3. Enumerate new trends in Pakistani education.
Describe and explain HRD and its impact on economic
development of the country.
Describe the impact of technological development on education.
Analyze the importance of continuing education.
Know the emerging trends in curriculum development.
Describe the need and importance of linkage between education
Objectives of this unit
5. Curriculum according to the new
Educators who want to incorporate these trends into their lessons
must determine how to overcome any obstacles to their
implementation and ensure the new measures are beneficial to
their students. For educators who want to change their approach to
building curriculum, these are the trends worth exploring:
1 Real Skills
2 Personalized Curriculum
3 Digital Integration
6. 1. Successful curriculum development requires better use of
‘change knowledge’ ‐ failure is often a result of
2. Re‐conceptualizing curriculum.
3. Changing the way teachers teach and students learn
requires specific approaches.
Why Curriculum Reforms Required
7. Human resource development helps organizations develop their workforce
through employee training and career development which improves
organizational effectiveness and performance.Human resource development may
include many different opportunities, activities, and employee benefits, such as:
1. Performance management and development
2. Employee coaching
4. Succession planning
5. Tuition assistance
6. Organizational development
Human Resource Development and
10. 1. Equity:
Recognizing every employee at par irrespective of caste, creed, religion and language, can create a very
good environment in an organization. HRD must ensure that the organization creates a culture and
provides equal opportunities to all employees in matters of career planning, promotion, quality of work
life, training and development.
Employability means the ability, skills, and competencies of an individual to seek gainful employment
anywhere. So, HRD should aim at improving the skills of employees in order to motivate them to work
Continuous training that develops the professional skills of employees plays an important role in HRD.
This can help the employees to adapt themselves to organizational change that takes place on a
Objectives of HRD
12. Education is Human Resource Development (HRD). Although this equation
indicates that both sides are equal in function and value, neither education
nor HRD effectively embraces the other. Education works as a self-contained
system that strives to provide skills and knowledge to youth, while HRD is
viewed as a corporate function.
However, a strategic blend of HRD and education would enhance the
effectiveness of both systems and move us toward resolving the dual
problem of reforming our beleaguered educational system and restructuring
HRD & Education
13. Here are some ways in which technology has made the academic
1. Digital simulations and Models
2. Improved Communication
3. Advanced Research
4. Effective Assessment
5. Learning at One’s Own Pace
6. Fun Learning
7. Online Group Collaboration
Technological Development and Education
14. Science, technology and innovation each represent a successively larger category
of activities which are highly interdependent but distinct. Science contributes to
technology in at least six ways:
(1) New knowledge which serves as a direct source of ideas for new
(2) Source of tools and techniques for more efficient engineering design and a
knowledge base for evaluation of feasibility of designs;
(3) Research instrumentation, laboratory techniques and analytical methods
used in research that eventually find their way into design or industrial
practices, often through intermediate disciplines;
Science and Technology
4. practice of research as a source for development and assimilation
of new human skills and capabilities eventually useful for
5. creation of a knowledge base that becomes increasingly
important in the assessment of technology in terms of its wider
social and environmental impacts;
6. knowledge base that enables more efficient strategies of applied
research, development, and refinement of new technologies.
19. An instructional program that brings participants up to date in a particular ar
ea of knowledge or skills.
Instructional courses designed especially for part-time adult students.
Continuing education courses are offered to adults in the community by local
school boards, colleges and universities.
These courses can be on everything from web design to philosophy to art
Some schools may offer certificate programs, but usually the focus of
continuing education is on non-credit courses that allow you to develop a
specific area of interest.
20. Adult education and continuing education are two terms that are quite often
interchanged and confused, but in fact, they represent different education types
and even if they are quite similar to each other, the differences are still there. The
differences are clear and both terms can be easily distinguished as,
adult education is in fact a system that provides adults who haven’t taken their
classes earlier in life for various reasons with an option to continue their
On the other hand, continuing education is all about giving adults additional
schooling which continues from the current educational level that the individual
has. Here is a bit more information about these programs
Difference between Continuing Education
and Adult Education
22. International understanding or internationalism is a feeling that the individual
is a not only a member of his country, but a member of the world as well. It is
a sense of world citizenship which enables individuals to hold a global
perspective instead of local or national viewpoints.
1. To ensure world peace.
2. To prevent world wars.
3. To promote human welfare.
4. To promote mutual understanding and interdependence.
5. To maintain one’s sovereignty.
Educational for International
23. Principle of interdependence: Awareness of the increasing
global interdependence between peoples and nations.
Communication: Abilities to communicate with each other.
Rights and duties: Awareness not only of the right but also of
the duties incumbent upon individuals, social groups and
nations towards each other.
Principles of Developing International
24. Necessity: Understanding of the necessity for International
understanding solidarity and co- operation.
All-round participation: Readiness of the individual to
participate solving the problems of his community, his
country and the world at large
25. Adequate knowledge and understanding:
The knowledge and understanding of culture of different countries are
precondition for the development of international understanding. Unless the
students are provided with ample sources of information regarding the social,
cultural, political and other aspects of life in various countries, they can not
have the comprehensive idea of the world as a whole.
Cultivating critical thinking:
Critical thinking is the key to the unfoldment of the spirit of internationalism in
the students. The power of independence thinking can guard against rumours,
superstitions, and fears prejudices. The student will be able to judge the
relevance of subject or things through his critical mind.:
Aims of Education for International
26. Developing positive attitude:
The students should be encouraged to have confidence in the humanity
and future of mankind. Negative attitude should be discouraged
through education positive attitudes will make them optimistic and
philanthropic members of the world federations.
Development corporate and cosmopolitan feeling
Students should be taught to believe that the world should be united.
They” belong to one world of which they are citizens and members of
the federation of the mankind. They should know how to share to
sorrows and suffering as well as happiness and prosperity of the world