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Physiological Significance of Oja
Dr. Vandana Verma
Assistant Professor
Department of Kriya Sharir, Faculty of Ayurveda, IMS, BHU,
Varanasi, India
Learning objectives:
 What is oja.
 Formation of Oja
 Types of Oja, quantity and its characteristics.
 Site of Oja.
 How Oja is formed and Circulated.
 Function of Oja
 Physiological Significance of Oja.
 Concept of Vyadhikshamatva (Immunity)
 Types of Bala (Immunity)
 Concept of Acquired immunity and senstization
 Factors Enhancing Oja and bala
 Causes of Oja Kshya
 Abnormal state of Oja – Vishransha, Vyapada, Kshya
 Conclusion
11/18/2019 2
What is Oja
"Oja" denotes the biological substances that imparts strength
to Manas (mind) and various tissues in the body to resist
disease and degeneration of body.
 Bodily strength
 Vigour
 Energy
 Ability
Meaning of Oja as per Monier’s William dic. –
 Vitality
 The generative faculty
 Support
 The principle of vital warmth and action diffused
through- out the body
11/18/2019 3
Oja
 रसादीनाां शुक्रान्तानाां धातुनाां यत ् परां तेजस्तत ् ख्ल्वोज: तदेव ् बलमित्युच्यते ।
(S.Su. 15/19)
 ओजस्तु तेजो धातूनाां शुक्रान्तानाां परां स्िृति्| (A. hr.su. 11/37)
 यत्परां तेजः सारां घृतिधुस्थानीयां प्रत्येकिेव रसादीनाां यदुत्कृ ष्टोऽशः सारभागः स मिमलत्वा
हृदयप्रधानस्थानत्वात्तत्रस्थ एव च धिनीमभहृृदयिूलामभः कृ त्स्नां शरीरां तपृयतत बलहेतुश्च धातूनाां
भवतत, शुक्रशोणितसांसगाृत्प्रभृतत शरीरिधधततष्ठते स्वकिृिा तदोजः ( Chakrapaani on
Su.Su.15/19)
 परिाथृस्तु बलौजसोभेद एव; यथा भेदस्तदुच्यते -सवृधातुस्नेहभूतस्योपचयलक्षिस्यौजसो रूपरसौ
वीयाृदद च ववद्यते, बलस्य तु भारहरिाददशक्ततगम्यस्य रसवीयृविाृददगुिा न ववद्यन्ते,
अतोऽनयोभेदोऽस्त्येवेतत;( Dalhana on Su.Su.15/19) 11/18/2019 4
Formation of Oja
 iq";fUr Rokgkjjlkæl#f/kjekal esnks·fLFkaeTtk 'kqØkStkflA ¼ C.Su.28 /4½
 “भ्रिरः फलपुष्पेभ्यो यथा सांदियते िधु| तद्वदोजः शरीरेभ्यो गुिः सांदियते नृिाि्” इतत|
(C.Su.17/26)
 Oja is formed and nourished by Ahara in a similar manner as Tissues .
 Apara Oja ( Shleshmic Oja) is formed from Sara part of Ahara Rasa.
 Oja is aggregate of Sara part of all Dhatu. Thus all the tissues
contribute in imparting immunity and strength to body.
11/18/2019 5
Formation of Oja
 प्रथिां जायते ह्योजः शरीरेऽक्स्िञ्छरीररिाि ्| | ( Ch.Su.17/75)
 यत् सारिादौ गभृस्य यत्तद्गभृरसाद्रसः
सांवतृिानां हृदयां सिाववशतत यत् पुरा ( Ch.Su.30/10)
 Oja is first formed at time of formation of zygote.
 It is present in sperm and ova then in the form of Garbha Rasa, it supports the development of
foetus in intrauterine life.
 After the formation of heart it get localised in heart in the form of para oja and support the whole
body.
11/18/2019 6
Circulation of Oja
 दश िूलमसरा हृत्स्थास्ताः सवं सवृतो वपुः
रसात्िकां वहन्त्योजस्तक्न्नबद्धां दह चेक्ष्टति् ( A.H.Sha.3/18)
 यत् सारिादौ गभृस्य यत्तद्गभृरसाद्रसः
सांवतृिानां हृदयां सिाववशतत यत् पुरा
यस्य नाशात्तु नाशोऽक्स्त धारर यद्धृदयाधिति्
यच्छरीररसस्नेहः प्रािा यत्र प्रततक्ष्ठताः
तत्फला बहुधा वा ताः फलन्तीव(तत) िहाफलाः ( Ch.Su.30/9-11)
 Ten great vessels connected to heart carry the Rasatmaka Oja, on which the
whole life process depends.
11/18/2019 7
Oja
 Different words have been used to denote Oja in various context like –
Rasa
Jivashonita
Prakrita Sleshma ( Sleshmic Oja)
Ushma
Sharir Rasa Sneha
 एतेनतदुपपन्नि्, "धातूनाां तेजमस रसे तथा जीववतशोणिते| श्लेष्िणि प्राकृ ते वद्यरोजःशब्दः प्रकीततृतः||"
इतत| Hemadri on A. hr.su. 11/37
 यच्छरीररसस्नेहः प्रािा यत्र प्रततक्ष्ठताः ( Ch.Su.30/9-11)
 देहौजो देहसारः; ककां वा देहश्च ओजश्च देहौजः| ( Chakrapani on Ch.Su.17/60)
 सवृधातूनाां स्नेहिोज: क्षीरे घृतमिव तदेव बलां इतत। भा. प्र. ५०३/२८१
 rU=kUrjs"kq vkst% 'kCnsu jlks·I;qP;rs] tho'kksf.kr;I;kst% 'kCnsukeufUr dsfpr] m"ek.keI;kst%
'kCnsukijs onfUrA& Dalhana Com. on Su.Su. 15/24 11/18/2019 8
Consideration of Oja as Dhatu,
Updhatu, fraction of Sukra
 LFkwyksHkkx% 'kqØeso] LusgHkkx lw{eLrstksHkwr vkst%A & Dalhana
Commen. on Su. Su. 14/10
 'kqØL; lkjekst%A vR;Ur'kq)r;k pkfLeu~eykHko%A ¼v0la0'kk0 6/73½
 ओजःशब्दश्च यद्यवप रसेऽवप वतृते, यदुततां- “रसश्चौजसङ्खख्लयातः” (तन.
४) इतत, तथा “िलीभवतत तत् प्रायः क्पते ककक्ञ्चदोजसे” (धच. ८)
,rPpkSt% mi/kkrq#ia dsfpnkgq%] /kkrqfgZ /kkj.kiks"k.k;ksxkn~ Hkofr] vkstLrq
nsg/kkjda lnfi u nsg iks"kda uk"Veks /kkrqjkst%A के धचत्तु शुक्रववशेषिोजः
प्राहुः, तच्च न िनः प्रीिातत| & Chakrapani Commen. on Ch.
Su. 30/7
11/18/2019 9
Type and Quantity of Oja
 Two Types – 1. Para Oja - 8 drops or 6 drops
2. Apara Oja ( Shlashmic Oja) -1/2 anjali
 सकलशरीरव्यावपनस्तस्य षड्बबन्दुकस्य ववशेषेि हृदयां स्थानि् ( Arundutta on
A.H.Su.11/37)
 श्लक्ष्िकस्यौजस इत्यनेन यदोजोऽष्टबबन्दुकां तद्व्यततररततस्यौजस ओजोवहधिनीवाह्यस्य
ववशुद्धश्लेष्िसिानगुिस्याधाृञ्जमलप्रिािताां दशृयतत| ओजो दह परावरभेदेन
द्ववववधिथेदशिहािूलीये दमशृतिेव(Chakrapani on C.Sharir.7/15)
11/18/2019 10
Site of Oja
 ओज: सवृशरीरस्थां । शा. पू. ५/१८
 Located in Hrdaya and all the body.
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Twelve sites of Ojas in body:
refers to protective role of different body constituents i.e. Dosha ,Dhatu and
Mala
 स्थानातन द्वादश्भवक्न्त तद्यथा शोणित्िाांस िेदो अक्स्थ िज़्ज़ा शुक्र शुतल स्वेद वपत्तां श्लेष्ि िूत्र
पुरीषाणि । भेल पृ. ८२
 Sites of ojas are twelve in number such as blood, muscle, fat, bone marrow, genital secretions, body
fluids, sweat, GIT secretions, mucoid secretions, urine and stool.
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First Line Defenses
 Physical
barriers
 Chemical
barriers
 Normal
flora
11/18/2019 13
Normal Flora in Human body
11/18/2019 14
Anatomical Barriers
 Separate interior of body from
environment.
 Skin
 Mucous membranes
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Chemical Barriers
 Complement System
 Lyses bacteria
 Makes cells more susceptible to macrophages
11/18/2019 16
Antibody Classes
 IgG - 75%, Secondary response, complement fixation
 IgM - Primary antibody response, complement fixation
 IgA - local defense ,Secretary fluid - saliva, tears
 IgE - Allergic responses
 IgD - Cell-surface receptor on B lymphocytes help in
recognition of antigen
11/18/2019 17
Lymphoid System
Dhatu (Tissue)specific
 Primary Lymphoid
Organs
 Thymus
 Bone marrow
 Secondary Lymphoid
Organs
 Lymph nodes
 Spleen
 Tonsils
 Adenoids 11/18/2019 18
Cells of the immune system originate in
the bone marrow and descend from
self-renewing stem cells
Cellular Immune System Participants
Stem Cell
Stem Cell
Bi-potential Cell
T
B Lymphocyte
T Lymphocyte
B
M
Mast Cell
E
Eosinophil
N
Neutrophil
MMacrophage
NK
Natural Killer Cell Dendritic Cell
Adaptive (Specific) Immunity
Innate Immunity
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11/18/2019 20
Characteristics and Properties of Ojas
 ओज: सोिात्िकां क्स्नग्धां शुतलां शीतां क्स्थरां सरि ्।
ववववततां िृदु िृत्सनां च प्रािायतनिुत्तिि ्।। सु. सु १५/ २१
 क्स्नग्धां स्नेहगुियुतति ्| शुतलि ् अततश्वेति ्,
 क्स्थरां सुखदुःखयोरचञ्चलां करोतीतत क्स्थरां ( Chakrapani on Su.Su.15/21)
 गुरु शीतां िृदु श्लक्षिां बहलां िधुरां क्स्थरि्।
प्रसन्नां वपक्च्छलां क्स्नग्धिोजो दश गुिां स्िृति ्॥ च. धच. २४/३१
 हृदद ततष्ठतत यच्छु द्धां रततिीषत्सपीतकि ्|सवपृवृिं िधुरसां लाजगक्न्ध प्रजायते|| ( Ch.Su.17/74)
 Oja is white or yellow red in colour, heavy, uncutous, cold , provides stability to body and mind, present in
whole body, best life sustainer.
11/18/2019 21
Function of Ojas
 r= cysu fLFkjksifprekalrk loZps"VkLoizfr?kkr% Lojo.kZizlknks ckákukekH;Urjkoka p dj.kkuk;kRedk;Z
izfrifÙk HkZofrA (Su.Su. 15/25)
 Oja provides bala i.e. strength to Manas (mind).
 It provides strength and immunity to various tissues in the body to resist disease and degeneration of
body.
 Well nourished Mamsa Dhatu reflects the nourishment of Seven dhatu.
 Provides capacity to perform all types of function.
 Sense and Motor organs efficiently involve in their work.
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Dehabala(Physical strength)
देहबलिुत्साहोपचयलक्षिां ( Dalhana on Su.Su.15/5)
बलांकिृसाधनशक्ततव्याृयािानुिेया ( Dalhana on
Su.Su.1/28)
बलांकक्रयातनवृतृनक्षिता, ( Dalhana on Su.Su.1/3)
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Manobala( Mental Strength)
Tolerance to Mental stress or pain.
 सत्त्वांिनोबलांगुिववशेषोरजस्तिसोववृपक्षः;सत्त्वेसततपीडाददसदहष्िुत्वलक्षिांिनोबलांभवतत(
Dalhana on Su.Su.35/37-38)
 के वलिनोबलकरांसङ्खक्पाददतुप्रवतृकां ,घृतक्षीरादददेहिनोबलकरांसदुभयकरमितत ( Dalhana
on Su.Chi.26/6-10)
 िनोबलकरमिततिनोबलांिनःसािर्थ्यं ( Dalhana on Su.Ut.64/65)
11/18/2019 24
Physiological Significance Of Ojas
 It is responsible for Vyadhikshamatva.
 It helps in maintenance of homeostasis of body along with balanced tridosha.
 दोषाणाां प्राकृ तां वैकृ तां च स्वरूपमुक्तमी ते च दोषााः समा
अप्योजसा ववहिनां देिां सांवािययतुमशक्तााः ( Indu on A.S.Su 19/27)
 ओजस्तु तेजो धातूनाां शुक्रान्तानाां परां स्मृतम ्| हृदयस्थमवप व्यावप देिस्स्थयतयनबन्धनम ्
स्स्नग्धां सोमात्मकां शुद्धमीषल्लोहितपीतकम ्| यन्नाशे यनयतां नाशो यस्स्मांस्स्तष्ठयत यतष्ठयत
यनष्पद्यन्ते यतो भावा ववववधा देिसांश्रयााः ( A.H.Su.11/37-38)
11/18/2019 25
Significance of Oja in Mental health and immunity
 To protect heart , blood vessels and mind one should remain away from the
factors causing unhappiness , take food which do not obstruct the channels
and put all effort for calmness of mind by correct knowledge.
 PNEI- Psycho-neuro-endocrino-immunology
 तन्िहत ता िहािूलास्त्च्चौज: परररक्षता । पररहायाृ ववशेषेि िनसो दुख हेतव: ॥
हृद्यां यत ् स्याद्यौजसयां स्रोतसाां यत ् प्रसादनां तत्तत ् सेव्यां प्रयत्नेन् प्रशिो ज्ञानिेव च ।(
Ch.Su.30/13-14)
 सम्प्रतत हृददस्थस्य िनसः पररपालनहेतुिाह- तन्िहददत्यादद| तन्िहददतत षडङ्खगाददस्थानां
हृदयि्| ता िहािूला इतत ओजोवहा धिन्यः| तच्चौज इतत येनौजसेत्याददनोततगुििोजः| प्रशिः
शाक्न्तः| ज्ञानां तत्त्वज्ञानि् (Chakrapani , Ch.Su.30/13-14)
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Kapha, Oja and Bala
प्राकृ तस्तु बलां श्लेषिा ववकृ तो िलां उच्यते ।
स चॆवौजः स्िॄतः काये स च पाप्िोक्प्दश्यते ॥ च. सू. १७/११७
 Sleshma in normal state is responsible for ‘Bala’ (Immunity). Since the Sleshmic
Oja depends on functional state of Kapha..
 Oja is the Substance responsible for Bala(Strength). Bala is two kinds-
1- Capacity to perform physical activity
2. Vayadhikshamatva (Immunity)
 बलमितत बलहेतुत्वेन| िल इतत शरीरिमलनीकरिात्| ओज इतत सारभूतां; यदद वा
द्ववतीयश्लक्ष्िकौजोहेतुत्वेनौजः| वक्ष्यतत दह शारीरे- “तावच्चव श्लक्ष्िकस्यौजसश्च
प्रिािि्” (शा.अ.७) इतत| दुःखहेतुत्वात् पाप्िा|
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Bala i.e. Vyadhiksmatva (Immunity)
 बत्रववधां बलमितत- सहजां, कालजां, युक्ततकृ तां च|
 सहजां यच्छरीरसत्त्वयोः प्राकृ तां, कालकृ तिृतुववभागजां वयःकृ तां च,
युक्ततकृ तां पुनस्तद्यदाहारचेष्टायोगजि ्| ( Ch.Su.11/36)
 Innate Immunity
 Acquired Immunity- Active, passive
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Sahaja Bala( Innate Immunity)-
 सहजां यच्छरीरसत्त्वयोः प्राकृ तां
 It is genetic and inborn resistance to disease, which exists since birth. It is said to increase with the
growth of tissues and does not depend upon any other cause (Chakrapani C.Su.11/36).
 Satva Bala (Mental strength)- Manobala- Pravar, Madhyam , Avar
11/18/2019 29
Kalaja Bala
 कालकृ तिृतुववभागजां वयःकृ तां च,
 Kalaja Bala - influenced by seasonal traits and the age of the
person.
 आदावन्ते च दौबृ्यां ववसगाृदानयोनृृिाि ्|
िध्ये िध्यबलां, त्वन्ते िेष्ठिग्रे च तनददृशेत ्||(C.Su.6/8)
Good strength- Shishir, Hemanta
Medium strength - Basant, Sharad
Low strength - Varsha, Greeshma
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Yuktikrit Bala (Acquired Immunity)
 युक्ततकृ तां पुनस्तद्यदाहारचेष्टायोगजि्
 This type of Sharira Bala refers to modulation of body’s resistance against
diseases –
 by resort to appropriate Ojovardhak diet,
 physical exercise, rest,
 therapies in keeping with seasonal needs
 Lehan Karma in Child.
 Rasayan Dravya- Urjaskar
11/18/2019 31
Vyadhiksmatva (Immunity)
 Immunity is the resistance power either to prevent the onset of disease itself or to
resist the strength of disease.
 न च सवाृणि शरीराणि व्याधधक्षित्वे सिथाृतन भवक्न्त|
व्याधधक्षित्वां व्याधधबलववरोधधत्वां व्याध्युत्पादप्रततबन्धकत्वमितत यावत्| ( Chakrapani on
Ch.Su.28/6)
 व्याधधबलववरोधधत्वां i.e., antagonistic to the strength and virulence of the disease.
 व्याध्युत्पादप्रततबन्धकत्व i.e., the capacity to inhibit and bind the causes and factors of
the disease.
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Vyadhiksmatva (Immunity)
 According to Charak, when the Bala i.e. disease defence mechanism is
stronger than the disease causative factors, then the disease does not
manifest itself.
 Charak and Vaagbhat have also described Bala as the factor, that destroys
the Dosas or disease causing factors.
 बलां ह्यलां तनग्रहाय दोषािाां, बलकृ च्च तत् (C.Ci 3/166)
“Balam hyalam dosharam paratanch balapradam . (A.Hr.Ci.9/49).

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Immune System
 3 major functions
i)Protects body from disease
Bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites
ANTIGEN: Anything that causes immune response
ii) Remove dead or damaged tissue
iii) Recognizes and removes abnormal cells
 2 types of immune responses
i)Innate immunity
ii) Acquired immunity- Humoral, Cell mediated
Specific, powerful, can take several days, Lymphocytes are Key cells
11/18/2019 34
Different Forms of Ojas
 रसात्मकां ( A.H.Sha.3/18) - Circulates all over the body eg.
Immunoglobulins, antibodies, Complement system
 जीववतशोणणते- White fraction of Blood, WBCs
 धातूनाां तेजसस- Immune mechanism at tissue level eg. macrophages,
tissue specific factors controlling immunity.
 शुक्रमलरूपमोजाः provides protection to the fetus in intrauterine life.
Immunoglobulin crossing placenta to enter fetal circulation
 श्लेष्मणण प्राकृ ते: (Hemadri on A. hr.su. 11/37) 11/18/2019 35
Factors Enhancing immunity
(Balavriddhikarbhava)
 बलवृद्धधकराक्स्त्विे भावा भवक्न्त| तद्यथा- बलवत्पुरुषे देशे जन्ि
बलवत्पुरुषे काले च, सुखश्च कालयोगः, बीजक्षेत्रगुिसम्पच्च,
आहारसम्पच्च, शरीरसम्पच्च, सात्म्यसम्पच्च, सत्त्वसम्पच्च,
स्वभावसांमसद्धधश्च, यौवनां च, किृ च, सांहषृश्चेतत|
(Ch.Sha.6/13)
11/18/2019 36
Balavriddhikarbhava
1. birth in a place where people are naturally healthy or strong,
2. birth in a family of strong person (means without any family history of
immunodeficient disorders),
3. birth at a time when people naturally gain strength (Visarga kala),
4. excellence among qualities of bija (sperm and ovum) and ksetra (uterus),
5. excellence of diet (aharasampat),
6. excellence of physique (sharirsampat),
7. excellence of suitability (satmayasampat),
8. all mental faculties are proper (satvasampat),
9. natural mechanism (savabhavsanssidha),
10. young age (vaya),
11. exercise and other physical activities ( vyayama )(C.S.Sha. 6/13).11/18/2019 37
Ojavriddhi
 vkstkso`)kSfg nsgL; rqf"Viqf"V cyksn;k%A(A.Hri.19/40)
State of Oja vriddhi imparts immunity and
nourishment and does not produce any kind of
disorder.
11/18/2019 38
Factors which reduce Vyadhiksamatva:
vfHk?kkrkr~ {k;kr~ dksikPNksdkr~ /;kukr~ Jekr~ {kq/k%A (S.Su.15/28)
 The aetiological factors which, cause reduced immune
capability-
 Abhighata- trauma (both physical and microbial, mental),
 kshya- Dhatu kshya due to severe degenerative and wasting
diseases, malnutrition, starvation .
 psychological stresses – anger (kopata), anxiety(dhyanata) and
grief(sokata) etc. 11/18/2019 39
Immune dysregulation- Autoimmune disorder
Incompatible diet produces dys-regulation of Immune system leading to
autoimmune disorders.
 nsg/kkrqizR;kuhd Hkwrkfu nzO;kf.k nsg/kkrqfHkZfojksf/keki|UrsA (C. Su.
26/81)
Substances, which have opposite qualities to those of bodily Tridosha and tissues
causes vitiation of it, when gain entry into the body and encounter the
opposition by the deha dhatu (bodily tissues).
 It points that immune system of person attacks any antigen, which has gained
entry into the body.
11/18/2019 40
Disease susceptibility and immune response
bg[kyq funkunks’knw’;fo”ks’ksH;ks fodkj fo?kkrHkkokHkkoizfrfo”ks’kk HkofUrA
(C.Ni.4/4)
 Etiological factors (Nidana), Dosha’s and Dhatu’s determine the bodily immunity or
susceptibility for the disease.
 When all the three factors do not support each other or when they are weak due to passage of
time :
- then either the disease does not manifest at all
- or it takes sometimes in manifestation
- or the disease is very mild
- or all its signs and symptoms are not fully manifested.
 If the situation is otherwise than that is mentioned above, the corresponding result will be
otherwise
11/18/2019 41
Concept of Immune sensitisation
rf}jksf/kuka p nzO;k.kka la”keukFkZeqi;ksx% (
rFkkfo/kS”p nzO;S%iwoZefHklaLdkj% “kjhjL;A (C.Su.26/104)
 Diseases manifested due to the presence of opposing agents in the body,
should be treated either by administering the substances having opposite
qualities to them or by prior sensitization of the body by administering the
similar substances as those of offending agent.
 This forms the basis of active and passive immunity. Prior sensitization of the
body with specific antigen makes one develop active immunity.
11/18/2019 42
Three stages of Oja(immunity) dysfunction
Vishransh, Vyapada, Kshya- these are the progressive stages of dysfunction of
Apara Oja lesding to death.
सक्न्ध ववश्लेषो गात्रािाां सदनां दोषच्यवनां कक्रयासक्न्नरोधश्च ववस्रन्से ।
स्तब्ध गुरु गात्रता वातशोफोविृभेदो ग्लातनस्तन्द्रातनद्रा च व्यापन्ने।
िूच्छाृ िाांसक्षयों िोहप्रलापो िरिां इतत च क्षये।(S.Su.15/24)
11/18/2019 43
Characteristics of Oja Kshya
 बबभेतत दुबृलोऽभीक्ष्िां ध्यायतत व्यधथतेक्न्द्रयः|
दुश्छायो दुिृना रूक्षः क्षािश्चवौजसः क्षये||७३|| (C.Su.17/73)
Excessive fear complex, anxiety, reduced will power and self
confidence, gross inability of sensory and motor organs, Loss of body
luster, dryness and weakness in body.
These are the features of Apar Oja Kshya.
Kshya of Para Oja leads to definite death.
11/18/2019 44
Conclusion
 Ojas represent the Sara of all the seven Dhatu. Located in Hrdaya and all
the body and exist in different forms at different tissue level.
 Oja word has been considered for Rasa, jivashonita, prakrita sleshma,
ushma, Sharir sneha, Bala.
 It represents the strength of all the tissues and is present in the organism
since the time of fertilization of the sperm and ova, due to its natural
power .
11/18/2019 45
Conclusion
 The ten larger blood vessels (Mahamula Dhamanis) are the channels
of transport of Ojas to entire body and the heart and circulation
plays an important role in the distribution of Slaismika Ojas to all
the body tissues and bestows them protection against degeneration
and diseases.
 Oja refers to vital biological substances which impart Bala
(Strength) i.e. Capacity to perform physical activity, Mental
strength and Vayadhikshamatva (Immunity)
11/18/2019 46
Thanks
11/18/2019 47

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Physiological significance of Oja

  • 1. Physiological Significance of Oja Dr. Vandana Verma Assistant Professor Department of Kriya Sharir, Faculty of Ayurveda, IMS, BHU, Varanasi, India
  • 2. Learning objectives:  What is oja.  Formation of Oja  Types of Oja, quantity and its characteristics.  Site of Oja.  How Oja is formed and Circulated.  Function of Oja  Physiological Significance of Oja.  Concept of Vyadhikshamatva (Immunity)  Types of Bala (Immunity)  Concept of Acquired immunity and senstization  Factors Enhancing Oja and bala  Causes of Oja Kshya  Abnormal state of Oja – Vishransha, Vyapada, Kshya  Conclusion 11/18/2019 2
  • 3. What is Oja "Oja" denotes the biological substances that imparts strength to Manas (mind) and various tissues in the body to resist disease and degeneration of body.  Bodily strength  Vigour  Energy  Ability Meaning of Oja as per Monier’s William dic. –  Vitality  The generative faculty  Support  The principle of vital warmth and action diffused through- out the body 11/18/2019 3
  • 4. Oja  रसादीनाां शुक्रान्तानाां धातुनाां यत ् परां तेजस्तत ् ख्ल्वोज: तदेव ् बलमित्युच्यते । (S.Su. 15/19)  ओजस्तु तेजो धातूनाां शुक्रान्तानाां परां स्िृति्| (A. hr.su. 11/37)  यत्परां तेजः सारां घृतिधुस्थानीयां प्रत्येकिेव रसादीनाां यदुत्कृ ष्टोऽशः सारभागः स मिमलत्वा हृदयप्रधानस्थानत्वात्तत्रस्थ एव च धिनीमभहृृदयिूलामभः कृ त्स्नां शरीरां तपृयतत बलहेतुश्च धातूनाां भवतत, शुक्रशोणितसांसगाृत्प्रभृतत शरीरिधधततष्ठते स्वकिृिा तदोजः ( Chakrapaani on Su.Su.15/19)  परिाथृस्तु बलौजसोभेद एव; यथा भेदस्तदुच्यते -सवृधातुस्नेहभूतस्योपचयलक्षिस्यौजसो रूपरसौ वीयाृदद च ववद्यते, बलस्य तु भारहरिाददशक्ततगम्यस्य रसवीयृविाृददगुिा न ववद्यन्ते, अतोऽनयोभेदोऽस्त्येवेतत;( Dalhana on Su.Su.15/19) 11/18/2019 4
  • 5. Formation of Oja  iq";fUr Rokgkjjlkæl#f/kjekal esnks·fLFkaeTtk 'kqØkStkflA ¼ C.Su.28 /4½  “भ्रिरः फलपुष्पेभ्यो यथा सांदियते िधु| तद्वदोजः शरीरेभ्यो गुिः सांदियते नृिाि्” इतत| (C.Su.17/26)  Oja is formed and nourished by Ahara in a similar manner as Tissues .  Apara Oja ( Shleshmic Oja) is formed from Sara part of Ahara Rasa.  Oja is aggregate of Sara part of all Dhatu. Thus all the tissues contribute in imparting immunity and strength to body. 11/18/2019 5
  • 6. Formation of Oja  प्रथिां जायते ह्योजः शरीरेऽक्स्िञ्छरीररिाि ्| | ( Ch.Su.17/75)  यत् सारिादौ गभृस्य यत्तद्गभृरसाद्रसः सांवतृिानां हृदयां सिाववशतत यत् पुरा ( Ch.Su.30/10)  Oja is first formed at time of formation of zygote.  It is present in sperm and ova then in the form of Garbha Rasa, it supports the development of foetus in intrauterine life.  After the formation of heart it get localised in heart in the form of para oja and support the whole body. 11/18/2019 6
  • 7. Circulation of Oja  दश िूलमसरा हृत्स्थास्ताः सवं सवृतो वपुः रसात्िकां वहन्त्योजस्तक्न्नबद्धां दह चेक्ष्टति् ( A.H.Sha.3/18)  यत् सारिादौ गभृस्य यत्तद्गभृरसाद्रसः सांवतृिानां हृदयां सिाववशतत यत् पुरा यस्य नाशात्तु नाशोऽक्स्त धारर यद्धृदयाधिति् यच्छरीररसस्नेहः प्रािा यत्र प्रततक्ष्ठताः तत्फला बहुधा वा ताः फलन्तीव(तत) िहाफलाः ( Ch.Su.30/9-11)  Ten great vessels connected to heart carry the Rasatmaka Oja, on which the whole life process depends. 11/18/2019 7
  • 8. Oja  Different words have been used to denote Oja in various context like – Rasa Jivashonita Prakrita Sleshma ( Sleshmic Oja) Ushma Sharir Rasa Sneha  एतेनतदुपपन्नि्, "धातूनाां तेजमस रसे तथा जीववतशोणिते| श्लेष्िणि प्राकृ ते वद्यरोजःशब्दः प्रकीततृतः||" इतत| Hemadri on A. hr.su. 11/37  यच्छरीररसस्नेहः प्रािा यत्र प्रततक्ष्ठताः ( Ch.Su.30/9-11)  देहौजो देहसारः; ककां वा देहश्च ओजश्च देहौजः| ( Chakrapani on Ch.Su.17/60)  सवृधातूनाां स्नेहिोज: क्षीरे घृतमिव तदेव बलां इतत। भा. प्र. ५०३/२८१  rU=kUrjs"kq vkst% 'kCnsu jlks·I;qP;rs] tho'kksf.kr;I;kst% 'kCnsukeufUr dsfpr] m"ek.keI;kst% 'kCnsukijs onfUrA& Dalhana Com. on Su.Su. 15/24 11/18/2019 8
  • 9. Consideration of Oja as Dhatu, Updhatu, fraction of Sukra  LFkwyksHkkx% 'kqØeso] LusgHkkx lw{eLrstksHkwr vkst%A & Dalhana Commen. on Su. Su. 14/10  'kqØL; lkjekst%A vR;Ur'kq)r;k pkfLeu~eykHko%A ¼v0la0'kk0 6/73½  ओजःशब्दश्च यद्यवप रसेऽवप वतृते, यदुततां- “रसश्चौजसङ्खख्लयातः” (तन. ४) इतत, तथा “िलीभवतत तत् प्रायः क्पते ककक्ञ्चदोजसे” (धच. ८) ,rPpkSt% mi/kkrq#ia dsfpnkgq%] /kkrqfgZ /kkj.kiks"k.k;ksxkn~ Hkofr] vkstLrq nsg/kkjda lnfi u nsg iks"kda uk"Veks /kkrqjkst%A के धचत्तु शुक्रववशेषिोजः प्राहुः, तच्च न िनः प्रीिातत| & Chakrapani Commen. on Ch. Su. 30/7 11/18/2019 9
  • 10. Type and Quantity of Oja  Two Types – 1. Para Oja - 8 drops or 6 drops 2. Apara Oja ( Shlashmic Oja) -1/2 anjali  सकलशरीरव्यावपनस्तस्य षड्बबन्दुकस्य ववशेषेि हृदयां स्थानि् ( Arundutta on A.H.Su.11/37)  श्लक्ष्िकस्यौजस इत्यनेन यदोजोऽष्टबबन्दुकां तद्व्यततररततस्यौजस ओजोवहधिनीवाह्यस्य ववशुद्धश्लेष्िसिानगुिस्याधाृञ्जमलप्रिािताां दशृयतत| ओजो दह परावरभेदेन द्ववववधिथेदशिहािूलीये दमशृतिेव(Chakrapani on C.Sharir.7/15) 11/18/2019 10
  • 11. Site of Oja  ओज: सवृशरीरस्थां । शा. पू. ५/१८  Located in Hrdaya and all the body. 11/18/2019 11
  • 12. Twelve sites of Ojas in body: refers to protective role of different body constituents i.e. Dosha ,Dhatu and Mala  स्थानातन द्वादश्भवक्न्त तद्यथा शोणित्िाांस िेदो अक्स्थ िज़्ज़ा शुक्र शुतल स्वेद वपत्तां श्लेष्ि िूत्र पुरीषाणि । भेल पृ. ८२  Sites of ojas are twelve in number such as blood, muscle, fat, bone marrow, genital secretions, body fluids, sweat, GIT secretions, mucoid secretions, urine and stool. 11/18/2019 12
  • 13. First Line Defenses  Physical barriers  Chemical barriers  Normal flora 11/18/2019 13
  • 14. Normal Flora in Human body 11/18/2019 14
  • 15. Anatomical Barriers  Separate interior of body from environment.  Skin  Mucous membranes 11/18/2019 15
  • 16. Chemical Barriers  Complement System  Lyses bacteria  Makes cells more susceptible to macrophages 11/18/2019 16
  • 17. Antibody Classes  IgG - 75%, Secondary response, complement fixation  IgM - Primary antibody response, complement fixation  IgA - local defense ,Secretary fluid - saliva, tears  IgE - Allergic responses  IgD - Cell-surface receptor on B lymphocytes help in recognition of antigen 11/18/2019 17
  • 18. Lymphoid System Dhatu (Tissue)specific  Primary Lymphoid Organs  Thymus  Bone marrow  Secondary Lymphoid Organs  Lymph nodes  Spleen  Tonsils  Adenoids 11/18/2019 18
  • 19. Cells of the immune system originate in the bone marrow and descend from self-renewing stem cells Cellular Immune System Participants Stem Cell Stem Cell Bi-potential Cell T B Lymphocyte T Lymphocyte B M Mast Cell E Eosinophil N Neutrophil MMacrophage NK Natural Killer Cell Dendritic Cell Adaptive (Specific) Immunity Innate Immunity 11/18/2019 19
  • 21. Characteristics and Properties of Ojas  ओज: सोिात्िकां क्स्नग्धां शुतलां शीतां क्स्थरां सरि ्। ववववततां िृदु िृत्सनां च प्रािायतनिुत्तिि ्।। सु. सु १५/ २१  क्स्नग्धां स्नेहगुियुतति ्| शुतलि ् अततश्वेति ्,  क्स्थरां सुखदुःखयोरचञ्चलां करोतीतत क्स्थरां ( Chakrapani on Su.Su.15/21)  गुरु शीतां िृदु श्लक्षिां बहलां िधुरां क्स्थरि्। प्रसन्नां वपक्च्छलां क्स्नग्धिोजो दश गुिां स्िृति ्॥ च. धच. २४/३१  हृदद ततष्ठतत यच्छु द्धां रततिीषत्सपीतकि ्|सवपृवृिं िधुरसां लाजगक्न्ध प्रजायते|| ( Ch.Su.17/74)  Oja is white or yellow red in colour, heavy, uncutous, cold , provides stability to body and mind, present in whole body, best life sustainer. 11/18/2019 21
  • 22. Function of Ojas  r= cysu fLFkjksifprekalrk loZps"VkLoizfr?kkr% Lojo.kZizlknks ckákukekH;Urjkoka p dj.kkuk;kRedk;Z izfrifÙk HkZofrA (Su.Su. 15/25)  Oja provides bala i.e. strength to Manas (mind).  It provides strength and immunity to various tissues in the body to resist disease and degeneration of body.  Well nourished Mamsa Dhatu reflects the nourishment of Seven dhatu.  Provides capacity to perform all types of function.  Sense and Motor organs efficiently involve in their work. 11/18/2019 22
  • 23. Dehabala(Physical strength) देहबलिुत्साहोपचयलक्षिां ( Dalhana on Su.Su.15/5) बलांकिृसाधनशक्ततव्याृयािानुिेया ( Dalhana on Su.Su.1/28) बलांकक्रयातनवृतृनक्षिता, ( Dalhana on Su.Su.1/3) 11/18/2019 23
  • 24. Manobala( Mental Strength) Tolerance to Mental stress or pain.  सत्त्वांिनोबलांगुिववशेषोरजस्तिसोववृपक्षः;सत्त्वेसततपीडाददसदहष्िुत्वलक्षिांिनोबलांभवतत( Dalhana on Su.Su.35/37-38)  के वलिनोबलकरांसङ्खक्पाददतुप्रवतृकां ,घृतक्षीरादददेहिनोबलकरांसदुभयकरमितत ( Dalhana on Su.Chi.26/6-10)  िनोबलकरमिततिनोबलांिनःसािर्थ्यं ( Dalhana on Su.Ut.64/65) 11/18/2019 24
  • 25. Physiological Significance Of Ojas  It is responsible for Vyadhikshamatva.  It helps in maintenance of homeostasis of body along with balanced tridosha.  दोषाणाां प्राकृ तां वैकृ तां च स्वरूपमुक्तमी ते च दोषााः समा अप्योजसा ववहिनां देिां सांवािययतुमशक्तााः ( Indu on A.S.Su 19/27)  ओजस्तु तेजो धातूनाां शुक्रान्तानाां परां स्मृतम ्| हृदयस्थमवप व्यावप देिस्स्थयतयनबन्धनम ् स्स्नग्धां सोमात्मकां शुद्धमीषल्लोहितपीतकम ्| यन्नाशे यनयतां नाशो यस्स्मांस्स्तष्ठयत यतष्ठयत यनष्पद्यन्ते यतो भावा ववववधा देिसांश्रयााः ( A.H.Su.11/37-38) 11/18/2019 25
  • 26. Significance of Oja in Mental health and immunity  To protect heart , blood vessels and mind one should remain away from the factors causing unhappiness , take food which do not obstruct the channels and put all effort for calmness of mind by correct knowledge.  PNEI- Psycho-neuro-endocrino-immunology  तन्िहत ता िहािूलास्त्च्चौज: परररक्षता । पररहायाृ ववशेषेि िनसो दुख हेतव: ॥ हृद्यां यत ् स्याद्यौजसयां स्रोतसाां यत ् प्रसादनां तत्तत ् सेव्यां प्रयत्नेन् प्रशिो ज्ञानिेव च ।( Ch.Su.30/13-14)  सम्प्रतत हृददस्थस्य िनसः पररपालनहेतुिाह- तन्िहददत्यादद| तन्िहददतत षडङ्खगाददस्थानां हृदयि्| ता िहािूला इतत ओजोवहा धिन्यः| तच्चौज इतत येनौजसेत्याददनोततगुििोजः| प्रशिः शाक्न्तः| ज्ञानां तत्त्वज्ञानि् (Chakrapani , Ch.Su.30/13-14) 11/18/2019 26
  • 27. Kapha, Oja and Bala प्राकृ तस्तु बलां श्लेषिा ववकृ तो िलां उच्यते । स चॆवौजः स्िॄतः काये स च पाप्िोक्प्दश्यते ॥ च. सू. १७/११७  Sleshma in normal state is responsible for ‘Bala’ (Immunity). Since the Sleshmic Oja depends on functional state of Kapha..  Oja is the Substance responsible for Bala(Strength). Bala is two kinds- 1- Capacity to perform physical activity 2. Vayadhikshamatva (Immunity)  बलमितत बलहेतुत्वेन| िल इतत शरीरिमलनीकरिात्| ओज इतत सारभूतां; यदद वा द्ववतीयश्लक्ष्िकौजोहेतुत्वेनौजः| वक्ष्यतत दह शारीरे- “तावच्चव श्लक्ष्िकस्यौजसश्च प्रिािि्” (शा.अ.७) इतत| दुःखहेतुत्वात् पाप्िा| 11/18/2019 27
  • 28. Bala i.e. Vyadhiksmatva (Immunity)  बत्रववधां बलमितत- सहजां, कालजां, युक्ततकृ तां च|  सहजां यच्छरीरसत्त्वयोः प्राकृ तां, कालकृ तिृतुववभागजां वयःकृ तां च, युक्ततकृ तां पुनस्तद्यदाहारचेष्टायोगजि ्| ( Ch.Su.11/36)  Innate Immunity  Acquired Immunity- Active, passive 11/18/2019 28
  • 29. Sahaja Bala( Innate Immunity)-  सहजां यच्छरीरसत्त्वयोः प्राकृ तां  It is genetic and inborn resistance to disease, which exists since birth. It is said to increase with the growth of tissues and does not depend upon any other cause (Chakrapani C.Su.11/36).  Satva Bala (Mental strength)- Manobala- Pravar, Madhyam , Avar 11/18/2019 29
  • 30. Kalaja Bala  कालकृ तिृतुववभागजां वयःकृ तां च,  Kalaja Bala - influenced by seasonal traits and the age of the person.  आदावन्ते च दौबृ्यां ववसगाृदानयोनृृिाि ्| िध्ये िध्यबलां, त्वन्ते िेष्ठिग्रे च तनददृशेत ्||(C.Su.6/8) Good strength- Shishir, Hemanta Medium strength - Basant, Sharad Low strength - Varsha, Greeshma 11/18/2019 30
  • 31. Yuktikrit Bala (Acquired Immunity)  युक्ततकृ तां पुनस्तद्यदाहारचेष्टायोगजि्  This type of Sharira Bala refers to modulation of body’s resistance against diseases –  by resort to appropriate Ojovardhak diet,  physical exercise, rest,  therapies in keeping with seasonal needs  Lehan Karma in Child.  Rasayan Dravya- Urjaskar 11/18/2019 31
  • 32. Vyadhiksmatva (Immunity)  Immunity is the resistance power either to prevent the onset of disease itself or to resist the strength of disease.  न च सवाृणि शरीराणि व्याधधक्षित्वे सिथाृतन भवक्न्त| व्याधधक्षित्वां व्याधधबलववरोधधत्वां व्याध्युत्पादप्रततबन्धकत्वमितत यावत्| ( Chakrapani on Ch.Su.28/6)  व्याधधबलववरोधधत्वां i.e., antagonistic to the strength and virulence of the disease.  व्याध्युत्पादप्रततबन्धकत्व i.e., the capacity to inhibit and bind the causes and factors of the disease. 11/18/2019 32
  • 33. Vyadhiksmatva (Immunity)  According to Charak, when the Bala i.e. disease defence mechanism is stronger than the disease causative factors, then the disease does not manifest itself.  Charak and Vaagbhat have also described Bala as the factor, that destroys the Dosas or disease causing factors.  बलां ह्यलां तनग्रहाय दोषािाां, बलकृ च्च तत् (C.Ci 3/166) “Balam hyalam dosharam paratanch balapradam . (A.Hr.Ci.9/49).  11/18/2019 33
  • 34. Immune System  3 major functions i)Protects body from disease Bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites ANTIGEN: Anything that causes immune response ii) Remove dead or damaged tissue iii) Recognizes and removes abnormal cells  2 types of immune responses i)Innate immunity ii) Acquired immunity- Humoral, Cell mediated Specific, powerful, can take several days, Lymphocytes are Key cells 11/18/2019 34
  • 35. Different Forms of Ojas  रसात्मकां ( A.H.Sha.3/18) - Circulates all over the body eg. Immunoglobulins, antibodies, Complement system  जीववतशोणणते- White fraction of Blood, WBCs  धातूनाां तेजसस- Immune mechanism at tissue level eg. macrophages, tissue specific factors controlling immunity.  शुक्रमलरूपमोजाः provides protection to the fetus in intrauterine life. Immunoglobulin crossing placenta to enter fetal circulation  श्लेष्मणण प्राकृ ते: (Hemadri on A. hr.su. 11/37) 11/18/2019 35
  • 36. Factors Enhancing immunity (Balavriddhikarbhava)  बलवृद्धधकराक्स्त्विे भावा भवक्न्त| तद्यथा- बलवत्पुरुषे देशे जन्ि बलवत्पुरुषे काले च, सुखश्च कालयोगः, बीजक्षेत्रगुिसम्पच्च, आहारसम्पच्च, शरीरसम्पच्च, सात्म्यसम्पच्च, सत्त्वसम्पच्च, स्वभावसांमसद्धधश्च, यौवनां च, किृ च, सांहषृश्चेतत| (Ch.Sha.6/13) 11/18/2019 36
  • 37. Balavriddhikarbhava 1. birth in a place where people are naturally healthy or strong, 2. birth in a family of strong person (means without any family history of immunodeficient disorders), 3. birth at a time when people naturally gain strength (Visarga kala), 4. excellence among qualities of bija (sperm and ovum) and ksetra (uterus), 5. excellence of diet (aharasampat), 6. excellence of physique (sharirsampat), 7. excellence of suitability (satmayasampat), 8. all mental faculties are proper (satvasampat), 9. natural mechanism (savabhavsanssidha), 10. young age (vaya), 11. exercise and other physical activities ( vyayama )(C.S.Sha. 6/13).11/18/2019 37
  • 38. Ojavriddhi  vkstkso`)kSfg nsgL; rqf"Viqf"V cyksn;k%A(A.Hri.19/40) State of Oja vriddhi imparts immunity and nourishment and does not produce any kind of disorder. 11/18/2019 38
  • 39. Factors which reduce Vyadhiksamatva: vfHk?kkrkr~ {k;kr~ dksikPNksdkr~ /;kukr~ Jekr~ {kq/k%A (S.Su.15/28)  The aetiological factors which, cause reduced immune capability-  Abhighata- trauma (both physical and microbial, mental),  kshya- Dhatu kshya due to severe degenerative and wasting diseases, malnutrition, starvation .  psychological stresses – anger (kopata), anxiety(dhyanata) and grief(sokata) etc. 11/18/2019 39
  • 40. Immune dysregulation- Autoimmune disorder Incompatible diet produces dys-regulation of Immune system leading to autoimmune disorders.  nsg/kkrqizR;kuhd Hkwrkfu nzO;kf.k nsg/kkrqfHkZfojksf/keki|UrsA (C. Su. 26/81) Substances, which have opposite qualities to those of bodily Tridosha and tissues causes vitiation of it, when gain entry into the body and encounter the opposition by the deha dhatu (bodily tissues).  It points that immune system of person attacks any antigen, which has gained entry into the body. 11/18/2019 40
  • 41. Disease susceptibility and immune response bg[kyq funkunks’knw’;fo”ks’ksH;ks fodkj fo?kkrHkkokHkkoizfrfo”ks’kk HkofUrA (C.Ni.4/4)  Etiological factors (Nidana), Dosha’s and Dhatu’s determine the bodily immunity or susceptibility for the disease.  When all the three factors do not support each other or when they are weak due to passage of time : - then either the disease does not manifest at all - or it takes sometimes in manifestation - or the disease is very mild - or all its signs and symptoms are not fully manifested.  If the situation is otherwise than that is mentioned above, the corresponding result will be otherwise 11/18/2019 41
  • 42. Concept of Immune sensitisation rf}jksf/kuka p nzO;k.kka la”keukFkZeqi;ksx% ( rFkkfo/kS”p nzO;S%iwoZefHklaLdkj% “kjhjL;A (C.Su.26/104)  Diseases manifested due to the presence of opposing agents in the body, should be treated either by administering the substances having opposite qualities to them or by prior sensitization of the body by administering the similar substances as those of offending agent.  This forms the basis of active and passive immunity. Prior sensitization of the body with specific antigen makes one develop active immunity. 11/18/2019 42
  • 43. Three stages of Oja(immunity) dysfunction Vishransh, Vyapada, Kshya- these are the progressive stages of dysfunction of Apara Oja lesding to death. सक्न्ध ववश्लेषो गात्रािाां सदनां दोषच्यवनां कक्रयासक्न्नरोधश्च ववस्रन्से । स्तब्ध गुरु गात्रता वातशोफोविृभेदो ग्लातनस्तन्द्रातनद्रा च व्यापन्ने। िूच्छाृ िाांसक्षयों िोहप्रलापो िरिां इतत च क्षये।(S.Su.15/24) 11/18/2019 43
  • 44. Characteristics of Oja Kshya  बबभेतत दुबृलोऽभीक्ष्िां ध्यायतत व्यधथतेक्न्द्रयः| दुश्छायो दुिृना रूक्षः क्षािश्चवौजसः क्षये||७३|| (C.Su.17/73) Excessive fear complex, anxiety, reduced will power and self confidence, gross inability of sensory and motor organs, Loss of body luster, dryness and weakness in body. These are the features of Apar Oja Kshya. Kshya of Para Oja leads to definite death. 11/18/2019 44
  • 45. Conclusion  Ojas represent the Sara of all the seven Dhatu. Located in Hrdaya and all the body and exist in different forms at different tissue level.  Oja word has been considered for Rasa, jivashonita, prakrita sleshma, ushma, Sharir sneha, Bala.  It represents the strength of all the tissues and is present in the organism since the time of fertilization of the sperm and ova, due to its natural power . 11/18/2019 45
  • 46. Conclusion  The ten larger blood vessels (Mahamula Dhamanis) are the channels of transport of Ojas to entire body and the heart and circulation plays an important role in the distribution of Slaismika Ojas to all the body tissues and bestows them protection against degeneration and diseases.  Oja refers to vital biological substances which impart Bala (Strength) i.e. Capacity to perform physical activity, Mental strength and Vayadhikshamatva (Immunity) 11/18/2019 46