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Participant observation: a long walk together 20150114

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Participant observation: a long walk together 20150114

  1. 1. NCKU Political Science _Methodology 2014 Fall Presenting Members Meng Li HUANG Ya Ru YOU Wai Kwan TSOI 14 January 2015 NCKU 參與式研究:⼀一起⾛走的路 Participant Observation:
 A Long Walk Together Photo: Asta Waikwan
  2. 2. Outline 1. Facts (PAR Definition, Types, Research Roles) 2. Feelings(Feedback from PAR event) 3. Findings(Feedback from PAR event) 4. Future(quote from Wang)
  3. 3. About Participant Actions Research(PAR)
  4. 4. PAR Case Study 講題: 從國際交流探討不⼀一樣的國際觀 時間:2014/12/29(⼀一) 19:00⾄至21:00(⼊入場時間:18:30 ) 地點:國際會議廳第三講堂 主講⼈人:侯智薰、⾼高紹軒、林芷伃 報名網址: http://www.accupass.com/go/2015tasctainan
  5. 5. “conceived within the majority world in the 1970s and 1980s to systematize and amplify local knowledge, transforming it into social activist movements that contested the power of elites and struggled for greater socio-economic justice, often through collaboration with external agents of change who were frequently based in universities.” Systematize/Amplify Local Knowledge P.Reason, H.Bradbury The SAGE Handbook of Action Research: Participative Inquiry and Practice,pp 109, Sage Publications 2008
  6. 6. “…own knowledge endogenous process of consciousness raising and knowledge generation” “social power to determine what is valid or useful knowledge” (Rahman, 1985) Critical Consciousness as Radical Humanism P.Reason, H.Bradbury The SAGE Handbook of Action Research: Participative Inquiry and Practice,pp 109, Sage Publications 2008
  7. 7. More Remarks About PAR “Observer gains firsthand knowledge by being in or around the social setting being investigated — Zikmund (2000) “Not merely observing what is happening but also feeling it.” —Gill and Johnson (2002) Requires a highly trained observer to increase validity/reliability —McCuen (1996)
  8. 8. Suggested Types of PAR • Student government meeting • City council meetings • school meetings • Judicial proceeding Hung-jen Wang, 2014 FALL Course Hangout, NCKU Political Science Methodology
  9. 9. Content of Feedback
  10. 10. PAR Feedback per role • Social Composition觀眾組成 • Audience response觀眾反應 • Reason motivated people to the meetings觀眾前 往活動的原因 • Content analysis內容分析
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. Audience response to the speakers • 活動方式:演講   • 答問時間長度:2分鐘至10分鐘   • 提問方式 (是否事先登記、口頭查詢、紙張寄送) →直接提問   • 觀眾是否早到排隊、提早離開、活動時候打斷講者   • 其他觀眾回應
  13. 13. Reason  People  came  to  the  meeting • 動機:主題吸引   • 活動地點與觀眾的交通:成功大學/機車/火車   • 進入場地的方式:簽名   • 衣著服飾規定:無   • 參加活動條件:無   • 其他:(不)參加的原因是什麼:活動時間過長、對 主題不感興趣、時間無法配合
  14. 14. Content of the meeting • 分析活動內容、時間、任何規定   • 參與觀眾的參與原因   • 觀眾反應:專心聆聽/提問/低頭滑手機/睡覺/提 早離場
  15. 15. Researcher roles in PAR
  16. 16. Researcher roles in Participant Observation  1. Complete Observer 完全觀察者 2. Complete Participant 完全參與者 3. Observer as participant 參與的觀察者 4. Participant as Observer 觀察者的參與者
  17. 17. Complete Observer 完全觀察者 — Research purpose is still withheld but the researcher does not take part in activities of the group — Unobtrusive — Threat of desensitization to the study — lack of observe experiences in the activities
  18. 18. Complete Participant 完全參與者 — The researcher attempts to become a member of the group without revealing true purpose. — Ethical problems — informed consent. Must be aware of the purpose of searcher. — Participants may not be fully truthful due to lack to trust in the observer/ project ( Saunders et al,  2009) The Hawthorn effects
  19. 19. • € Participant as Observer 觀察者的參與者 —The searcher complete activities alongside the group, who are fully aware of the purpose of the activity — Create trust — natural results and depth to insights —Retrospective insights — observer bias
  20. 20. Participation Obeservation Find  the  real  Problem  in   your  research  question   Awareness family Internation al  power culture goverment education
  21. 21. heading  the  field  first?
  or  a  question  first? Participant  as  Observer…To The  meaning  of  Participant  as  Observer  :   Create  trust  —  natural  results  and  depth  to  insights  .  
  22. 22. How  to  ask  the  questions  for  the  research  purpose?
 Participant  as  Observer…To Set  the  goal  :  solving  “their”  problem.   Researcher  and  Study  Object:  Stakeholder.
  23. 23. 研究成果 • (1)WHY  TASC  DO  THIS:  曝光、宣傳,並沒有以宣傳理念為 主軸。【為⼀一⾮非營利組織,與美國在台關係會(AIT)有所 關聯。】 • (2)WHAT  DID  TASC  DO:
 TASC的WHAT:前進南部:TASC的基地在北部,讓參與過的 學⽣生回到⾃自⼰己的學校宣傳(如世界公⺠民島)。 • (3)HOW  DID  TASC  DO:
 分享國際觀=>TASC辦的營隊活動的動態部分分享(有趣)=> 台美學⽣生會議介紹,循序漸進導⼊入⺫⽬目標。
  24. 24. articipant  as  ObserverP Truth BiasReality
  25. 25. Participant  observation  need  extended  period  of   time •  Its  aim  is  to  gain  a  close  and  intimate  familiarity  with  a   given  group  of  individuals  (such  as  a  religious,   occupational,  sub  cultural  group,  or  a  particular   community)  and  their  practices  through  an  intensive   involvement  with  people  in  their  cultural  environment,   usually  over  an  extended  period  of  time.   Difficulty  
  26. 26. Observer as participant 參與的觀察者 — The searcher would be a spectator 觀眾席中⼀一員 — Participants would be informed for the research’s identity 參與者已經告知活動主辦⽅方其 研究者的⾝身份 — Improved ethics 道德感良好 — Lack of “emotional involvement“ (Saunders er al, 2009) 並沒有對這個活動產⽣生任何情感牽絆
  27. 27. Structure of Approach 1. Structural Approach 2. Non-Structural Approach
  28. 28. PAR Approaches Insiders & Outsiders 3. PAR Approach • Complete Observer • Observer as Participant • Participant as Observer • Complete Participant Non-PAR Approach
  29. 29. Photo: Marsel van Oosten Traditional Learning vs PAR Learning
  30. 30. Traditional Learning 傳統研究
  31. 31. 1.為了求知⽽而產出知識,研究⺫⽬目的與 執⾏行可能與該知道的應⽤用可能相互擁 ⽴立 2.較忽略地⽅方的有限需求、應由的程 序或觀點 3. 與研究參與者保持距離,在研究執 ⾏行階段,研究參與者開始參與研究範 圍之內
  32. 32. PAR Learning 參與式研究
  33. 33. 1. 為⾏行動⽽而產出知識 2.強調由下⽽而上(bottomup)的研究 取向,並重視地⽅方⾃自我界定的有限 需求與地⽅方觀點 3. 參與⾏行動的地⽅方居⺠民本⾝身即為研 究參與者,並經常在研究規劃初期 即已參與到研究範圍之內
  34. 34. -⺩王毓正,2015國⽴立成功⼤大學法律系副教授 「在台灣的⼤大學,我們有很多產出,可是我們跟 社會卻是產⽣生隔閡」 Photo: Asta Waikwan
  35. 35. NCKU Political Science _Methodology 2014 Fall Presenting Members Meng Li HUANG Ya Ru YOU Wai Kwan TSOI 14 January 2015 NCKU 參與式研究:⼀一起⾛走的路 Participant Observation:
 A Long Walk Together Photo: Asta Waikwan

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