Basic Concept of Psychiatric Disorders
Prof. Y. K. Sharma
Dean cum Principal
Rajiv Gandhi Govt Post Graduate Ayurvedic College and Hospital
Paprola - Himachal Pradesh
Psychiatric Disorders are Stigma Which Everybody Wants to Shun
Perfect balance of Body, Mind and Soul is absolutely necessary for complete
health of individual.
Concept of mind in ancient India had been since Pre-vedic Period.
It is conceived to be functional element of Atma as is described in Vedas also.
Mind is seat of “Rational Thinking” or Manan/Chintan/Vicharan, etc..
It works from its seat in ‘Sirohridya”
It has its identity with three Gunas-Satva, Rajas, Tama.
Concept of Mana (Mind)
Due to its varied functionality Mana in ancient Vedic literature has different names
line Mana, Chitta, Ubhayindriya, Anthakaran, Satav.
Mana and Bhuddhi (Intelligence)
Mana is regulator of;
Samiriti- Recollection memory
These are basic requirements of Learned memory, rational thinking and new ideas:
Foundation of functioning of mana is systematic recollection of sequences of
events of learned memory for purposeful actions.
Mana is also seat of Diseases like Sharir.
It also gets associated with Physical disorders of body called as
The three factors responsible for human ailments i.e.
i. Asatmayaindriyaarth samyog.
Besides this The other factors like mind related diseases being Genetic,
Congenital or Familial is also established.
Seat of Disease:
The threefold strategy of management of Sharirik Diseases is also
relevant for mind Disorders. This includes:
1. Daivavyapasraya: Application of selected religious practices
especially from Hindu or Vedic literature.
2. Sattvavajaya: Psychological practices including Counseling,
behaviour therapy, etc.
3. Yuktivyapasaraya: Physiopharmacological methods of
In addition “Nidanparivarjan” is very important
Management of Manas Roga:
Ayurveda highlights Mano-roga patients have three disease factors:
1. Alpasatava- Inadequate mental development leading to proneness.
2. Malapradhushta.:Precipitating etiology.
3. Buddhiniwas hridya pradushti- Disturbed intelligence and psyche
Pathogenesis of Psychiatric Ailments and Ayurveda:
2. Buddhi – Intelligence/Thought process/Rational thinking/ Judgement/Insight, etc.
3. Sajnajnana – Orientation.
4. Smriti- Memory and memory based functions.
5. Bhakti – Desire/Will.
6. Sila – interests and habits.
7. Cheshta - Psychomotor activities.
8. Aachara –Behavior and conduct.
Charak has enumerated Eight features of impaired mental faculty in Unnmada
which are relevant to all psychiatric ailments. This includes disturbance of :
Ayurveda considers that all three Sharirik Doshas-Vata , Pitta , Kapha and
two Manas Dosha -Raja and Tama when in morbid state are responsible
for Manas Roga as such all the three modalities of disease management
are equally applicable in management of manasroga also. These are:
1. Daivavyapasraya: Application of selected religious practices especially
from Hindu or Vedic literature.
2. Sattvavajaya: Psychological practices including Counseling, behavior
3. Yuktivapasaraya: Physiopharmacological methods of management.
Ayurveda and management of Manas Roga:
Psychiatry also known as Psychological Medicine, is the branch of medicine
which deals with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mental illnesses.
Psychology: Is science which studies the normal aspects of mind and expert of
this field is called psychologist.
Mind is one of the functions of brain.
• Etc. are its functions.
These are often called as Higher Mental Functions.
What is Mind?
Structure of Mind:
The strata of this mind are not within one’s awareness and it
constitutes 9/10 of mind. This is important since it influences
the mental functions of normal as well as psychologically
This is strata of mind within one’s awareness and forms only
small portion of mind i.e. One tenth of mind structure.
• Does not suffer from disorders of thinking, Emotions, Learning,
Intelligence, Memory, Orientation, Perception, Etc.
• Well adjusted to self and surrounding.
• Experiences sense of Tranquility, Happiness,
• Contentment and fulfillment.
• Establishes cordial relations with people around.
• Performs duty efficiently.
• Shoulders family and social responsibilities and obligations
• Should utilize his potential, capacities, and creativity for the welfare of
the community and humanity at large.
Characteristics of Mentally Healthy Person:
-Disturbed thinking, emotions, intelligence, memory and other Higher Mental Functions.
-Disturbed behavior like rowdy, violent, destructive, suicidal, etc.
-Anxiety, fears, Irritability, Poverty of concentration,
-Diminished work efficiency, unwanted ideas, repetitive meaningless activities.
-Somatic symptoms like headache, weakness, anorexia, sleeplessness, palpitation, etc.
-Antisocial behavior like criminality, sexual perversions, drug addiction, alcoholism, etc.
Recognition of Mentally Ill Person:
No single reason. Multiple factors are incriminated. These include Initiation
Factors and Precipitating factors.
-Life phase associated like Infancy, Puberty, Pregnancy, Menopause, Senescence, etc.
-Metabolic and Endocrine disturbances.
-Drugs and Alcohol.
-Physical defects and illnesses.
-Strained interpersonal relations at home, work, school, etc.
-Bereavement or loss of job or prestige.
-Other factors like childhood insecurities, educational problems, social deprivation, sexual
difficulties, economic and financial reasons, religious factors, adverse physical
environment, natural calamities, etc are other listed factors for psychiatric ailments.
Causes of Mental Illnesses:
Detailed History and Observation of activities and Behavior is key to
Evaluation of Mental State of Patient. Mental State Examination is based
on following observations:
-Attitude and Appearance.
Mental State Examination:
Traditionally classified as:
But this classification has now been discarded and current classification is
ICD-10 ( International Classification of Diseases-10th Edition)
DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)
ICD -10 Classification is formulated by W.H.O.
Confusional states secondary to brain disease, systemic disease,
endocrinal disorders, trauma, substance abuse, etc.
Organic Including Symptomatic Mental Disorders:
Mental and Behavioural Disorders Due to Psychactive
This includes intoxications, dependence, withdrawl states,
Use of Alcohol. Cannabis, Opiates, Cocaine, and other
psychoactive drugs are common examples.
• These are characterized by Disorders of thinking, perception, inappropriate
• Patient have delusions, hallucinations and demonstrable thought disorders
and all these symptoms occur in clear consciousness.
• Schizotypical disorders: Characterized by eccentric behavior and anomalies
in thinking and mood. Delusions and hallucinations may be absent.
• Delusional Disorders include a variety of disorders with long standing
Schizophrenia, Schizotypical and Delusional Disorders:
This includes change in mood to depression or elation.
Persistent and recurrent depressive mood is classified as Major
Depression with lesser intensity and longer duration is classified as
Mania and Depression are commonly seen as Unipolar or Bipolar Mood
• These consists of disorders associated with
• Obsessive Compulsive disorders
• Adjustment disorders
• Dissociative disorders
Neurotic, Stress-Related and Somatoform Disorder:
Non-organic Sleep Disorders,
Sexual Dysfunctions not due to any organic disease.
Gender identity disorder
Disorders of Adult Personality and Behaviour:
Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence:
Psychological Tests to evaluate Intelligence, Adjustment, psychopathology,
Personality tests, Projective tests,
To evaluate Organic Brain Damage tests to evaluate memory, Problem solving
tests like Bender –Gestalt Test, PGI Memory Test,
Electrophysiological investigations like EEG,
Imaging like CT, MRI, PET are useful.
Blood,Urine Tests for Substance abuse
Special Diagnostic Tests in Psychiatry:
Treatment of psychiatric disorders is based on:
3.Psychotherapy and Case work.
4.Other therapies such as Surgical therapy, Behavior therapy.
Treatment of psychiatric disorders may be optional as well as mandatory and
have legal implications also.
Treatment in Psychiatry:
-Abreactive Therapy like Hypnosis, Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis.
• Phenothiazines- Chloropromazine, Trifluperazine, Thioridazine, etc.
• Butyropheraphenones-Haloperidol, Trifluperidol, etc.
• Serotonin Dopamine antagonists-Resperidon.
• Receptor targeted anti-psychotics- Olanzapine,
• Sarapgandha was traditionally used for treatment of Psychosis but this has
now been discarded.
Tricyclics- Imipramine, Amitryptiline, Doxepin, Nortryptilin, etc.
MAO inhibitors- Phenelegine, Selegeline, etc.
Serotonin uptake inhibitors- Fluoxetine, Paroxetine, Sertraline, Citalopram,
Serotonin norepinephrine uptake inhibitors- Duloxetine, Milnaciparan, etc.
or Group Psychotherapy.
Psychotherapy may be short term also called as Supportive psychotherapy or
Long Term called as Analytical Psychotherapy.
Educative Psychotherapy e.g. Epileptics and their parents, Relatives of
psychotic patients, etc.
Psychotherapy and Case Work:
Commonly used to treat certain psychological processes and to relieve the patient’s
symptoms. It also corrects the psychopathology and modifies personality patterns.
It may include:
First choice in neurotic illnesses like anxiety, phobias, hysterias, obsession, etc.
Alcoholism, Drug addiction, sexual deviations, personality and character disorders.
It is of little help in psychotic ailments.
Indications of Psychotherapy:
Surgical therapy: Leucotomy, Lobectomy, but of limited practical utility.
Behavior therapy: Recommended for neurotic ailments, addictions,
psychopathy, Results are based on conditioning, extinction, reciprocal
inhibition and desensitization, etc.
Miscellaneous therapy: This includes occupational therapy, work therapy,
recreational therapy, music therapy. These are commonly used as adjuvant
to other forms of treatment. They help to express conflicts and release
tension, aggression, and regain confidence.
Hypnosis: Commonly used to manage hysteria, habit disorders like
-Psychiatric disorders have same basis of etiopathogenesis as Somatic disorders.
-Any age group may be involved.
-Early recognition is key to better recovery.
-Like somatic illnesses psychiatric illness too have potential to kill the person.
-Patients with psychiatric illness should be treated like a somatic illness and no
stigma should be attached to such illnesses when the appear in an individual.
-Psychiatric diagnosis like psychosis have legal implications and hence such
diagnosis should be confirmed by experts of field,
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