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PIANC WG 155 – Ship behaviour in locks and lock approaches

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The presentation provides informations about the work of the PIANC-Working Group "Ship behaviour in locks and lock approaches".

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PIANC WG 155 – Ship behaviour in locks and lock approaches

  1. 1. PIANC WG 155 – Ship behaviour in locks and lock approaches Carsten Thorenz, D. Bousmar, J.-P. Dubbelman, Li Jun, D. Spitzer, J.J. Veldman, J. R. Augustijn, W. Kortlever, A. Hartley, A. Moreno, R. Salas, J. Wong, M. Vantorre, O. Weiler, P. Hunter, S. Roux, Wu Peng
  2. 2. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 PIANC InCom WG 155 „Ship Behaviour in Locks and Lock Approaches“ • Successor to WG „Innovation in navigation lock design“, which was focused on the construction of locks • Focus on interaction between lock operation and ship behaviour • Inaugurated in September 2011 in New Orleans during the SmartRivers Conference • WG 155 currently has 14 senior and 4 young professional members from 9 countries
  3. 3. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Meetings of PIANC InCom WG 155 „Ship Behaviour in Locks and Lock Approaches“ • Work meetings took roughly three days • Work meetings were planned to combine three half day work sessions with technical tours • Work meetings in Delft (Deltares), Lyon (CNR), Panama (ACP, IMPA) and short meeting in Maastricht • Organized workshop on locks during PIANC SmartRivers Conference 2013 (in Maastricht / Liege)
  4. 4. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Working group meeting in Panama City WG 155 with hosts and guests at the old Panama Canal locks
  5. 5. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Workshop at PIANC SmartRivers Conference 2013
  6. 6. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Goals of PIANC WG 155 „Ship Behaviour in Locks and Lock Approaches“ Give designers of locks and organizations that operate locks an idea about the troubles they might encounter and what to do against it. Which factors are important for safe locking? The following points were evaluated: • What are the relevant physical processes? • How to evaluate the forces on the vessel? • What is the vessels reaction? • What does the captain/pilot think on this? • What to do prevent misery?
  7. 7. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Relevant tasks for the WG • Point out relevant physics of the interaction between lock and vessel (focusing on what is special for locks) • Gather data from scientific studies and user experience • Produce a comprehensible report (not only for scientists) • Enhance interaction between experts working in the field  Workshop during PIANC SmartRivers Conference 2013
  8. 8. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Overview on identified topics • Sink and surge waves in approaches and adjacent canals • Local flow fields from lock discharge • Density driven flows when opening the gate • Piston effects when entering or leaving the lock • Impact of the filling process on the vessel • …
  9. 9. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Why are the identified topics important? • Sink and surge waves in approaches  Vessels can hit bridges or ground • Local flow fields from lock discharge  Vessels loose their course • Piston effects when entering or leaving the lock  Vessels hit the sill or are difficult to control • Density driven flows when opening the gate  Vessels hit the gate or the lock walls • Impact of the filling process on the vessel  Vessel‘s mooring lines brake
  10. 10. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Relevant Effects: Discharge from lock emptying • Local scale: Flow fields  Bad for manoeuvring when entering or leaving a lock • Large scale: Long waves in adjacent reaches  Forces on moored ships  Hitting bridges  Grounding  Generates local flow fields at crossings, harbours etc.  Waves can amplify at the next lock For the lock filling, the local effects are much less pronounced (potential flow) but the large scale effects are similar!
  11. 11. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Real world: Waves are significant Water level and water slope recordings from Henrichenburg Lock, near Dortmund, Dortmund-Ems-Kanal (Germany).
  12. 12. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Large scale influence in canals Computed and measured water table downstream the lock Rothensee h[m+NN] g 38,85 38,90 38,95 39,00 39,05 39,10 39,15 39,20 39,25 39,30 39,35 39,40 23.10.00 20:00:00 23.10.00 21:00:00 23.10.00 22:00:00 23.10.00 23:00:00 24.10.00 00:00:00 24.10.00 01:00:00 24.10.00 02:00:00 24.10.00 03:00:00 24.10.00 04:00:00 24.10.00 05:00:00 24.10.00 06:00:00 Zeit Simulation Naturversuch Berechnungsgrundlage: Ausbauzustand 1 Elbe: MNW Numerical 1D-model In-situ measurements Time [dd.mm.yy] [hh:mm:ss]
  13. 13. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Example: Surge wave on double lock Lock and weir Zeltingen at river Mosel, Germany
  14. 14. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Example: Surge wave on double lock Lock and weir Zeltingen at river Mosel, Germany
  15. 15. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Example: Surge wave on double lock Lock and weir Zeltingen at river Mosel, Germany
  16. 16. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Example: Surge wave on double lock Simulation result for surge/sink wave
  17. 17. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Example: Surge wave on double lock Simulation result for surge/sink wave
  18. 18. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Example: Surge wave on double lock
  19. 19. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Example: Surge wave on double lock
  20. 20. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Example: Surge wave on double lock
  21. 21. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Example: Surge wave on double lock
  22. 22. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Example: Surge wave on double lock • High forces on ship in neighbouring chamber • 3D simulation of flow field • Validated with on-site measurements • Significant forces on vessels due to surge/sink wave  Cured by using a slower valve schedule for emptying the chamber
  23. 23. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Relevant Effects: Density driven flows Observed salt exchange in IJmuiden
  24. 24. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Relevant Effects: Density driven flows Observed salt exchange in IJmuiden
  25. 25. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Relevant Effects: Density driven flows Physical model test with symmetric configuration (by Flanders Hydraulics)
  26. 26. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Relevant Effects: Density driven flows Physical model test with one-sided closed wall (by Flanders Hydraulics)
  27. 27. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Relevant Effects: Density driven flows Computed salt intrusion in a sea lock (by BAW)
  28. 28. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Relevant Effects: Density driven flows Possible mitigation: Air bubble screen (Photos by Deltares)
  29. 29. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Relevant Effects: Density driven flows • Occur in locks of the coastal regions • Difficult for manoeuvring because „what you see is not (always) what you feel“ • Can last very long for maritime locks (~30 minutes) • Can be mitigated by technical devices (bubble screens, flushing, pumping), but this is expensive
  30. 30. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Relevant Effects: Piston effects • When entering, vessels observe sudden strong deceleration • When exiting, the vessel is slow and may hit the sill (Vrijbucht, 2000)
  31. 31. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Relevant Effects: Piston effect Lock „Pierre Benite“, River Rhone, France
  32. 32. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Relevant Effects: Piston effect … five minutes later
  33. 33. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Relevant Effects: Piston effects • When entering, vessels observe sudden strong deceleration • When exiting, the vessel is slow and may hit the sill  Effect on lock cycle time should not be underestimated!
  34. 34. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Relevant Effects: Impact of filling systems on forces on the vessel • Ideal filling-empyting system spreads flow equally over the whole length of the chamber • Real filling-empyting systems are more or less imbalanced • More complex filling systems enable faster lock operation, but are more expensive to build and more expensive to operate
  35. 35. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Relevant Effects: Impact of filling systems on forces on the vessel SpeedSpeed CostsCostsForcesForces
  36. 36. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Ship forces, hawser forces or mooring forces? We have to be specific: • Forces of the water acting on the vessel (“Ship forces“, “Hydrodynamic forces”) • Forces in the mooring lines (“Line forces“, “Hawser forces“) • Forces exerted on the mooring equipment (“Mooring forces”) Attention: In many publications, these are mixed up! (Or are even used in the wrong way …)
  37. 37. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Forces on vessels in the lock chamber • Evaluate water slopes and estimate ship forces, line force and mooring forces from them or • Measure forces on the hull and compute line forces and mooring forces from them or • Measure forces in the mooring lines or on the bollards directly - Sounds best, but introduces many uncertainties: Hawser types, pretension, orientation, handling, … - Hard to reproduce  not feasible
  38. 38. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Relevant Effects: Impact of filling systems on forces on the vessel Most simple: Filling through the gate More complex: Filling through the bottom
  39. 39. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Relevant Effects: Impact of filling systems on forces Numerical results for a partially balanced „through the sill“ system
  40. 40. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Relevant Effects: Impact of filling systems on forces Sophistocated filling system of locks at the Main-Danube-Canal
  41. 41. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Relevant Effects: Impact of filling systems on forces Sophistocated filling system: Dead ends fill with debris
  42. 42. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Relevant Effects: Impact of valve operation on forces on the vessel • The operation of the lock valves balances between smoothness and speed • Allowable speed strongly depends on chosen filling system • Speed changes should be carefully evaluated!
  43. 43. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Lock Roselies, River Sambre, Belgium: Impact of a discontinuous valve opening schedule on the water surface (from PIANC 155 report draft) -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 10:52 10:54 10:56 10:58 11:00 11:02 Waterlevel(m) Discharge(m³/s) Discharge Water level Relevant Effects: Impact of valve operation on forces on the vessel
  44. 44. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 10:52 10:54 10:56 10:58 11:00 11:02 Valveopening(°) Watersurfaceslope(1/1000) Water slope Valve opening Relevant Effects: Impact of valve operation on forces on the vessel Lock Roselies, River Sambre, Belgium: Impact of a discontinuous valve opening schedule on the water surface (from PIANC 155 report draft)
  45. 45. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Physical model tests for the lock Kiel-Holtenau: Emergency stop creates significant forces (from PIANC 155 report draft) Relevant Effects: Impact of valve operation on forces on the vessel
  46. 46. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Methods: How to evaluate forces on the vessel Analytical formulae: • Simple • Fast • Depend on coefficients Numerical models (1D, 2D, 3D and combinations of them) • Need specialists for sound results • Full 3D simulations with moving ship „not there yet“ Physical model tests • Hard to set up • Fast to operate • Much experience
  47. 47. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Ineffective mooring Other aspects: Treatment of pleasure crafts
  48. 48. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 “Rough” filling (left) and reaction of crafts (right) Other aspects: Treatment of pleasure crafts
  49. 49. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Yes, this is a lock for commercial traffic Other aspects: Treatment of pleasure crafts
  50. 50. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 HAZOP brainstorming during PIANC SmartRivers Conference 2013 Other aspects: Analysis of possible hazards
  51. 51. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Future report structure: Point of view of the user Based on a timeline of events for the vessel that transits through a lock: • leaving normal navigation • waiting in front of the entrance • entering the lock • the locking process • leaving the lock • returning to normal navigation It should also contain basic information for operators and designers, which are not necessarily experts on the topic
  52. 52. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Status of WG 155 report • All of the topics mentioned above are covered (And many more) • Report is more or less final • Currently in last editing steps … hopefully you can have it pretty soon 
  53. 53. PIANC WG 155 Carsten Thorenz · June 2014 Thank you for your attention! … and to the members of WG 155 for the work done so far

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