Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.

Epidemiology of cancer

Epidemiology of cancer

  • Loggen Sie sich ein, um Kommentare anzuzeigen.

Epidemiology of cancer

  1. 1. CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY
  2. 2. DEFINITION • A group of diseases characterized by : • abnormal growth of cells ability to invade adjacent tissues & even distant organs • the eventual death of the affected patient if the tumour has progressed beyond that stage when it can be successfully removed
  3. 3. MAJOR CATEGORIES OF CANCER • Carcinoma - arise from epithelial cells lining internal surfaces of various organs & from skin epithelium • Sarcoma- arise from mesodermal cells constituting various connective tissues • Lymphoma, myeloma & leukaemia- arise from cells of bone marrow & immune systems
  4. 4. • “Primary tumour” – cancer in the organ of origin • “Secondary tumour”- • cancer that has spread to regional lymph nodes and distant organs
  5. 5. WORLDWIDE • 22.4 million living with cancer • 10 million diagnosed every year • 6 million deaths every year
  6. 6. INCIDENCE MORTALITY Lung (12.3%) Lung (17.4%) Breast (10.4%) Stomach(10.4%) Colorectal (9.3%) Liver(8.8%)
  7. 7. GENDER WISE (PERSON) DISTRIBUTION OF CANCER Males (LSC) • Lung • Stomach • Colorectal Females (BCC) • Breast • Cervix • Colorectal
  8. 8. TIME TRENDS 6th cause of death in the 1900s 2nd cause of death in 2000 because of:  Increase in life expectancy  Better & accurate diagnosis  Increase in cigarette smoking
  9. 9. DISTRIBUTION Developed countries: • lifestyle and dietary habits e.g. Ca lung, Ca breast, Ca colorectal Developing countries: infective origin e.g. Ca Cervix, Ca Liver, Ca stomach • Ca stomach common in Japan, not in US • Ca Cervix more common in EAR, not in Japan
  10. 10. CAUSES OF CANCER I.Environmental factors Tobacco Alcohol: oesophageal ,liver cancer,rectal cancer Dietary factors: Smoked fish-stomach cancer, beef-bowel cancer,high fat diet- breast cancer Also food additives & contaminants-suspicion as causative agents Low fruit and vegetable intake
  11. 11. CARCINOGENS IN DIFFERENT OCCUPATIONS
  12. 12. IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE AGENTS AND CANCER
  13. 13. RADIATIONS AND CANCER
  14. 14. INFECTIONS AND CANCER
  15. 15. SCHISTOSOMIASIS AND OPISTORCHIASIS
  16. 16. AUTOMOBILE EMISSIONS
  17. 17. PAH EXPOSURE
  18. 18. INDUSTRIAL EMISSIONS
  19. 19. AFLATOXINS
  20. 20. ASBESTOS AND LUNG CANCER
  21. 21. CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR TRAGEDY
  22. 22. GENETIC FACTORS 1.Mutations in genes result in altered proteins •During cell division •External agents 2. Most cancers result from mutations in somatic cells 3. Some cancers are caused by mutations in germline cells
  23. 23. CANCER PREVENTION AND CONTROL • More than 30% of cancer deaths can be prevented Primary prevention • Control of tobacco and alcohol consumption • Personal hygiene • Radiation protection • Occupational protection • Immunization: HPV,Hep.B
  24. 24. • Cautious use of foods, drugs and cosmetics • Control of Air pollution • Treatment of precancerous lesions • Legislation • Cancer education
  25. 25. CANCER PREVENTION
  26. 26. SECONDARY PREVENTION 1. Cancer registration – Hospital-based registry – Population-based registry 3. Treatment: Surgery, Radiotherapy and chemotherapy 4. Palliative care: Relief from pain and other problems
  27. 27. CANCER SCREENING Why screening is possible? • Precancerous or premalignant lesions • Localized lesions initially • 75% Of cancer are at accessible body sites
  28. 28. METHODS OF CANCER SCREENING Mass screening of more than one site (of cancer) • Mass screening at single site • Selective screening: high risk group
  29. 29. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ORAL CANCER • Commonest cancer in India (70%) • 90% of oral cancers due to tobacco • Alcohol • High risk groups: tobacco smokers & chewers, smokers, betel quid, tobacco quid • Cultural patterns: Cigarttes,bidi,cigar,chilum, hookah(hubble- bubble),khaini,nasswar,snuff • Ca palate : with habit of reverse smoking of cigar
  30. 30. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF ORAL CANCER 1.Primary • Education, motivation, legislative 2.Secondary Early case detection and treatment Leukoplakia treatment: • Cessation of tobacco use • Surgery • Radiotherapy
  31. 31. STOMACH CANCER • World’s 2nd most common cancer • 1 million new cases/year • 2/3 cases in developing countries • Most are adenocarcinoma • Causes: H.pylori inf.,improper preservation of foods ,smoked fish • Symptoms non specific • Diagnosis: barium x-ray,biopsy • Treatment: Surgery, chemotherapy

×