions of that store, and comparable stores, in terms of the attributes commonly used to describe that particular type of retail outlet. A favourable store image can be expected to correspond with a favourable attitude towards that store and the intention to shop there for merchandise offered by that store (see Table 6.5, p.161). 3. Describe the impact of retail advertising on retail sales. R et a i l price advertising at tr acts people to stor es, g ene r at e s sal es of the advertised i t e ms and increases s al es of other, unadvertised i t ems in th e store. In addition, both price and non-price advertising affect t h e s to re’ s i mage. (See Figur e 6. 1 o n p. 16 3, Fi g ur e 6. 3 on p .1 7 0 an d Exh i b it 6 .1 o n p .15 6. ) 6-71
  • 72. 8. What can happen in response to a stockout? A stockout, the situation when a store is temporarily out of a particular brand, can obviously affect a consumer purchase decision in that the consumer must then decide whether to: (a) buy the same brand but at another store (b) switch brands (c) delay the purchase and buy the desired brand later at the same store (d) forgo the purchase altogether. Table 6. 8 (p. 173) and Figur e 6.5 ( p. 174) su mmar i se the impacts o f a sto cko u t situ at io n. 6-72
  • 73. 10. What are some of the barriers to online shopping? As shown in Table 6.4 (p.160), the most common reasons for not shopping online were: they had no need to or they had not bothered to try; they had concerns about giving their credit card details online; and they had a preference for shopping in person. Various research studies have identified that some Internet users prefer online shopping over in-store shopping because of its convenience and time-saving potential. But many consumers still like shopping at stores and retail centres because this allows them to see, feel, touch and try on the products before they buy. Even though convenience is still a prime motivator for shopping online, the role of social interaction is seen as an obstacle to shopping online. Retailers can simulate the features of a physical store online; however, they also need to consider how they can replicate social interaction—perhaps through chat- groups or discussion forums with consumers. 6-73
  • 74. Discussion Questions 4. What in-store characteristics could retailers use to enhance the probability of purchase by individuals who visit a store? Describe each factor in terms of how it should be used and describe its intended effect on the consumer for the following products: (a) toothpaste (b) a surf board (c) lemons (d) magazines (e) dessert at a restaurant (f) statistics software. Construct the table below and discuss the degree to which each in-store influence plays a role in the purchase of the products listed. While many answers are possible, those summarised below are easily deduced from most consumers’ experiences. 6-74
  • 75. POP display Store layout Sales personnel Promotional deals Method of Atmosphere Type of product purchase (a) Toothpaste X X (b) Surfboard X X X (c) Lemons X X X (d) Magazines X X (e) Dessert at a restaurant X X (f) Statistics software X X 6-75
  • 77. When making a purchase decision, a consumer can follow the sequence: A: outlet selection first, brand selection second B. outlet and brand selection simultaneously C. brand (or item) selection first, outlet selection second D. all of the given answers For a target market using a ‘brand first/outlet second’ decision sequence, a retailer should: A. have price specials on brands B. use image advertising C. stock many brands and/or key brands D. A and C only For a target market using a ‘brand first/outlet second’ decision sequence, a manufacturer should NOT: A. use brand availability advertising B. develop brand image management C. use more exclusive distribution D. none of the given answers E. A and C only 6-77
  • 78. Shopping orientation refers to: A. the situation that led to a particular shopping trip B. the general approach one takes to acquiring both brands and non-purchase satisfactions from various forms of retail outlets C. whether the decision process was brand first/store second, store first/brand second or simultaneous D. the level of service provided by a retail outlet Point-of-purchase displays generally have: A. no influence on brand choice B. modest influence on brand choice C. high influence on brand choice D. their major influence on product category sales The attributes and components affecting an online store would include: A. wide range of goods and services B. lower prices C. web page design and layout D. all of the given answers 6-78
  • 79. Kylie is excited by new technology, has a home computer and pay TV, works full-time, likes to spend time with her family, has a high monthly grocery expenditure, likes to browse the Internet for hours and finds buying groceries online appealing. She is a(n): A. active shopper B. modern responsible C. time starved D. Traditionalist The effectiveness of sales personnel is influenced by the interaction(s) of the: A. salesperson’s resources B. nature of the customer’s buying task C. customer-salesperson relationship D. all of the given answers A stockout situation is: A. caused when a store is temporarily out of a particular brand or product B. caused by a failure to integrate place correctly into the retail channel C. market demand being underestimated due to a failure to understand consumer behaviour D. B and C 6-79
  • 80. Raechel’s House of Beauty, a hairdresser and beautician aimed at the sub-30 market, has the latest music playing, air-conditioning, comfortable lounges and mocktails in the waiting area. These are all examples of: A. store layout B. store atmosphere C. servicescape D. Atmospherics Purchases that are made as a result of the consumer seeing a product, which acts as a reminder that they need it, are called: A. impulse purchases B. reminder purchases C. unplanned purchase D. none of the given answers The risks that consumers face when purchasing a product is classified as: A. financial risk B. social risk C. performance and psychological D. all of the given answers 6-80
  • 81. Review and discussion questions (selected) Chapter Seven: Postpurchase and Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty 7-81
  • 82. Review Questions 1. What characteristics of a purchase situation are likely to contribute to postpurchase dissonance? Postpurchase dissonance refers to an after-purchase psychological condition in which the purchaser experiences some doubt or worry about the wisdom of the purchase just made. Characteristics of the purchase situation that are likely to contribute to postpurchase dissonance include: • The degree of irrevocability of the decision. The easier it is to alter the decision, the less likely it is that the consumer would experience dissonance. • The importance of the decision to the consumer. The more important the decision is to the consumer, the more likely it is that dissonance will occur. • The difficulty of choosing among alternatives. The harder it is to select from among the alternatives, the more likely it is that the consumer will experience postpurchase dissonance. • The individual’s tendency to experience anxiety. Some individuals have a higher tendency to experience anxiety than others. The higher the tendency to experience anxiety, the more likely it is that the individual will experience postpurchase dissonance. 7-82
  • 83. 2. In what ways can a marketer help to reduce postpurchase dissonance? Postpurchase dissonance may be reduced through advertisements aimed at recent purchasers of a product. A letter sent to a consumer immediately after purchase has the effect of reducing postpurchase dissonance. Generous warranties, postpurchase service, and easy return or exchange policies could also reduce the chances of postpurchase dissonance occurring. Any of these would perhaps reduce the dissonance that might be experienced in purchasing a product, since consumers know they have options available either to alter that decision after purchase or to ensure its satisfaction in terms of product performance. 3. Why are marketers interested in disposal? Product disposal is important to marketing strategy because: • sometimes disposal must precede product use due to financial or space limitations • certain disposal strategies may give rise to a used or rebuilt market; and • difficult or unsatisfactory disposal alternatives may cause some consumers to withdraw from the market for a particular item. 7-83
  • 84. 9. What is the relationship between product satisfaction and repurchase behaviour? What is the difference between repeat purchase and brand loyalty? Positive evaluation of and satisfaction with a product and/or brand are necessary conditions for repeat purchase of that product or brand. As long as other alternatives exist, consumers not satisfied with brand performance will seek other alternatives to satisfy their needs. The difference between repeat purchase behaviour and brand-loyal repeat purchase behaviour is that brand-loyal purchasers are psychologically committed to the brand purchased. Therefore, a consumer who makes repeat purchases of a certain brand of coffee, but is not psychologically committed to that brand of coffee, could not be considered brand loyal. A consumer exhibiting the same purchase behaviour but also expressing strong commitment to the brand is brand loyal. 10. What characteristics have been found to distinguish brand loyal consumers from repeat purchase consumers? Based on a repeat-purchase measure of brand loyalty, there is little evidence to support any differences between loyal and non-loyal consumers in terms of socio-economic, demographic and psychological differences. In addition, there is only limited evidence that reference groups influence brand loyal behaviour. Loyalty to a particular store, however, has been found to be systematically related to brand loyalty. That is, the more store-loyal a consumer, the more likely the consumer will exhibit high brand loyalty. 7-84
  • 86. The likelihood and magnitude of postpurchase dissonance increases for all of the following except: A. the more irrevocable the decision B. the more difficult it is to choose among alternatives C. the more important the decision is D. all of the given answers increase postpurchase dissonance Which of the following is not an approach to reducing dissonance? A. increase the desirability of the brand purchased B. decrease the desirability of the rejected alternative C. decrease the importance of the purchase decision D. all of the given answers are approaches for reducing dissonance Some, but not all, consumer purchases: A. involve extensive postpurchase dissonance B. do not involve postpurchase dissonance C. involve postpurchase dissonance only if limited prepurchase alternative evaluation was utilised D. A and C 7-86
  • 87. Most studies treat non-loyal repeat purchasers of a brand of the same as: A. repeat customers B. unibrand purchasers only C. unibrand and multibrand purchasers D. those loyal to another brand, and non-use purchasers Relationship marketing has these key elements: A. customisation and augmentation B. developing a core service or product C. pricing to encourage loyalty D. all of the given answers Repeat purchase behaviour is frequently referred to as: A. brand loyalty B. relationship marketing C. customer satisfaction D. customer retention 7-87
  • 88. Which one is NOT an element of relationship marketing: A. developing a core product around which to build customer relationships B. pricing in a manner that encourages loyalty C. engaging in internal marketing in order to perform well for customers D. all of the given answers are elements of relationship marketing Which of the following are ways in which disposal decisions may influence marketing strategy: A. Disposal may be necessary before acquisition of a replacement for financial or space reasons. B. Socially conscious consumers may consider disposal alternatives as important evaluative criteria in the purchase decision. C. Environmentally sound disposal decisions benefit society as a whole. D. All of the given answers influence marketing strategy. If a consumer has a high-performance expectation for a product, and after use performance is perceived as better than expected, this consumer will be: A. nonsatisfied B. dissatisfied C. satisfied D. unsatisfied 7-88
  • 89. With respect to clothing, it has been found that: A. dissatisfaction is caused by a failure of instrumental performance while satisfaction requires both instrumental and symbolic performance at the expected level B. dissatisfaction is caused by a failure of symbolic performance while satisfaction requires both instrumental and symbolic performance at the expected level C. dissatisfaction results if either symbolic or instrumental performance is below expectation D. satisfaction requires that either symbolic or instrumental performance exceed expectations Brand loyalty differs from repeat purchase behaviour in that brand loyalty: A. involves at least 90 per cent of product category purchases with a single brand B. must exist over a minimum of 6 repurchase cycles C. must not include any purchase of another brand when the primary brand is available D. implies a psychological commitment to the brand 7-89
  • 90. The difference between repeat purchase behaviour and brand loyalty is explained by the statements below EXCEPT: A. repeat purchase often results in brand loyalty B. brand loyalty implies a psychological commitment to the brand C. repeat purchase may exist because there is only one brand in that product category D. brand loyalty is biased Many consumers judge the performance of a clothing product on its appearance over time. This is an example of: A. instrumental performance B. symbolic performance C. satisfaction measurement D. none of the given answers 7-90