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Dr.s.k.malhotra drug & food safety

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Dr.s.k.malhotra drug & food safety

  1. 1. Drug and Chemical Residues as Hazards to Food Safety in Horticulture S.K. Malhotra Horticulture Commissioner, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India and Assistant Director General (Horticulture), Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi
  2. 2. Let us have short overview about …… • Situation of Food and Nutrition • Can we produce to meet growing needs ? in the Changing Scenario
  3. 3. Emerging Scenario • Growing population • Declining land and water • Increasing malnutrition • New diseases, pests and uncertainty of weather • Global prices of food shooting up • Safe food for consumption • Task – • Food, • Fodder • Fibre • Fuel and Health care
  4. 4. How Indian agric. Has changed in past 60 years • Since 1950-51- increase in production :  Food grains - 4.5 times,  Horticultural crops - 11 times,  Fish - 9 times  Milk - times &  Eggs 27 times id Rapid stride Laudable achievements • India's transformation from a food deficit to a food surplus country • But increasing demand for food grains, fruits, vegetables & others and food safety are of concern
  5. 5. The green revolution Adoption of HYVs Use of agro-chemicals Irrigation The green revolution enabled India’s food production to keep up with population growth.
  6. 6. Declining Fertilizer Response Low Fertilizer Response - Irrigated Areas 13.4 11 8.2 7 5.8 4.9 4.1 3.7 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Response ratio (kg grain/kg NPK)
  7. 7. Pesticide use • Pesticide use is still rising sharply across the world, although growth has slowed in the U.S. •1 billion kg (2 billion lbs.) of pesticides are applied each year in the U.S. • In India 82000 metric ton (21000 mt for fruits-veg. (750g/ha)
  8. 8. Foods- sustain life • Absolute safe food - which will not cause any damage or harm to human body. • Our food is subject to contamination
  9. 9. Specific food safety issues • Fertilizers and other plant growing aids • Pesticides • Microbiological contamination • Additives, colours and flavours • Antibiotics and other food additives • Irradiation • Naturally occurring food toxicants • Nutrition • Pollutants • Processing, packaging and labeling Hazards: Physical, Chemical, Biological
  10. 10. 29/11/14 10
  11. 11. Food Borne Infections Bacterial food borne infections include Cholera, salmonellosis, typhoid fever, shigellosis, Yersiniosis Escherichia coli infection Campylobacteriosis, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Listeriosis Mycotic food borne infections include Candida spp., Sporothrix spp., Wangiella spp. etc), Viral food borne infections include hepatitis A , Norwak virus and poliomyelitis virus Food borne infections and intoxications
  12. 12. Worm & Microorganism infection  Threadworms, Roundworms, tapeworms and flukes  Microorganism cause such things as abdominal plain and diarrhoea.
  13. 13. Effect of crude oxytocin injection on length (cm) of bottle gourd fruits
  14. 14. Effect of crude oxytocin injection on diameter (cm) of bottle gourd fruits
  15. 15. Wax…. Free….. ?????
  16. 16. PPeeooppllee wwiitthh aa hhiigghheerr rriisskk ooff ffooooddbboorrnnee iillllnneessss PPrreeggnnaanntt wwoommeenn IInnffaannttss YYoouunngg cchhiillddrreenn aanndd oollddeerr aadduullttss People with weakened immune system and individuals with certain chronic diseases A REPORT: By reducing 20 to 10 μg/kg aflatoxins – 300 cancers/ billion/year can be avoided
  17. 17. Why food safety ? Food safety ensures : •Prevention of food borne diseases •Provides nutrition and good quality to the consumer •Promotes international trade and stimulates economic development. •Guarantee that food has no negative effects on health of consumer
  18. 18. Food safety -two basic concepts • Toxicity (capacity of a substa nce to produce harm or injury) and • Hazard (relative probability that harm or injury will result when the substance is used in a proposed manner & quantity)
  19. 19. Maintaining Food safety Essential in the entire chain of food production: •Raw agricultural commodity at farm level, •Primary processing (on-farm processing), •Secondary food processing level such as canning, freezing, drying and packing, •Food distribution both at national and international level; •Food retailing, food catering and domestic food preparation. Farmer, growers, manufacturers and processors, food handlers and consumers – responsibility for quality
  20. 20. What is food quality? • Quality - characteristics of food which determine the degree of its acceptability by the consumer. • Quality means product meets consumer expectations • Quality is overall, consumer’s satisfaction and value worth, which he is paying. Quality characteristics : Sensory characteristics – Colour, gloss, viscosity, size and shape, kinesthetic of texture and flavour. Hidden characteristics – Nutritive value, adulterants and toxins (microbial toxins, pesticide residues or heavy metals)
  21. 21. Organizations looking after food safety and quality • National – Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) Directorate of Marketing & Inspection (Agmark) • International – Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) International Standards Organization (ISO) Association of Official Agri. Chemists (AOAC) United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR)
  22. 22. National/International Regime: Food Safety FSSAI/FAO, WHO, WTO, CODEX, OIE, IPPC including SPS, TBT 1.Consumer Safety (Prime Importance) 2. Fair Trade Practice (Fraud/Adulteration)
  23. 23. National Food Legislations • Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 and Rules, 1955 • Agriculture Produce Act, 1937 (AGMARK) Grading and Marketing • Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986 • Environment Protection Act, 1986 and Rules, 1989 • Export (Quality Control and Inspection) Act, 1963 • Essential Commodities Act, 1955 • Insecticides Act, 1968 • Standard of Weights and Measures Act, 1976 • Fruit Product Order, 1955 • Meat Product Control Order, 1973 • Solvent Extracted Oil, De-oiled Meal and Edible Flour (Control) Order, 1967 • Milk and Milk Product Order, 1992 • Vegetable Oil Products (Regulation) Order, 1998 • Edible Oil Packaging (Development and Regulation) Order, 1998
  24. 24. Food safety & quality assurance programs Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Total Quality Management (TQM) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary Agreement (SPS)
  25. 25. Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) Estab/1963 to implement FAO/WHO joint food standard programme. About 150 countries including India are member of CAC. Codex India is the National Codex Contact Point (NCCP) Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, GOI, New Delhi. Codex standards comprise standards for –  processed frozen fruits and vegetables,  fruit juices,  fats and oils,  milk products,  cereals and pulses,  fish and poultry products,  cocoa products, and  standard methods of analysis. These standards, guidelines and recommendations are recognized worldwide
  26. 26. Activities done by CAC Formulation of standards for 237 food commodities, Formulation of 41 codes of hygienic practices, Evaluation of 185 pesticides, Prescription of tolerance limits for contaminants, Developing guidelines for 25 contaminants, Evaluation of 1005 food additives, and Evaluation of 54 veterinary drugs.
  27. 27. Represented India in CODEX – CCFFV (Okra, Ware Potato, Brinjal) (24-28 February, 2014, Phuket, Thailand)
  28. 28. Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary Agreement (SPS) The agreement on sanitary and phyto-sanitary conditions for food export. Signed during the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations between WTO member countries (1988). Aims at ensuring the health and life-safety of plants, animals and humans in any country. Specifies the minimum hygiene standards that must be complied with by the exporting countries. Allows member countries to implement their own standards. Four broad categories of standards – 1. Product standards 2. Process standards 3. Testing standards 4. Certification standards
  29. 29. Standard setting agencies in India Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) Ministry of Food Processing Industries (MFPI) FSSAI Export Inspection Council (EIC) Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) – NCCP in India Agricultural and Processed Food Product Development Authority (APEDA) Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA)
  30. 30. National Regime: Ensuring Food Safety National Food Control System (Primary Responsibility) •Single Competent Authority •Multiple Competent Authorities In India: FSSAI (Domestic & Import), EIC (Export), APEDA, MPEDA, Spice Board, Tea Board etc.
  31. 31. National Accreditation for pesticide residue analysis and Virus Indexing
  32. 32. Recommended hygiene practices When tested by appropriate methods of sampling and examination the product : •shall be free from microorganisms in amounts which may represent a hazard to health; •shall be free from parasites which may represent a hazard to health; and •shall not contain any substance originating from microorganisms in amounts which may represent a hazard to health.
  33. 33. Good Agriculture Practices Is a holistic production management system •Sustainable, eco-friendly, free from contamination •Avoids/largely excludes chemical fertiliser, pesticides etc. •Mainly rely on organic farming system including crop rotation, legume, green manure, compost, biological pest control etc.
  34. 34. Protected cultivation to address the challenge of shrinking land and changing climate
  35. 35. PROTECTED CULTIVATION Tomato (300 t/ha/year) Capsicum (200 t/ha/year)
  36. 36. Hi-tech nursery • For off season nursery and crops • Improved quality • Increased Productivity • Reduced incidence of diseases and pests
  37. 37. 39 Micro-propagation a success story in Banana  Development of disease-free planting material  Mass multiplication of vegetatively propagated plants  Safe exchange for disease safety
  38. 38. MICROGREENS-"vegetable confetti” 4 to 40 fold more concentrated with nutrients like vitamin 29/11/14 C, vitamin E, vitamin K, lutein and beta-carotene. 41
  39. 39. Methyl Bromide banned- impetus to soilless farming era • Faced with a 2005 ban on methyl bromide as a soil fumigant, • alternate strategies started developing with soilless/hydroponic farming being one of the major one 29/11/14 42
  40. 40. Wheel Hoe Power Weeder
  41. 41. Organic cultivation Organic tomato (50-60 t/ha) Organic French beans ( 18-20 t/ha) Organic Cabbage ( 50-55 t/ha)
  42. 42. What types of biofertilizers are available? For Nitrogen •Rhizobium for legume crops. •Azotobacter/Azospirillum for non-legume crops. •Acetobacter for sugarcane only. •Blue –Green Algae (BGA) and •Azolla for low land paddy. •Green manuring For Phosphorous •PSB/Phosphatika • AM fungi •For enriched compost •Cellulolytic fungal culture
  43. 43. Plant health management Pest management •Knowledge of prominent pest and diseases of given crop •Time of resurgence of pests/diseases •Prevention/eradication by prevailing traditional practices •Biological/physical/ natural pest / disease control •Neem products •Tulasi/ Karanj products •Pheromones •Trichoderma viride –bio-control
  44. 44. Bio control agents • Bio-agents like Trichogramma, NPV and Paecilomyces for control of pests • Trichoderma, Pseudomonas, Bacillus for reducing soil-borne pathogens HPS
  45. 45. Fruit fly pheromone trap No. of trap sold: 2,38,687 No of traps /ac : 6 Area covered : 39,781 ac Crop loss savings per acre : 4 quintals Farm gate sale price : Rs.16/- kg Economic impact : Rs 25.46 crores
  46. 46. Integrated Pest Management Trap crops CABBAGE
  47. 47. Lime harvester PPoosstt hhaarrvveesstt tteecchhnnoollooggyy Guava harvester Kinnow Sapota harvester harvester
  48. 48. PPoosstt hhaarrvveesstt tteecchhnnoollooggyy Hot water treatment plant •Capacity :1 ton/hour •Anthracnose control :52°C for 5 minutes •Fruit fly control :46°C for 65 minutes
  49. 49. Threshing of Seeds Trampling Beating
  50. 50. Mechanized cultivation 1. Vegetable transplanter 2. Potato and Garlic planter 3. Direct seeding of onion, okra, chillies using machines 4. Potato and Onion harvesters 5. Grafting robot Grafting Robot Mulch laying machine
  51. 51. Post harvest management • Pre-cooling • Controlled Atmosphere Storage • Packaging systems • Traceability Packing Cold chain management Shrink Wrapping
  52. 52. Cold Chain Enablers (the tools)
  53. 53. Key Priorities • Creating an integrated and competitive supply chains for horticulture • Establishing good practices in food chain • Enhance our ability to identify food safety risks • Improve our inspections of domestic and imported foods • Awareness
  54. 54. Good Practices in Food Chain  Good Agricultural Practices- land use , pesticide use  Good Catering Practices- ensure food served is safe and wholesome  Good Hygiene Practices-  Good Laboratory Practices- Quality control and analytical labs  Good Manufacturing Practices  Good Retail Practices- tracing system to track faulty product  Good Storage Practices  Good Transport Practices  Good Nutrition and House keeping Practices
  55. 55. Improved food safety Less illness, Less Medical and Social costs and Less Poverty Food trade access International trade capability Safe national trade Improved health Improved participation in national development Overall Development
  56. 56. Important Pillars of National Food Control System • Legislation/Regulation • Inspection • Testing (Backbone) Food Chemist • Enforcement
  57. 57. Food Testing 1. Testing: To do something in order to discover that Food Product is safe, meets the requirements of standard and implied needs 2. Analysis: To study or examine Food Product in detail to discover more about its quality and safety 3. Inspection: Look at Food Product including label carefully that everything is correct and legal 4. Sampling: A sample which is representative of a lot/consignment
  58. 58. National Regime: Ensuring Food Safety National Food Control System (Primary Responsibility) •Single Competent Authority •Multiple Competent Authorities In India: FSSAI (Domestic & Import), EIC (Export), APEDA, MPEDA, Spice Board, Tea Board etc.

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Labour is a limitation for Scaling up cultivation

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