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Brief description & application of Musha (Crucible)

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Brief description & application of Musha (Crucible)

  1. 1. Brief description & application of Musha (Crucible) Dr. Sathyanarayana B Principal, Muniyal Institute of Ayurveda Medical Sciences, Manipal
  2. 2. RASASHASTRA PAPER I  Part A  Point 5  Time allotted: Two hours  Necessary to know  Expected marks:  01x05  01x02
  3. 3. मूषा प्रकरणम्
  4. 4. निरुक्ति-  मुष्णातिदोषान्मूषेयान ्सा मूषेति तनगद्यिे|-रसरत्नसमुच्चय १०/०२  Musha is a devise used to remove the removable dosa  It is comparable with crucible.  It eliminates the impurities of the materials heated in it
  5. 5. पयााय(Synonyms)  मूषाहिक्रौञ्चचकाप्रोक्िा कु मुदीकरिाहिका  पाचनीवञ्ननममत्राचरसवाहदमिरीयाािे-र.र.स.१०/०१ 1. क्रौञ्चचका 2. कु मुदी 3. करिाहिका 4. पाचनी 5. वञ्ननममत्रा
  6. 6. 1. क्रौञ्चचका:As the soil of Krouncha mountain is suitably used to prepare Musha 2. कु मुदी: कु मुदाकारसादृश्याि ्कु मुदी चतनगद्यिे(र.ि.): Resembles the shape of Kumuda- White lilly/lotus flower 3. करिाहिका:As the soil of Karahata Desha is ideal to prepare Musha 4. पाचनी :द्रव्यपाचनयोगाच्चपाचनी समुदीररिा (र.ि.): Prepared by baking well and also the materials are subjected to Pachana in Musha 5. वञ्ननममत्रा:वञ्ननममत्रं यिश्चास्या वञ्ननममत्रा ििः स्मृिा(र.ि.): In contact with fire पयााय(Synonyms)
  7. 7. उपादानकारण (Basic composition)  उपादानंिवेत्तस्यमृत्तत्तकालोिमेव च–र.र.स.१०/०३  Basic composition:  मृत्तत्तका:Clay with specific characters  लोि:Iron powder
  8. 8. मूषोपयोगी मृत्तिका (Ideal characters of soil to prepare Musha)  मृत्तत्तका पाण्डुरस्थूलाÅÅशका रा शोणपाण्डुरा  चचराध्मािसिा सा हि मूषाथामतिशस्यिे  िदिावे च वाल्मीकी कौलाली वा समीर्ययािे – र.र.स.१०/६  Mud should be pale yellow, reddish, reddish yellow, heavy, devoid of sand particles. It should tolerate high temperature for a prolonged time. If such mud is not available, potter’s clay or soil of anthill can be used.
  9. 9. मूषाभेद (Classification) मूषा घिक द्रव्यानुसार वणाानुसार स्वरूप (आकृ ति) अनुसार
  10. 10. घटकद्रव्यािुसार (According to composition) 1. सामान्य मूषा 2. वज्र मूषा 3. वर मूषा 4. गार मूषा 5. वज्रद्रावणी मूषा 6. वज्र द्रावण मूषा 7. योग मूषा 8. त्तवडमूषा
  11. 11.  वणामूषा  रूप्य मूषा वणाािुसार(According to colour)
  12. 12. 1. गोस्िनी मूषा 2. वृन्िाक मूषा 3. मिा मूषा 4. मल्ल मूषा 5. गोल मूषा 6. पक्व मूषा 7. मुसल मूषा 8. मण्डूक/मचजूष मूषा स्वरूपािुसार (According to shape)
  13. 13. सामान्य मूषा  यामृत्तत्तकादग्धिुषःशणेनमशखित्रकवााियलद्हदनाच  लौिेन दण्डेनच कु ट्हििासा साधारणास्यात्िलुमूत्तषकाथे –र.र.स.१०/०७  Burnt paddy husk, hemp fibre, charcoal powder, horse dung all these are taken in equal quantities and the mud useful for making Musha is taken equal to the sum of the quantity of above mentioned ingredients.  All the ingredients are mixed well, pounded well adding required amount of water till a homogenous semisolid mass is obtained. It is prepared into the Musha of required shape and size, dried under sun and baked well to get Samanya Musha
  14. 14.  श्वेिाश्मानस्िुषादग्धाःमशखित्राःशणिपारे  लद्हदःककट्िं कृ ष्णमृत्स्नासंयोजयाःमूत्तषकामृहद- र.र.स.१०/०८  Components:  1. Shvetashma (Calcite)  2. Dagdha Tusha (Burnt paddy husk)  3. Shikhitra (coal)  4. Kharpara (broken pot pieces)  5. Hayaladdi (Horse dung)  6. Kitta (Iron rust)  7. Krishna Mrit (Black soil)  8. Musha Mrittika (Mud specified for Musha) सामान्य मूषा- 2
  15. 15. वज्र मूषा  मृदञ्स्त्रिागाः शणलद्हदिागौ िागश्च तनदाग्ध िुषोपलादेः  ककट्िाधािागं पररिण््य वज्रमूषां त्तवदध्यात्िलु सत्वपािे – र.र.स. १०/९ Composition:  Musha mrittika (Musha specific mud): 3 parts  Shana (Hemp fibre): 2 parts  Hayaladdi (Horse ding): 2 parts  Dagdha Tusha (Burnt paddy husk): 1 part  Dagdha Upala (Ash of cowdungs): 1 part  Kitta (Iron rust): ½ part
  16. 16. वरमूषा  वस्त्र (Cloth fibre)-1pÉÉaÉ  Aङ्गार (Charcoal)-1pÉÉaÉ  िुष(Paddy husk):1 pÉÉaÉ  मूषामृत्तत्तकाÉ(Musha specific mud):-4 pÉÉaÉ  गार (Mud of pond):-4 pÉÉaÉ  Aञ्ग्नसित्व (Temperature tolerance):1rÉÉqÉ  वज्रांगारइति पाठिेदः-According to some scholars coal of Snuhi is to be used
  17. 17. गारमूषा COMPOSITION:  गार(Mud of pond):-6िाग  ककट्िû(Iron rust):-1िाग  Aङ्गार (Charcoal):-1िाग  शण(Jute fibre):-1िाग  कृ ष्णमृि्ç(Black soil):-1 िाग  दुग्ध (Milk) :-यथावश्य  Aञ्ग्नसित्व (Heat tolerance):2याम
  18. 18. वज्रद्रावणी मूषा  गार(Mud of pond):-1 िाग  *िूनाग धौि:-1 िाग  शण (Jute fibre) :-1 िाग  दग्ध िुष (Burnt paddy husk): -1 िाग  मूषामृि्(Musha specific mud):- 4 िाग
  19. 19. वज्रद्रावण मूषा 1. गार :-1िाग 2. िूनागधौि:-1िाग  शण(Jute fibre):-1िाग 1. दग्ध िुष (Burnt paddy husk): -1िाग 2. मूषामृि्(Musha specific mud): -4 िाग  मलप्त्वामत्कु णशोखणिःबालाब्धध्वतनमूलश्च  अञ्ग्नसित्व:4 याम
  20. 20. योग मूषा  दग्धाङ्गार:-1 िाग  दग्ध िुष:-1िाग  मूषामृत्तत्तका:-1 िाग  वल्मीकमृत्तत्तका:-1 िाग  ित्तद्बबडसमायुक्िाित्तद्बबडत्तवलेत्तपिा  अनयासाचधिासूिोजायिेगुणवत्त्तराः
  21. 21. बिडमूषा  ित्तद्बबडमृदोद्िूिा ित्तद्बबडत्तवलेत्तपिा  देिलोिाथायोगाथंबबडमूषेत्युदाहृिा-र.र.स.१०/१८  The musha which is prepared by specific kind of clay is smeared both internally & externally by bida. Such musha is called as Bida Musha.  Uses- To prepare drugs which are usefull in dehasiddhi & lohasiddhi.
  22. 22. वणामूषा  पाषाणरहििा रक्िा रक्िवगााम्बुिात्तविा  मृत्तया साचधिामूषा क्षितििेचरलेत्तपिा  वणामूषेतिसा प्रोक्िा वणोत्कषे तनयुजयिे-रा.र.स.१०/१६  Following ingredients are taken-  Red mud devoid of stones  Rakta vargiya dravyas  Sphatika & Kasisa Churna  Red mud devoid of stones is selected & bhavana is given with rakta vargiya dravyas and Musha is prepared. It is then smeared with Sphatika & Kasisa Churna. This type of musha is known as Varna Musha.  Uses- To enhance the colour of the metals.
  23. 23. रूप्य मूषा  एवंहिश्वेिवगेण रूप्यमूषाप्रकीतिािा– र.र.स.१०/१७  It is similar to varna musha but instead of red soil white soil devoid of stones is used. In the place of rakta vargiya dravyas, sweta vargiya dravyas like Kutaja, Kunda, Tagara, etc. are used.  Uses- To enhance the colour of white metals. It gives silvery colour during Ranjana Samskara
  24. 24. गोस्ििीमूषा  मूषायागोस्िनाकारा मशिायुक्ित्तपधानका  सत्त्वानाम्द्रावणे शुद्धौ मूषा सा गोस्िनी िवेि्-र.र. स. १०/२७  Gostani Musha-  The crucible which is oblong, resembling the shape of a Gostana (Cow’s teat) having a lid (pidhana) on the top, with a hook(shikha) is known as Gostani Musha
  25. 25. गोस्ििी मूषा
  26. 26. वृन्िाकमूषा  वृन्िाकाकार मूषायां नालं द्वादशाङ्गुलम ्  धत्तूरपुष्पवच्चोध्वंसदृढं ञ्श्लष्िपुष्पवि्  अष्िाङ्गुलचच सञ्च्िद्रं सा स्याद्वृन्िाकमूत्तषका  अनया िपारादीनां मृदूनां सत्त्वमािरेि्||-र.र.स.१०/२०-२२  A Brinjal shaped musha is made according to general procedure & a 12 angula long tube is connected to the orifice of the musha.  The opening of the tube resembles the flower of dhattura & It should be 8 angula in circumference.  Through this funnel like tube raw materials are inserted.
  27. 27. 8angula 4 angula 8 angula
  28. 28. महामूषा  िले याकू पाराकाराक्रमादुपररत्तवस्िृिा  स्थूलवृन्िाकवत्स्थूलामिामूषेत्यसौ स्मृिा  सा चायोÅभ्रसत्त्वादेः पुिाय द्रावणाय च-र.र.स. १०/२८  It is a musha base of which is like elbow joint (kurpara sandhi). It expands upwards, stout in the middle & elongated.  It resembles a large brinjal  Use: Satvapatana of iron ores and Abhraka
  29. 29. मल्ल मूषा  तनहदाष्िामलामूषायामल्लद्त्तवियसम्पुिाि्  पपाट्याहदरसादीनांस्वेदनायपररकीतिािा-र.र.स.१०/२५  A musha is prepared by joining two saravas , one above the other like samaputa & there is a small opening on the upper sarava is known as Malla Musha.  Uses- For preparation of parpati, swedana, etc.
  30. 30. गोल मूषा(अन्ध मूषा)  तनवाक्त्रगोलाकारापुिनद्रव्यगमिाणी  गोलमूषेति साप्रोक्िा सत्वरं द्रवरोचधनी-र.र.स.१०/२७
  31. 31. पक्व मूषा  कु लालिाण्डरूपायादृढाच पररपाचचिाû  पक्वमूषेतिसाप्रोक्िा पोट्िल्याहदत्तवपाचने-र.र.स.१०/२६
  32. 32. मुसल मूषा  मूषायाचचत्तपिामूले विुालाÅÅष्िाङ्गुलोच्रया  मूषा सा मुसलाख्या स्याच्चकक्रबद्धरसे हििा-र.र.स.१०/३० 8Angula
  33. 33. मण्डूक मूषा  मण्डूकाकारमूषा या तनम्निाÅÅयामत्तवस्िरा  षडंगुलप्रमाणेन मूषा मण्डूकसंक्षिका  िूमौ तनिन्य िां मूषां दद्यात्पुिमथोपरर-र.र.स.१०/२९  A Musha resembling the shape of frog with a dimension of 6x6x6 Angula is called as Manduka Musha. It is placed inside a pit of appropriate size and subjected to fire
  34. 34. MANJUSHA MUSHA  This Musha resembles the shape of a purse having a string pulling which it can be closed. It has a wide base. Shape of this Musha is conical. Sometimes it is also referred as Manduka Musha
  35. 35. मूषाÅÅप्यायन म् द्रव्ये द्रवीिावमुिे मूषायाः ध्मानयोगिः िणमुद्धरणं यत्तन्मूषाÅÅप्यायनमुच्यिे-र.र.स.१०/३१ Process of pulling out of Musha from fire momentarily when the material contained in Musha starts melting is known as Musha Apyayana
  36. 36. मूषाÅÅप्यायन म्
  37. 37. सञ्न्धबन्धनम् मूषादीनां िु यत्सन्धौ ककट्िाद्यः पररलेपनम् ित्सञ्न्धलेपनं ख्यािंिच्चोक्िं सञ्न्धबन्धनम्-र.ि.३/५ Sealing the joint between Musha etc with the closure by applying the paste of kitta (iron rust) etc. is referred as Sandhi bandhana
  38. 38. Synonyms of Sandhi Bandhana मूषात्तपधानयोबान्धेबन्धनंसञ्न्धलेपनम् अन्रणं रन्रणंचवसंञ्श्लष्िं सञ्न्धबन्धनम्-र.र.स.१०/५ 1. बन्धनं 2. सञ्न्धलेपनम् 3. अन्रणं 4. रन्रणं 5. संञ्श्लष्िं
  39. 39. मुद्रा  Mudra refers to sealing. Two types of mixtures are mentioned for sealing purpose. They are: 1. मदन मुद्रा 2. िठ मुद्रा
  40. 40. 1. मदनमुद्रा(आनंदकं द)  उदुम्बर दुग्ध (Latex of Ficus glomerata): १ पल  वि दुग्ध(Latex of Ficus benghalensis):१ पल  लािा चूणा(Lac powder): १ पल  चुम्बक लोि चूणा(Magnetic iron powder): ७ पल  Aिसी िल(Lin seed oil): यथावश्य  Method: Above mentioned ingredients are mixed together and ponded well till a soft, smooth waxy material is obtained  Use: To seal bottle or earthen saucers during the procedures like Jarana and Marana of Parada
  41. 41. 2. िठमुद्रा(आनंदकं द)  चुम्बक लोि चूणा+ क्रोढ रक्ि  Method: Magnetic iron powder (Chumbaka Loha Churna) is pounded with Pig (Swine) blood (Krodha Rakta) from sunrise till sunset till bee wax like sticky mass is obtained  Use: This cementing material is very strong and doe not get disrupted even at high temperatures. Hence it is used in those processes of Parada where high temperature is used
  42. 42. CRUCIBLE A crucible is a container that can withstand very high temperatures and is used for metal, glass, and pigment production as well as a number of modern laboratory processes.
  43. 43.  A crucible is a ceramic or metal container in which metals or other substances may be melted or subjected to very high temperatures.  While crucibles historically were usually made from clay, they can be made from any material that withstands temperatures high enough to melt or otherwise alter its contents. CRUCIBLE
  44. 44. TYPES According to shape: 1. Barrel shaped crucible 2. Conical crucible 3. Cylindrical crucible 4. Wide form crucible 5. High form crucible
  45. 45. 1. Barrel-shaped crucibles  Barrel-shaped crucibles have an opening with a top outer diameter (OD) that is essentially the same as, or only slightly smaller, than the base or bottom OD.  The sidewalls bulge out and produce a barrel shaped crucible.
  46. 46. 2. Conical shaped crucible  Conical or tapered crucibles have an opening with a top OD that tapers down to smaller base or bottom diameter.  Typically, the sidewalls are straight sided.
  47. 47. 3. Cylindrical crucible  Cylindrical or straight walled crucibles have an opening with a top OD that is essentially the same as or only slightly smaller than the base or bottom OD The sidewalls are straight sided without any bulging out.
  48. 48. 4. Wide form crucible  Wide-form crucibles are low, shallow, or flat profile vessels with short walls compared to high-form crucibles.  A wide-form crucible has a very wide opening with an OD that tapers down to a much smaller base-diameter. Typically, the sidewalls have a slight outward bow or bulge.
  49. 49. 5. High-form crucibles  High-form crucibles have high walls.  High form crucibles have an opening with a top OD that tapers down to smaller base or bottom diameter.  The sidewalls typically have a slight outward bow or bulge.
  50. 50. According to The Material  clay crucible  graphite crucible  porcelain crucible  aluminium crucible  zirconia crucible  magnesium crucible  platinum crucible etc.
  51. 51. Special Types  GOOCH CRUCIBLE  HESSIAN CRUCIBLE
  52. 52. Gooch crucible  A Gooch crucible, named after Frank Austin Gooch, is a filtration device for laboratory use  It is convenient for collecting a precipitate directly within the vessel in which it is to be dried, possibly ashed, and finally weighed in gravimetric analysis
  53. 53. Gooch crucible
  54. 54. Hessian Crucible  A Hessian crucible is a type of ceramic crucible that was manufactured in the Hesse region of Germany from the late Middle Ages through the Renaissance period.  They were renowned for their ability to withstand very high temperatures, rapid changes in temperature, and strong reagents.  These crucibles were widely used for alchemy and early metallurgy.  The crucibles were made by firing kaolinitic clay at temperatures greater than 1100℃
  55. 55. CONCLUSION  Description of Musha given in Rasashastra is very scientific  Every musha is mentioned foe specific use based on its composition, heat tolerance capacity etc  The study of ancient crucibles reveals the chemical-metallurgical insights of alchemists  Thorough study of such crucibles with their practical utilization will help in understanding the advancement of metallurgy in ancient India

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Musha prepared by using above composition can resist a high temperature for three hours. In the pace of Vastrangara Vajrangara version is also used according to which charcoal of Snuhi (Vajrangara) is used in the place of cloth and charcoal (Vastrangara).
  • Here all the mentioned components are mixed together and pounded well with milk to get a stick mass from which Musha is prepared. This Musha can withstand a high heat for six hours
  • * The fecal matter of Bhunaga if washed in water several times a black powder is available called Dhouta. It is rich in copper and heat resistant.
  • Here ingredients 1 to 5 are pounded together and Musha is prepared. Prepared Musha is applied with the blood of bed bug (Matkuna) and Juice of root of tender plant of Amaranthus spinosus (Balabdhadhwani moola rasa). This Musha is highly heat tolerant and can resist high heat continuously for 12 hours.
  • Burnt charcoal, ash of paddy husk, Musha specific mud and mud of anthill are pounded together and Musha is prepared. This Musha is incorporated with specific Bida (catalystic mixture like Lavana Kashara, Mutra etc) and same Bida is applied to Prepared Musha. Mercury processed in this type of Musha becomes highly potent.
  • Rakta Varga drugs include Khadira, Manjishtha, rakta Chandana, Bandhuka Pushpa etc. This Musha is Used in Ranjana Samskara to enhance golden colour
  • This is a Musha which has no opening. Here drug is concealed while preparing Musha itself. As it has no opening (blind) it is also called as Andha musha
    Here material is melted and the liquid is not allowed to leak out
  • This is a Musha resembling potter man's pot, prepared by baking well
    Use: For Pottali Paka
  • This is a cylindrical Musha flat at base. It has a diameter and height of eight Angula each
    Use: To prepare Chakribaddha Rasa
  • When the material in crucible is heated when a particular temperature is reached portion of the material in contact with the base of Musha melts first where as the material above is yet to melt. In this stage if heating is continued molten mass at the base gets vapourized and this vapour moves up knocking out the material above. In this stage if Musha is pulled out for a few seconds material gets mixed up inside Musha which ensures uniform mixing and melting. Then Musha is replaced in fire.

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