What is a project?
• A project requires an organized set of work efforts.
• Projects require a level of detail that is progressively
elaborated upon as more information is discovered.
• Projects are subject to limitations of time and
resources such as money and people.
• Projects have a defined beginning and ending.
Project – “a temporary endeavor undertaken to
create a unique product, service, or result.”
What is a project?
• A project has a unique combination of stakeholders
stakeholders – “persons or organizations … that are
actively involved in the project, or whose interests may
be positively or negatively affected by execution or
completion of the project.”
Project Management (PM)
• PM includes work processes to plan, execute, and
controlling of project activities
• Work processes require tradeoffs among the scope,
quality, cost, and schedule of the project
• PM includes leadership tasks for visioning, motivating,
and promoting work associates.
• PM knowledge, skills, and methods apply for most
Project management – “the application of knowledge,
skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet
project requirements.” PMBOK® Guide
History of Project Management
• 3300 BC Indus Valley Civilization (well constructed
houses and city)
• 2570 BC Giza Pyramid
• 208 BC Great Wall of China
• 1917 Henry Gantt introduced Gantt chart
• PM emerged as a formal discipline in the 1950s
• 1957 Critical Path Method technique (CPM)
developed by DuPont Corporation
• 1958 Program Evaluation and Review
Techniques(PERT) developed by US Navy
Highlights of Projects
• Projects are temporary and unique; operations are
• Project managers need “soft skills” and “hard skills”
to be effective.
• Project managers frequently have more
responsibility than authority.
• Projects go through predictable stages called a life
Projects Versus Operations
• Projects are temporary
• Projects have both routine and unique
• Operations consist of the ongoing work needed to
ensure that an organization continues to function
Soft Skills and Hard Skills
• Soft skills include communication and leadership
• Hard skills include risk analysis, quality control,
scheduling, and budgeting work
• A successful project manager needs both soft and
hard skills along with the judgment of when each is
• Training, experience, and mentoring are
instrumental in developing necessary skills.